Michael Short, Kevin Burn



To perform many complex tasks, modern robots often require robust and stable force control. Linear, fixed-gain controllers can only provide adequate performance when they are tuned to specific task requirements, but if the environmental stiffness at the robot/task interface is unknown or varies significantly, performance is degraded. This paper describes the design of a robotic force controller that has a simple architecture yet is robust to bounded uncertainty in the environmental stiffness. Generic stability conditions for the controller are developed and a simple design methodology is formulated. The controller design is tested on an experimental robot, and is shown to perform favourably in the presence of large changes in environmental operating conditions.


  1. Bautista, R., Pont, M.J., 2006. Is fuzzy logic a practical choice in resource-constrained embedded control systems implemented using general-purpose microcontrollers? In Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control, Istanbul, Volume 2, pp.692-697.
  2. Bicker, R., Burn, K., Glennie, D., Ow, S.M., 1994. Application of force control in telerobotics. Proc Int Conf EURISCON 7894, Malaga, Spain.
  3. Cao, S.G., Rees, N.W., Feng, G., 1998. Lyapunov-like stability theorems for continuous-time fuzzy control systems, Int J Control. Vol. 69(1), pp. 49-64.
  4. Franklin, G.F., Powell, J.D., Emani-Naeini, A., 1994. Feedback Control Of Dynamic Systems. AddisonWesley Publishing, Reading Massachusetts, third edition.
  5. Kiguchi, K., Fukuda, T., 1997. Intelligent position/force controller for industrial robot manipulators - application of fuzzy neural networks. IEEE Trans Industrial Electronics, Vol. 44(6), pp. 753-761.
  6. Kim, W.S., Hannaford, B., Bejczy, A.K., 1992. Force Reflection and Shared Compliant Control in Operating Telemanipulators with Time Delay. IEEE Trans on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 8(2), pp. 176-185.
  7. Li, G., Tsang, K.M., Ho, S.L., 1998. A novel model following scheme with simple structure for electrical position servo systems. Int. J. Syst. Sci., Vol. 29, No. 9, pp. 959-969.
  8. Lin, S.T., Huang, A.K., 1998. Hierarchical Fuzzy Force Control for Industrial Robots. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 45, No. 4, pp. 646-653.
  9. Linkens, D.H., Nyongesa, H.O., 1996. Learning systems in intelligent control: an appraisal of fuzzy, neural and genetic algorithm control applications. IEE Proc Control Theory Appl, Vol. 143(4), pp. 367-386.
  10. Osypiuk, R., Finkemeyer, B., Wahl, F.M., 2004. Forwardmodel based control system for robot manipulators. Robotica, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 155-161.
  11. Ow, S.M., 1997. Force Control in Telerobotics. PhD Thesis, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
  12. Pippard, A.B., 1997. Response & Stability: An Introduction to the Physical Theory. Cambridge University Press.
  13. Seraji, H., 1998. Nonlinear and Adaptive Control of Force and Compliance in Manipulators. Int J Robotics Research, Vol. 17(5) pp. 467-484.
  14. Short, M., 2003. A Generic Controller Architecture for Advanced and Intelligent Robots. PhD. Thesis, University of Sunderland, UK.
  15. Skoczowski, S., Domek, S., Pietrusewicz, K., Broel-Plater, B., 2005. A Method for Improving the Robustness of PID Control. IEEE Transactions On Industrial Electronics, Vol. 52, No. 6.
  16. Tarokh, M., Bailey, S., 1997. Adaptive fuzzy force control of manipulators with unknown environment parameters. J Robotic Sys, Vol. 14(5), pp. 341-353.
  17. Whitney, D.E., 1985. Historical Perspective and State of the Art in Robot Force Control. Int J Robotics Res, Vol. 6(1), pp. 3-14.
  18. Whitney, D.E., Nevins, J.L., 1979. What is the Remote Centre Compliance (RCC) and what can it do? Proc Int Symp on Industrial Robots, Washington DC, pp. 135-152.
  19. Wolkenhauer, O., Edmunds, J.M., 1997. A critique of fuzzy logic in control. Int J Electrical Engineering Education, Vol. 34(3), pp. 235-242.
  20. Zhang, G., Hemami, A, 1997. An Overview of Robot Force Control. Robotica, Vol. 15, pp. 473-482.

Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

Short M. and Burn K. (2007). ROBUST AND STABLE ROBOTIC FORCE CONTROL . In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics - Volume 3: ICINCO, ISBN 978-972-8865-84-9, pages 256-261. DOI: 10.5220/0001618302560261

in Bibtex Style

author={Michael Short and Kevin Burn},
booktitle={Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics - Volume 3: ICINCO,},

in EndNote Style

JO - Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics - Volume 3: ICINCO,
SN - 978-972-8865-84-9
AU - Short M.
AU - Burn K.
PY - 2007
SP - 256
EP - 261
DO - 10.5220/0001618302560261