Fuzzy Gradient Control of Electric Vehicles at Blended Braking with Volatile Driving Conditions

Valery Vodovozov, Eduard Petlenkov, Andrei Aksjonov, Zoja Raud

Abstract

The paper is devoted to intelligent control of road electric vehicles aiming at reducing energy losses caused by traffic jams, changing velocity, and frequent start-stop modes of driving. A blended braking system is described that integrates both the friction and the electric braking strengths in volatile driving conditions, including gradual and emergency antilock braking. The vehicle model reflects multiple factors, such as air resistance, road slope, and variable friction factor. A new gradient control method recognizes unstable tire properties on changing road surfaces at different velocities. In the motor and battery model, the state of charge and electric current/voltage restrictions of the hybrid energy storage are taken into account. The braking torque, actuated by the Mamdani’s fuzzy logic controller established in the Simulink® environment, is allocated between the front and rear friction and electric brakes. Comparison of simulation and experimental results confirms that the outcomes of this research can be considered in the design of braking systems for electric vehicles with superior energy recovery.

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