Content and Skills for Teaching BPM in Computer Science Courses: A
Systematic Mapping Study
Matheus Ribeiro Brant Nobre
and J
essyka Vilela
Centro de Inform
atica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE),
Av. Jornalista An
ıbal Fernandes, s/n – Cidade Universit
aria, Recife-PE, Brazil
BPM, Teaching, Systematic Mapping Study, SBC, CBOK, Computer Science Courses.
The increasing demand for professionals in Business Process Management (BPM) highlights the need to align
technical skills developed in education with market requirements, revealing a gap that requires investigat-
ing the essential content and skills for BPM education. This work aims to understand the content and skills
addressed in BPM education, contributing substantially to understanding the current academic landscape of
BPM. We conducted a systematic literature review to investigate the state of the art regarding BPM educa-
tion. We also compared the content of the curriculum guidelines of the Brazilian Computing Society (SBC)
and Business Process Management Common Body of Knowledge (BPM CBOK). In addition to providing a
critical analysis of trends and gaps in the literature, this work offers insights that can be applied to enhance
education in the field of BPM. The expectation is that the results obtained can inform the better training of
professionals, aligning them effectively with the dynamic and specific market needs in terms of efficient BPM,
thus promoting integration between theory and practice in the academic and professional context.
The teaching of Business Process Management
(BPM), a concept solidified by the global trend of
process-based management, encounters challenges in
ensuring requisite content and skills within profes-
sional training. This complexity arises as BPM
extends beyond supportive tools, encompassing the
integration of knowledge and practical application
(Moormann and Bandara, 2012). The intricate nature
of processes, exemplified by events, activities, deci-
sion points, and multiple actors, underscores BPM’s
dynamic interaction with organizational elements and
outcomes (Dumas et al., 2012).
Despite BPM’s maturity as a discipline, persis-
tent challenges, such as the misalignment between
education and anticipated job market skills, accen-
tuate the necessity of aligning educational curricula
with BPM professional requirements (Delavari et al.,
2010). These gaps have repercussions for educational
institutions and individuals, punctuating the signifi-
cance of overcoming obstacles in defining curricula
and implementing programs aligned with practical re-
As market demands evolve, it becomes impera-
tive to identify specific content for dissemination and
delineate the essential skills professionals must culti-
vate to apply BPM in real-world scenarios effectively.
Moreover, this study’s motivation extends to explor-
ing innovative and adaptable teaching methods capa-
ble of integrating technological transformations that
continue to shape BPM education.
Curriculum guidelines are crucial in developing
Pedagogical Projects for Courses within Higher Ed-
ucation Institutions (Colares, Furtado, and Oliveira,
2023). Within this educational framework, organiza-
tions like the Association for Computing Machinery
(ACM), the Institute of Electrical and Electronics En-
gineers (IEEE), and the Brazilian Computing Society
(SBC) are prominent for offering curriculum guide-
lines for courses in the computing domain (Colares,
Furtado, and Oliveira, 2023). Furthermore, it’s vi-
tal to incorporate the best practices outlined in the
BPM CBOK (Business Process Management Com-
mon Body of Knowledge).
The absence of consensus in defining a standard-
ized BPM curriculum for educational institutions and
the challenges in aligning programs with industry dy-
namics emerge as critical issues in this study. This
gap has significant implications for educational in-
Nobre, M. and Vilela, J.
Content and Skills for Teaching BPM in Computer Science Courses: A Systematic Mapping Study.
DOI: 10.5220/0012629500003693
Paper published under CC license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
In Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Supported Education (CSEDU 2024) - Volume 2, pages 373-384
ISBN: 978-989-758-697-2; ISSN: 2184-5026
Proceedings Copyright © 2024 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda.
stitutions and students seeking a foundational under-
standing of BPM capabilities, emphasizing the in-
evitability of a thorough investigation.
Motivated by this context, the following research
questions guide this work:
RQ1: How has Business Process Management
(BPM) been taught? We conducted a Systematic
Mapping Study (SMS) to understand the content, de-
veloped skills, teaching methods, technological sup-
port, and challenges faced in the training process.
RQ2: How do current BPM (Business Process
Management) educational programs align with the
curricular guidelines provided by the SBC and the
BPM CBOK in computing courses?” To answer this
question, we compared the content of the curriculum
guidelines of SBC and BPM CBOK.
Therefore, the study contributes to a compre-
hensive understanding of the BPM education land-
scape by gathering different perspectives on the topic
and comparing them with the curricular guidelines
of institutions that regulate BPM education in com-
puting courses, Brazilian Computing Society (SBC)
and Business Process Management Common Body of
Knowledge Guide (BPM CBOK), respectively.
To report this research, this paper is organized into
five Sections. In Section 2, we discuss background
and related works. Section 3 details the research
methodology. In Section 4, we provide answers to the
research questions. Finally, in Section 5, we present
conclusions and future work.
This Section provides critical perspectives on the
landscape of BPM education. We will discuss the
need for sophisticated methods to navigate intricate
business processes, emphasizing the strategic impor-
tance of BPM. We will analyze existing literature re-
views on the subject, identifying critical facets such
as guidelines for successful teaching and the growing
demand for competent BPM professionals.
This highlights the relevance of a more compre-
hensive Systematic Mapping Study (SMS), consider-
ing the different gaps identified in the studies con-
ducted so far and their alignment with the curricular
guidelines for BPM education. Finally, we will exam-
ine some teaching methodologies that categorize ap-
proaches, emphasizing the evolving roles of students
and the integration of Bloom’s taxonomy for more re-
fined learning objectives in BPM education.
2.1 Business Process Management
Contemporary BPM is dealing with a dynamic and
challenging environment due to factors like global-
ization, technological innovation, and the information
explosion (Pasha, 2013). As business processes vary
in complexity, with some being knowledge-intensive
and deeply integrated into organizational practices,
BPM becomes a competitive tool in modern busi-
ness. This emphasizes the need for structured meth-
ods and technologies to manage multi-functional pro-
cesses continuously. Van Der Aalst (2012) adds to
this understanding, defining BPM as the discipline
that combines knowledge of information technology
and management sciences applied to operational busi-
ness processes. The holistic view of BPM aims to im-
prove these processes, often using modeling and sim-
ulation for optimization.
The Business Process Management Common Body of
Knowledge Guide (BPM CBOK)
was developed by
ABPMP International to provide an overview of best
practices in the BPM market. It defines four knowl-
edge areas: Business Process Management, Process
Management Organization, Enterprise Process Man-
agement, and Business Process Management Tech-
The BPM knowledge area is divided into five sub-
areas: Process Modeling, Process Analysis, Process
Design, Process Performance Management, and Pro-
cess Transformation.
2.3 SBC Computing Training Reference
The Brazilian Computing Society (SBC)
is a non-
profit organization that brings together professionals
and enthusiasts in the field of Computing and Infor-
matics in Brazil. It promotes access to information
culture and encourages research and education.
The SBC guides computer education, influencing
the National Curricular Guidelines (NCGs) (Zorzo et
al., 2017). To provide this guidance, its internal com-
mittees are responsible for the preparation and ap-
proval of the ”References for Training in Comput-
ing” (RF), which are required to adhere to the NCGs
and employ a competency-based model(Zorzo et al.,
The RF framework is segmented into three princi-
pal components (Zorzo et al., 2017): Training Axis,
CSEDU 2024 - 16th International Conference on Computer Supported Education
Derived Competencies, and Specific Content. The
Training Axis encompasses a collection of skills per-
tinent to a particular field of knowledge. Derived
Competencies are skills that emerge from the Train-
ing Axis, offering more granular and detailed insights.
Lastly, Specific Content pertains to the distinct mate-
rials associated with the competencies and the Train-
ing Axis. This content is structured to enable learn-
ers to grasp the requisite knowledge and skills essen-
tial for cultivating the competencies demanded by the
Training Axis (Zorzo et al., 2017).
2.4 Related Works
Following an exploratory study on BPM education,
a dearth of other SMS on teaching BPM became ap-
parent. Four literature reviews were identified, each
addressing specific facets. In the initial study by Mar-
janovic and Bandara (2011), guidelines for BPM suc-
cess were scrutinized, emphasizing the imperative for
qualified professionals. The persistent issue of inad-
equate BPM education was underscored, highlighting
the urgency of a higher education approach, particu-
larly integrating BPM courses into computer science
undergraduate curricula.
In the second study, Bandara et al. (2013) delved
into the intricacies of BPM initiatives, spotlighting
the emergence of new roles and tasks. The global
demand for qualified professionals spurred increased
BPM courses offered by educational institutions. The
third study, conducted by Silva and Thom (2021), re-
inforced the heightened pursuit of skilled profession-
als across all phases of the BPM lifecycle.
Delavari et al.s (2010) study centered on the dis-
parity between BPM education in Australia and the
skills demanded by the industry, shedding light on
challenges such as the absence of consensus on BPM
implications. Comparing these studies with the objec-
tives of this SMS mentioned in the previous Section, it
becomes evident that there are distinct emphases and
2.5 Teaching Methodology
The study conducted by Brighenti et al. (2015)
classifies teaching methodologies into collective,
group, individualized, and socialized-individualized
approaches. Collective methods deliver instruction
to groups, emphasizing shared learning experiences,
while group methods prioritize student interaction.
Individualized methods tailor instruction to meet the
specific needs of each student, and the socialized-
individualized approach combines both group and in-
dividual work (Brighenti et al., 2015).
Diesel et al. (2017) pinpoint intersections between
active teaching methodologies and educational prac-
tices. The text underscores the increasing prevalence
of active methodologies in international universities,
highlighting their integration into Brazilian institu-
tions. The paper emphasizes the transformation in the
role of students in BPM education, with a particular
focus on active methodologies.
In BPM education, the work of Pasha (2013) em-
ploys Bloom’s taxonomy to articulate learning ob-
jectives, categorizing them within the cognitive do-
main across six main areas: Knowledge, Comprehen-
sion, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evalua-
tion. The revised taxonomy structure encompasses
Factual, Conceptual, Procedural, and Metacognitive
We selected an exploratory research approach similar
to the work of Luz et al. (2022) because our objective
is to uncover the methods, teaching practices, mate-
rials utilized, and other pedagogical mechanisms that
could enhance the teaching of BPM.
The methodology adopted in this paper comprises
two steps. First, we conducted a Systematic Map-
ping Study (SMS) following Kitchenham and Char-
ters (2007) guidelines to answer RQ1. Secondly,
we performed a content analysis of SBC and BPM
CBOK documents to answer RQ2.
3.1 Systematic Mapping Study
Kitchenham and Charters (2007) define a Systematic
Mapping Study (SMS) as a comprehensive system
for acquiring information that describes, compares, or
elucidates knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, often
presented in questionnaire format. The authors em-
phasize that SMS is a method to identify, assess and
interpret all relevant available research for a research
question, aiming to provide an accurate assessment
through a reliable methodology.
This SMS aims to identify the essential content
and skills for promoting BPM education, seeking a
comprehensive understanding of how BPM concepts
are taught. To address this, Specific Research Ques-
tions (SRQs) have been formulated to guide the syn-
thesis of results, which are presented in Table 1.
Content and Skills for Teaching BPM in Computer Science Courses: A Systematic Mapping Study
Table 1: Specific Research Questions.
Identifier Research Sub-question
SRQ1 What is the main content covered in BPM education?
SRQ2 What are the key skills developed in BPM education?
SRQ3 What are the teaching methods for conveying BPM
SRQ4 How do technologies support BPM education?
SRQ5 What are the main challenges in the training of BPM
3.1.1 Search Strategy
We chose research sources based on their relevance
to Software Engineering. Thus, the SMS was initially
conducted across four research sources: ACM Digital
Library, IEEEXplore, ScienceDirect, and Scopus. To
identify papers through an automated search, we used
the following search string:
(BPM OR ”Business Process Management”)
AND (Education OR Teaching OR Learning OR
We tested various combinations of terms and syn-
onyms to determine the search string used. We opted
for the terms ”BPM” and ”Business Process Man-
agement” as they are commonly utilized in this area.
We selected synonymous terms such as ”Education”,
”Teaching”, ”Learning”, and ”Training” because nu-
merous papers not only addressed the teaching of
BPM but also explored BPM techniques used to opti-
mize the teaching process.
We restricted the search to publications from 2013
to 2023, to focus the analysis on a relevant time-
frame for developing the research topic, consider-
ing changes, advancements, or significant events over
time in the area of interest for this study.
3.1.2 Selection Criteria
We used the inclusion and exclusion criteria in Table
2 to select the studies.
Table 2: Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria.
Identifier Inclusion criteria
CI1 Papers related to the theme and research questions.
CI2 Papers within the chosen research period (2013 to 2023).
CI3 Papers referencing versions 3 or 4 of the BPM CBOK.
Identifier Exclusion criteria
CE1 Papers outside the chosen research period (2013 to
CE2 Secondary papers (other SLR or SMS).
CE3 Papers with fewer than four pages.
CE4 Duplicate or similar papers.
CE5 Papers not written in English.
The search selection process occurred in three
steps. Step 1: read titles, abstracts, and keywords.
Step 2: Read the introduction and conclusion. Step 3:
the selected studies were thoroughly read, excluding
papers irrelevant to the research questions.
3.1.3 Quality Assessment
To analyze the quality of the selected articles, we clas-
sified the studies according to the following quality
criteria already used by the literature (Dermeval et
al., 2016): ”Clear Context”, ”Well-Defined Method-
ology”, ”Related Work”, ”Relevant and Consistent
Discussion”, and ”Commented Research Limitations
and Threats.
The quality criteria were scored based on the fol-
lowing values: a score of 0 would be assigned if the
article did not meet the criterion, 0.5 would be granted
if the article partially met the criterion, and a score of
1.0 would be assigned if the article fully met the crite-
rion. Thus, the maximum possible score for the total
article evaluation would be 5.0. We adopted a mini-
mum score of 60%; hence, articles scoring below 3.0
would be excluded from the review process.
3.1.4 Data Collection and Replicability
A data collection form was developed for the se-
lected articles.Variables included details such as ”Ti-
tle”, ”Authors” and ”Year of Publication”. Quality
criteria were incorporated to facilitate result synthe-
sis, with colors indicating approval or disapproval. A
repository was established to present the spreadsheet
and the final list of articles, including links for replica-
tion, available in this link in line with scientific rigor
and data sharing standards (DAFOE, 2014).
3.2 Document Analysis
To answer RQ2, we compared the SMS results with
the national curriculum guidelines outlined in the
Reference Framework for Undergraduate Computing
Courses of 2017 (the most current reference curricu-
lum available on the official SBC website) developed
by SBC and the Essential BPM Curriculum defined in
CBOK 4.0.
This section presents the results of our research ques-
tions. Each aspect is examined individually, provid-
ing a thorough understanding of the findings and con-
solidating the contributions of the selected studies to
the research area.
CSEDU 2024 - 16th International Conference on Computer Supported Education
4.1 RQ1: How Has Business Process
Management (BPM) Been Taught?
First, we provide an overview of the selected studies,
including insights into the data collection process, se-
lection criteria, quality analysis, and data synthesis.
The next subsections answer the research questions
of our SMS listed in Table 1.
4.1.1 Studies Overview
The selected research sources returned the following
outcomes: ACM DL yielded 67 results, IEEEXplore
contributed 178 results, ScienceDirect generated 203
results, and Scopus, the most comprehensive source,
returned 1226 results. This amounted to a total of
1674 initially identified articles.
After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria,
we conducted an initial filter on titles and abstracts
according to Table 3, resulting in the selection of 32
articles, comprising three from ACM DL, ve from
IEEEXplore, two from ScienceDirect, and 22 from
Scopus. For some inconclusive publications, a sec-
ond filter was applied to introductions and conclu-
sions, maintaining the same criteria and including
three more articles from Scopus. In total, 35 articles
were selected.
Table 3: Collection Process Evolution.
Source Initial Filter 1 Filter 2 Filter 3 Final
ACM DL 67 3 0 3 1
IEEEXplore 178 5 0 5 5
ScienceDirect 203 2 0 2 1
Scopus 1226 22 3 25 14
We proceeded with the application of the quality
criteria as a third filter. This process resulted in the
final qualification of 21 papers for our research, dis-
tributed as follows: 1 paper from ACM DL, 5 from
IEEEXplore, 1 from ScienceDirect, and 14 from Sco-
pus. Table 11 (Appendix) contains the final list of
selected papers.
Figure 1 illustrates the scores resulting from the
quality analysis applied to the final articles selected
in this study. Most articles (15) received scores rang-
ing from 3.5 to 4.5 points, indicating substantial qual-
ity. Additionally, three articles (A7, A15, and A18)
reached the minimum score of 3 points required for
qualification. In comparison, only two articles (A8,
A14) achieved the maximum score of 5 points.
Figure 2 demonstrates a progressive increase in
the number of articles from 2013, going from a single
article to four articles in 2015, with the majority of
articles qualified for this research totaling four. Sub-
sequently, there was a decrease until 2017, followed
Figure 1: Articles x Quality Assessment Score.
Figure 2: Articles x Year of Publication.
by a stabilization at two articles per year from 2019.
Figure 3 depicts the analysis of the geographi-
cal distribution of the selected articles. Each time a
country of origin was identified for a particular au-
thor during the data collection, their contribution was
recorded. It is essential to highlight that some of the
analyzed studies resulted from collaborations among
researchers from different countries, and the national-
ity of each author was considered individually to gen-
erate this figure.
This analysis reveals that the predominant aca-
demic contributions to BPM teaching originate from
European countries. Among these, seven authors who
conducted the studies are from Germany, followed
by three from France. Researchers from Switzerland,
Figure 3: Articles x Country of Origin.
Content and Skills for Teaching BPM in Computer Science Courses: A Systematic Mapping Study
Denmark, Spain, Austria, and Italy contributed to dif-
ferent studies.
It is important to highlight that three researchers
from the United States authored some of the selected
articles, while two are from South Africa, one from
Libya, and another two from Australia. Three Asian
authors were identified, one from China, Singapore
and Vietnam. Only one Latin American author was
accounted for among the qualified articles from Peru.
The curriculum for BPM education encompasses
different dimensions, each associated with distinctive
tasks to provide a practical and in-depth understand-
ing of BPM principles. We formulated five specific
research questions described in Table 1 to identify the
necessary contents and competencies for promoting
BPM education.
4.1.2 SRQ1: What Is the Main Content Covered
in BPM Education?
The SMS unveiled a variety of content covered in the
teaching of BPM. It is important to emphasize that
the codes for the articles mentioned in the following
Sections are described in the ”Identifier” column of
Table 4. Among the 20 articles directly addressing
this specific research question, we identified five main
contents covered in BPM education, as indicated in
Table 4.
Table 4: Main contents covered in teaching BPM.
Identifier Content Citations Total
CO1 Introduction to BPM A1, A2, A3,
A10, A14
CO2 Business Process Modeling A5, A12,
A13, A16,
CO3 Business Processes in Tech-
A4, A15,
CO4 Performance in Business Pro-
A9, A17,
CO5 Interdisciplinarity of BPM A6, A21 2
The Introduction to BPM (CO1) primarily covers
traditional teaching content, focusing on the business
process life cycle (A1, A2, A3). A10 explores Se-
rious Games (SG), introducing the Paper Game as a
structured method. A14 suggests integrating BPM
into university curricula using the Paper Game, ac-
celerating learning.
In Business Process Modeling (CO2), A16 dis-
cusses content and pedagogy, introducing analytics
in modeling courses. A20 proposes dramatization for
business processes and ERP system learning. A5 em-
phasizes IBM’s INNOV8 for process modeling. A12
and A13 present a board game to motivate students to
learn modeling interactively.
For Business Processes in Technologies (CO3),
A15 explores Digital Game-Based Learning in Infor-
mation Systems, while A4 introduces Social BPM.
A18 focuses on teaching execution and process
knowledge through e-learning.
Concerning Performance in Business Processes
(CO4), A9 introduces a university course empower-
ing information systems students. A17 evaluates the
impact of feedback on simulation games, like IN-
NOV8, while A19 analyzes real-time feedback with
Regarding Interdisciplinarity in BPM (CO5), A6
highlights the challenge of varied focuses in different
schools. A21 introduces teaching cases to develop a
holistic view of processes.
These articles contribute to a diverse understand-
ing of BPM education, emphasizing various pedagog-
ical approaches and tools for effective learning.
4.1.3 SRQ2: What Are the Key Skills Developed
in BPM Education?
BPM teaching encompasses various fundamental
competencies for students’ education and profes-
sional training. Among the 20 articles addressing this
research question, we identified six key competencies
developed in BPM education, as outlined in Table 5.
Table 5: Main skills developed in teaching BPM.
Identifier Skills Citations Total
SK1 Model, analyze, design and
implement business processes
A3, A21,
A10, A12,
SK2 Work with BPM support tools A1, A11,
SK3 Develop interpersonal skills A4, A6,
SK4 Develop interdisciplinary
A5, A7,
SK5 Manage a business process A19, A20 2
SK6 Close observation of processes
in organizations
A19, A20 2
Regarding SK1, article A3 focuses on the BPM
project lifecycle, providing a comprehensive under-
standing of identification and process monitoring.
A21 presents a case study aimed at developing pro-
cess modeling skills for undergraduates, postgradu-
ates, and professionals enrolling students in a univer-
A10 underscores the effectiveness of the Paper
Game, a simulation game, in enhancing practical un-
derstanding of business processes. A12 introduces the
BPMN Wheel game, emphasizing its versatility. A13
describes the same game as a simulation with learning
and modeling phases, teaching theoretical fundamen-
CSEDU 2024 - 16th International Conference on Computer Supported Education
tals applied to business process modeling.
Moving to BPM support tools (SK2), A1 high-
lights hands-on practice using Signavio Academic for
practical exercises, contributing to advanced skills de-
velopment. A16 mentions Signavio Process Editor
for learning process modeling and solution design.
A11 introduces Model Judge, a web platform aiding
students in process modeling and instructors in agile
exercise creation.
Concerning interpersonal skills (SK3), A6 high-
lights the diversity of skills required for Business Pro-
cess Analysts (BPA). A18 explores situated learning
in BPM logic, suggesting its potential effectiveness.
A4 describes using social software and the Horus tool
in labs focusing on process modeling.
For interdisciplinary skills (SK4), A7 emphasizes
gaps in BPM training, stressing the importance of
interdisciplinary education. A5 discusses using IN-
NOV8, adopting a multidisciplinary approach with a
3D experience for teaching BPM.
Managing a business process (SK5) is discussed
in A20, where group dramatization is employed to en-
gage students in learning key steps, functional areas,
and process management. A19 explores students’ per-
ception of simulation games, highlighting the applica-
tion of prior knowledge to solve process management
Close observation of processes in organizations
(SK6) is covered in the university course ”BPM and
Organizational Practice” (A9), aiming to shape reflec-
tive process professionals. A15 discusses the study of
INNOV8, demonstrating its potential to increase in-
trinsic motivation among students in the course.
BPM education integrates theoretical and practi-
cal competencies, utilizing tools, labs, and serious
games. Interpersonal skills and understanding of the
organizational context are emphasized to prepare stu-
dents for practical challenges in BPM.
4.1.4 SRQ3: What Are the Teaching Methods
for Conveying BPM Knowledge?
The teaching and assessment of BPM knowledge
can employ various methods tailored to the student’s
needs. Nineteen articles directly address this issue,
and to define the teaching methods, we rely on the
classification by Brighenti et al. (2015) as their cat-
egorization enables the analysis of results in studies
ensuring the transmission of BPM knowledge, as in-
dicated in Table 6.
Table 6: BPM teaching methods.
Identifier Method Citations Total
MT1 Socialized-individualizing
teaching method
A4, A5,
A12, A13,
A15, A17,
MT2 Group teaching method A1, A10,
A14, A19,
MT3 Collective teaching method A7, A9,
MT4 Individualized teaching
A2, A3 2
The text outlines various innovative approaches in
BPM education. In MT1, A18 advocates for prac-
tical methods with hands-on tasks, utilizing pre and
post-tests in both e-learning and in-person settings.
A4 introduces the Horus Method in a BPM Social
Lab, while A5 enhances learning with simulated chal-
lenges using INNOV8. A15 incorporates INNOV8 to-
ward the end of the BPM course. A12 tests the BPMN
Wheel game, showing improvements in model qual-
MT2 highlights a dramatization exercise (A20)
that significantly increases students’ knowledge. In
A1, a gamified approach is explored, with A10 em-
phasizing the early use of the Paper Game and A14
assessing understanding with pre and post-tests. A19
stresses the importance of feedback in simulation
In MT3, A7 suggests an interdisciplinary ap-
proach, combining online and in-person training. A9
describes teaching methods at renowned universities,
integrating theory and practice. A16 presents a Pro-
cess Modeling and Solution Design course.
In MT4, A2 introduces a self-learning program,
while A3 proposes a pedagogy with an integrated
flipped classroom and Problem-Based Learning. Both
methods aim to enhance understanding and practical
application of BPM concepts, garnering positive feed-
back from students.
4.1.5 SRQ4: How Do Technologies Support
BPM Education?
The teaching of BPM has undergone significant trans-
formations driven by technological advancements.
Among the 16 articles that directly address this re-
search question, we identified four main technologies
supporting the BPM teaching approach, as indicated
in Table 7.
Content and Skills for Teaching BPM in Computer Science Courses: A Systematic Mapping Study
Table 7: Technologies that support BPM teaching.
Identifier Technology Citations Total
TC1 Serious Games A1, A5,
A10, A12,
A13, A14,
A15, A16,
TC2 Business Process Modeling
A3, A4,
TC3 E-learning A18 1
TC4 Frameworks A8 1
In the case of Serious Games (TC1), A1 highlights
the innovative use of gamified tools in BPM education
for increased interest, motivation, and effective learn-
ing with real-time feedback.
A15 and A5 demonstrate the applicability and
effectiveness of the INNOV8 game in BPM teach-
ing, promoting intrinsic motivation, understanding of
business processes, and student satisfaction.
Studies A12 and A13 explore the BPMN Wheel
game as a learning tool, showing a positive impact on
the learning flow and process modeling quality.
On the other hand, in Business Process Model-
ing Software (TC2) A3 proposes a pedagogical ap-
proach combining flipped classroom and Problem-
Based Learning (PBL) to teach BPM, utilizing soft-
ware such as Apromore, Bizagi,, Visual
Paradigm, and Business Process Simulator.
A4 highlights the Horus Enterprise process mod-
eling tool, which is recommended to support the Ho-
rus Method, enabling the modeling and simulation of
business processes with support for various models.
A11 introduces the Model Judge framework, a
platform for the automatic validation of process mod-
els, providing diagnostics on syntactic, pragmatic,
and semantic quality issues, allowing instructors to
create exercises and monitor students’ progress in
About e-learning (TC3), A18 addresses situated
learning through e-learning in the context of BPM, in-
dicating a significant contribution of situated learning
to understanding BPM logic. However, compared to
face-to-face teaching, a lesser learning effect was ob-
served in e-learning. The authors emphasize the im-
portance of personal interaction and immediate feed-
back to understand BPM effectively.
A8 introduces the aCHAT-WF, a framework
(TC4), an adaptive chatbot for workflows that is more
user-friendly for learning than traditional interfaces.
It connects students and teachers, separates content
and conversation, adheres to the teaching approach,
and delivers interconnected learning content through
conversation. The tool allows the creation of differ-
ent chatbots and tailored courses involving IT experts,
conversation designers, and editors.
In summary, technologies like modeling tools,
simulation games, e-learning platforms, and inno-
vative frameworks such as aCHAT-WF have proven
valuable in BPM education, providing practical ex-
periences, continuous feedback, and a deeper under-
standing of business process concepts. These ap-
proaches represent an evolution in BPM education,
incorporating innovative and interactive methods.
4.1.6 SRQ5: What Are the Main Challenges in
the Training of BPM Professionals?
Few articles in the Systematic Mapping Study (SMS)
address the alignment between university education
in BPM and the technical requirements of the mar-
ket, indicating a gap in this research area. Out of
the three articles dealing with this issue, we identified
three perspectives from professionals and employers
regarding market demands and university education
in BPM, as outlined in Table 8.
Table 8: Challenges in training BPM professionals.
Identifier Challenge Citations Total
CH1 Increasing demand for profes-
sionals specialized in BPM
A16 1
CH2 Valuation of interpersonal
skills by employers
A6 1
CH3 Excessive emphasis on techni-
cal skills in higher education
A10 1
In light of this, considering the information in the
articles, it becomes possible to extract an analysis
aimed at understanding the perception of both BPM
graduates and employers regarding BPM education to
meet practical market demands.
In Increasing demand for professionals special-
ized in BPM (CH1), article 16 highlights the grow-
ing demand for Information Systems (IS) profession-
als with skills in business process analysis. The arti-
cle suggests that modifying existing courses to incor-
porate analytics may effectively meet this emerging
demand in the job market.
Furthermore, in the Valuation of Interpersonal
Skills by employers (CH2), the study presented in A6
highlights the importance of interpersonal skills com-
pared to technical skills in BPM. The results indicate
that employers consider interpersonal skills more im-
portant than technical skills.
Lastly, in Excessive Emphasis on Technical Skills
in Higher Education Institutions (CH3), article A10
highlights the growing demand for BPM knowledge
in the industry and the need to incorporate this knowl-
edge into university curricula.
CSEDU 2024 - 16th International Conference on Computer Supported Education
It emphasizes the importance of innovative meth-
ods, such as serious simulation games, for situated
training of BPM professionals, indicating gaps be-
tween the skills acquired in academic training and
those required by the market, with a focus on inter-
personal skills. Challenges include adapting teaching
to meet digital demands.
4.2 RQ2: How Do Current BPM
Educational Programs Align with
the Curricular Guidelines Provided
by the SBC and the BPM CBOK in
Computing Courses?
For the comparison of the results of this SMS with
the curriculum guidelines for BPM education, we ini-
tially relied on the training axes, competencies and
content of the Training References for Undergraduate
Computing Courses 2017, the most recent document
provided by the Brazilian Computing Society (SBC).
The training axes aim to empower the student with
general competencies and encompass the main lines
for the education of a Bachelor of Information Sys-
tems student. For the student to acquire these gen-
eral competencies, it is necessary for them to develop
derived competencies that require the mobilization of
specific content taught in curricular units or courses.
The training axis for the management of informa-
tion systems and information technology described
in the document addresses general competencies that
aim to develop skills such as ”the management of in-
formation systems and information technology archi-
tecture in organizations, proposing solutions for in-
formation systems, software, and storage and com-
munication infrastructure aligned with organizational
goals and strategies, carrying out projects of informa-
tion systems and information technology, and apply-
ing concepts, methods, techniques, and tools suitable
for the management and governance of information
systems and information technology. (Zorzo et al.,
This training axis presents five derived competen-
cies from these general competencies, classified ac-
cording to the cognitive levels of the Bloom’s Taxon-
omy scale (Create, Evaluate, and Analyze). Among
these derived competencies, the first provides curricu-
lum guidelines for content that should be considered
in BPM education. Derived competence C.2.1 aims to
develop the following skills: ”Manage organizational
processes, describing their operation, evaluating their
performance, and implementing changes in their op-
eration by applying concepts of information systems.
(Zorzo et al., 2017)
The document describes the following content to
be taught from this derived competencies: ”Strate-
gic planning, Organizational modeling, Business Pro-
cess Management (Survey, Modeling, Analysis, Re-
design, Automation, Evaluation, and Measurement),
Automated tools for managing organizational pro-
cesses, and Change management in organizational
As highlighted in Table 9, we conducted a com-
parative analysis between the specific contents of
derivative competency C.2.1 and the key topics men-
tioned in the articles qualified in our SMS. The aim of
this comparison is to identify the extent to which the
contents covered with students align with the curricu-
lum guidelines established by the Brazilian Comput-
ing Society (SBC).
Table 9: Specific Content of SBC’s Curriculum Guidelines
x SMS Specific Research Questions.
Specific Content SRQs
Strategic planning SRQ1, SRQ2 and SRQ5
Organizational modeling SRQ1, SRQ2 and SRQ4
Business Process Management SRQ1, SRQ2, SRQ3,
SRQ4 and SQR5
Automated tools for managing organiza-
tional processes
SRQ1, SRQ2 and SRQ4
Change management in organizational
SRQ2, SRQ4 and SRQ5
We can infer from this comparison that the main
contents covered in BPM education are satisfacto-
rily aligned with the specific content outlined in the
curriculum guidelines of the SBC. Clearly, the spe-
cific content of Business Process Management is ad-
dressed in all specific research questions. In the
results of SRQ1, we observe that specific contents
such as strategic planning, organizational modeling,
and automated tools for managing organizational pro-
cesses are covered in CO5, CO2, and CO3, respec-
The results of SRQ2 encompass all specific con-
tents described in the curriculum guidelines of the
SBC, by developing skills such as modeling, analy-
sis, design, and implementation of business processes
(SK1); working with BPM support tools (SK2); de-
veloping interdisciplinary skills (SK4); managing and
closely observing organization processes (SK5 and
SK6). Regarding SRQ4, technologies described in
TC1, TC2, and TC3 address specific contents such
as organizational modeling and automated tools for
managing organizational processes, as well as change
management in organizational processes by simulat-
ing the real context of BPM.
Additionally, we considered the Guide to the
Common Body of Knowledge in Business Pro-
Content and Skills for Teaching BPM in Computer Science Courses: A Systematic Mapping Study
cess Management (BPM CBOK 4.0), the most re-
cent document provided by the Association of Busi-
ness Process Management Professionals International
(ABPMP). This guide thoroughly describes the func-
tional areas, purpose, functions, products, and mod-
ules of BPM education.
BPM CBOK 4.0 also presents an Essential BPM
Curriculum from ABPMP in Appendix B, aiming to
provide a proposal for educational courses to meet the
growing need to develop in BPM professionals the
”necessary and desirable skills to integrate business
processes across different business functions and of-
ten distinct information technologies, delivering value
to the customer” (CBOK 4.0, 2020).
The suggested course program consists of five
mandatory BPM disciplines starting with a general
introduction to BPM and continuing throughout the
process lifecycle of modeling, analysis, design, and
implementation. Complemented by three elective dis-
ciplines, allowing for a deeper exploration of BPM,
culminating in a discipline on Business Process Strat-
This program is presented in an organizational
chart that divides mandatory and elective disciplines
for BPM education, along with a curriculum model
for undergraduate and postgraduate programs (Mas-
ter’s and MBA) in BPM. It provides detailed descrip-
tions of objectives, student profiles, career opportu-
nities, and an overview of the curriculum for each
course, where the document details each discipline
and the content to be covered. For our analysis, we
will consider the mandatory disciplines mentioned
for undergraduate courses teaching BPM, which are:
”Introduction to BPM, Process Modeling, Design
for Process Management, Implementation of Process
Management and Business Process Strategy.
Table 10 demonstrates the comparative analysis
between the mandatory disciplines of the essential
undergraduate curriculum and the key topics men-
tioned in the articles qualified in our SMS. The goal
of this comparison is to identify the extent to which
the content and skills addressed by students align with
the mandatory disciplines established by BPM CBOK
Table 10: CBOK 4.0 Mandatory BPM Disciplines x SMS
Specific Research Questions.
Mandatory BPM Disciplines SRQs
Introduction to BPM SRQ1, SRQ2 and SRQ4
Process Modeling SRQ1, SRQ2, SQR3 and
Design for Process Management SRQ1, SRQ2 and SRQ4
Implementation of Process Man-
SRQ1, SRQ2, SQR3 and
Business Process Strategy SRQ1 and SRQ2
This comparison leads us to conclude that the
main contents covered in BPM education from the
articles analyzed in the SMS are aligned with the
mandatory disciplines suggested by CBOK 4.0. How-
ever, the contents are often grouped into a single disci-
pline, reflecting on the available time to develop stu-
dents’ understanding and desired skills in each con-
tent area.
The contents and skills presented in SRQ1 and
SRQ2 align with all the mandatory disciplines out-
lined by CBOK 4.0, as they cover everything from
the introduction to BPM to the analysis, modeling,
design, and implementation of process management.
Additionally, in CO4 and CO5, SK4, SK5, and SK6
address business process strategy. The results of
SRQ4 also demonstrate alignment with the manda-
tory disciplines, as the use of technologies such as
serious games and process modeling software covers
the contents of introduction to BPM, modeling, de-
sign, and implementation of process management.
4.3 Threats to Validity
Throughout this study, we identified some limitations
and challenges in BPM education that deserve atten-
tion. The 10-year time constraint in the systematic
literature review may lead to the exclusion of relevant
studies predating this period, limiting the historical
perspective of BPM education. The prevalence of Eu-
ropean studies may introduce a geographical limita-
tion in generalizing conclusions, not fully represent-
ing the global diversity in this field of education.
The specific choice of research sources, such as
ACM DL, IEEEXplore, ScienceDirect, and Scopus,
may introduce bias in the results, excluding other rele-
vant sources. The criteria for article inclusion and ex-
clusion, as well as quality assessment, are susceptible
to subjectivity, influencing the final selection and re-
sults. Challenges include the complexity of assessing
article quality, the diversity of sources and methods
in the reviewed studies, and the need for curriculum
adaptation to meet market demands.
Although the introduction of innovative methods,
such as game simulations, is suggested as a solution
to enhance practical understanding of BPM concepts,
its implementation may face institutional resistance
and practical challenges. In summary, the study high-
lights gaps between BPM education and market de-
mands, emphasizing the importance of overcoming
these challenges to improve education in the field in
the future.
CSEDU 2024 - 16th International Conference on Computer Supported Education
The teaching of BPM is undergoing a transformative
phase, driven by technological advancements and in-
creasing challenges. This study explored emerging
trends, developed competencies, teaching and assess-
ment methods, the impact of technologies, and the
challenges inherent in aligning education with the job
We conclude that diversified approaches and the
effective incorporation of innovative methodologies
are crucial to meeting the dynamic demands of BPM
education, preparing students to tackle real-world
challenges with proficiency and adaptability.
We propose a research agenda to enhance BPM
education. Firstly, we suggest investigating interper-
sonal competencies in the BPM context to integrate
them into curricula. Secondly, we recommend peri-
odic studies on the impact of emerging technologies
on BPM education. Thirdly, we propose in-depth re-
search on innovative methodologies, such as simula-
tions and interactive games, to understand their im-
pact on learning.
Additionally, we suggest comparative research be-
tween teaching approaches in different national con-
texts and the systematic evaluation of the alignment
of BPM educational programs with real market de-
mands. Lastly, the investigation of the development
of dynamic BPM curricula to ensure continuous rel-
evance amid changes in the business environment.
This agenda seeks to enhance BPM education, effec-
tively aligning it with the ever-changing demands of
the business landscape.
Zorzo, Avelino F and Nunes, Daltro and Matos, Eci-
valdo S and Steinmacher, Igor and Leite, Jair C
and Araujo, Renata and Correia, Ronaldo CM
and Martins, Simone. Referenciais de Formac¸
para os Cursos de Graduac¸
ao em Computac¸
2017. Sociedade Brasileira de Computac¸
ao, 2017.
Available at:
CBOK, BPM. Guide to the business process management
common body of knowledge. Version, v. 4, p. 454,
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forming systematic literature reviews in software en-
gineering. Citeseer, 2007.
Moormann, J
urgen; Bandara, Wasana. Where are we with
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Dumas, Marlon; La Rosa, Marcello, Mendling; Jan; Rei-
jers; Hajo A. Fundamentals of business process man-
agement. Springer, 2018.
Marjanovic, Olivera; Bandara, Wasana. The current state of
BPM education in Australia: Teaching and research
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Bandara, Wasana; Velmurugan, Mythreyi; Leemans,
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Delavari, Houra; Bandara, Wasana; Marjanovic, Oliv-
era; Mathiesen, Paul. Business process management
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on content analysis. AIS Library, 2010.
Dumas, Marlon; La Rosa, Marcello, Mendling; Jan; Rei-
jers; Hajo A. Fundamentals of business process man-
agement. Springer, 2018.
Pasha, Shaheen. Bloom’s Taxonomy for Standardizing BPM
Education of IT Under-Graduates Students. 2013.
Van Der Aalst, Wil. Business process management: a com-
prehensive survey. 2012.
Brighenti Josiane; Biavatti, Vania Tanira; De Souza,
Taciana Rodrigues. Metodologias de ensino-
aprendizagem: uma abordagem sob a percepc¸
dos alunos. 2015.
Diesel, Aline; Baldez, Alda Leila Santos; Martins, Sil-
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digital world: integrating business process manage-
ment and routine dynamics in IS curricula.. 2022.
Pridmore, Jeannie; Godin, Joy. Business process manage-
ment and digital transformation in higher education.
Issues in Information Systems, 2021.
Sanchez-Ferreres, Josep et al. Supporting the process of
learning and teaching process models. IEEE Trans-
actions on Learning Technologies, 2020.
Kutun, Bahar; Schmidt, Werner. BPMN wheel: Board game
for business process modelling. European conference
on games based learning, 2019.
Kutun, Bahar. Gamification of business process modeling:
a board game approach to knowledge acquisition and
business process modeling with BPMN. CEUR Work-
shop Proceedings, 2018.
Sarvepalli, Ashwini; Godin, Joy. Business Process Manage-
ment in the classroom. Journal of Cases on Informa-
tion Technology (JCIT), 2017.
Gottipati, Swapna; Shankararaman, Venky. Incorporating
Analytics into a Business Process Modelling Course.
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ment and digital game based learning. 2016.
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Boughzala, Imed et al. Feedback on the integration of a se-
rious game in the business process management learn-
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How should we teach the logic of BPM? Comparing e-
learning and face-to-face setting in situated learning.
Nkhoma, Mathews et al. Towards an understanding of real-
time continuous feedback from simulation games. In-
teractive Technology and Smart Education, 2014.
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gaging students in a group role-play exercise to im-
prove understanding of business processes and ERP
in an introductory information systems course. Jour-
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Table 11: Selected papers.
ID Title Source
A1 Gamification of Business Process Modeling
Notation education: an experience report.
A2 Application of Business Process Management
in the Libyan International Medical University:
History and Development.
A3 Teaching Business Process Management with a
Flipped-Classroom and Problem-Based Learn-
ing Approach with the Use of Apromore and
Other BPM Software in Graduate Information
Systems Courses.
A4 Social BPM Lab Characterization of a Col-
laborative Approach for Business Process Man-
agement Education.
A5 Learning Business Process Management
through Serious Games: Feedbacks on the
Usage of INNOV8.
A6 Uncovering the competency gap of students
employed in business process analyst roles
An employer perspective.
A7 The Need for a Standardized and Common Way
of Process Training.
Science Di-
A8 aCHAT-WF: Generating conversational agents
for teaching business process models.
A9 Managing Process Dynamics in a Digital
World: Integrating Business Process Manage-
ment and Routine Dynamics in IS Curricula.
A10 Business process management and digital trans-
formation in higher education.
A11 Supporting the Process of Learning and Teach-
ing Process Models.
A12 BPMN wheel: A board game for business pro-
cess modeling.
A13 Gamification of business process modeling: A
board game approach to knowledge acquisition
and business process modeling with BPMN.
A14 Business process management in the classroom. Scopus
A15 Business process management and digital
game-based learning.
A16 Incorporating Analytics into a Business Process
Modeling course.
A17 Feedback on integrating a serious game in the
Business Process Management learning.
A18 How should we teach the logic of BPM? Com-
paring e-learning and face-to-face settings in
situated learning.
A19 Towards an understanding of real-time continu-
ous feedback from simulation games.
A20 Engaging students in a group role-play exercise
to improve their understanding of business pro-
cesses and ERP in an introductory information
systems course.
A21 Building ’holistic’ business process modeling
skills for IS graduates.
CSEDU 2024 - 16th International Conference on Computer Supported Education