# Creating a Math Expression Filter to Extract Concise Math Expression Images

### Kuniko Yamada, Harumi Murakami

#### 2023

#### Abstract

Even though the web is an effective resource to search for math expressions, finding appropriate ones among the obtained documents is time-consuming. Therefore, we propose a math expression filter that presents appropriate images for such searches. We call an appropriate math expression a concise math expression, such as ˆfh(x) = 1Nh ∑ni=1K(x−xih), written in a compact form whose content can be interpreted by the math expression itself. We determined the conditions satisfied by a concise math expression and developed classifiers that discriminate the images of concise math expressions from web images using supervised machine learning methods based on these conditions. We performed two experiments: Experiment 1 used methods other,than deep learning, and Experiment 2 used deep learning. A convolutional neural network (CNN) with transfer learning and fine tuning by VGG16 shows high performance with an obtained F-measure of 0.819. We applied this filter to a task that presents math expression images by entering mathematical terms into a web search engine as queries. All of the evaluation metrics outperformed the previous study, including F-measure, MAP, and MRR.

Download#### Paper Citation

#### in Harvard Style

Yamada K. and Murakami H. (2023). **Creating a Math Expression Filter to Extract Concise Math Expression Images**. In *Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 3: ICAART,* ISBN 978-989-758-623-1, pages 909-915. DOI: 10.5220/0011799700003393

#### in Bibtex Style

@conference{icaart23,

author={Kuniko Yamada and Harumi Murakami},

title={Creating a Math Expression Filter to Extract Concise Math Expression Images},

booktitle={Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 3: ICAART,},

year={2023},

pages={909-915},

publisher={SciTePress},

organization={INSTICC},

doi={10.5220/0011799700003393},

isbn={978-989-758-623-1},

}

#### in EndNote Style

TY - CONF

JO - Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 3: ICAART,

TI - Creating a Math Expression Filter to Extract Concise Math Expression Images

SN - 978-989-758-623-1

AU - Yamada K.

AU - Murakami H.

PY - 2023

SP - 909

EP - 915

DO - 10.5220/0011799700003393