Gamification of E-Learning Apps via Acceptance Requirements Analysis
Federico Calabrese
, Luca Piras
, Mohammed Ghazi Al-Obeidallah
Benedicta Oghenevoke Egbikuadje
and Duaa Alkubaisy
Department of Information Engineering and Computer Science, University of Trento, Trento, Italy
Department of Computer Science, Middlesex University, London, U.K.
Department of Software Engineering, Al Ain University, Abu Dhabi, U.A.E.
College of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia,
Requirements Engineering, Acceptance Requirements, Gamification, Goal Models, Goal Modeling Analysis,
Software Engineering.
In the last few years, and particularly during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, E-Learning has become a
very important and strategic asset for our society, relevant both for academic and industry settings, involving
participants ranging from students to professionals. Different applications have been developed to support
E-Learning to be an effective tool, particularly in relation to the software engineering and programming ar-
eas. However, in order to be effective, in particular within academic settings, such tools require students to
be continuously engaged and motivated to learn both practical and theoretical aspects. The integration of
gamification in educational environments has gained considerable prominence as a potential mean to augment
students’ motivation and involvement, providing them with immediate feedback and reinforcement, bolster-
ing their sense of accomplishment and motivation to persist in their studies. However, to design gamified
applications that can effectively engage and motivate users, as the literature has demonstrated, it is required to
consider psychological, sociological, and human behavioural aspects, often referred to as Acceptance Require-
ments. This study presents a case study, where a Goal Modeling-based, Systematic, Acceptance Requirements
Analysis and Gamification Design process, has been applied, by using the Agon framework, to prototype a
gamified tool, aiming at engaging students towards learning both theory and practice related to a “Web-Based
Mobile App Development” university module. To evaluate our proposed prototype, students were involved to
use our proposed gamified prototype. The results show that our gamification solution can engage and motivate
students towards learning both theoretical and practical aspects of the module.
With the increasing demand for technology-related
skills in the workforce, computing courses have
gained significant popularity among students. How-
ever, despite this surge in enrolment, critical chal-
lenges persist in the form of student participation and
engagement during the learning process. Studies re-
veal that educators in schools and universities grapple
with this issue, striving to enhance students’ involve-
ment in their educational journey (Saleem et al., 2022;
Toda et al., 2019; Zainuddin et al., 2020). In comput-
ing studies, students exhibit noticeable lack of inter-
est and engagement in the theoretical aspects (Saleem
et al., 2022; Toda et al., 2019; Zainuddin et al., 2020).
The effectiveness of teaching methods employed
by educational institutions plays a pivotal role in
shaping students’ engagement. The recent introduc-
tion of Gamification and E-Learning applications, as
additional tools to “more traditional” educational ap-
proaches, offers potential for increasing user engage-
ment (Saleem et al., 2022; Zainuddin et al., 2020;
Andrade et al., 2020). When teaching methods are
engaging and effective, students are more likely to be
motivated and interested in learning. Conversely, in-
effective approaches may lead to disinterest or disen-
gagement among students, undermining the learning
experience (Toda et al., 2019; Ding et al., 2018; Ge,
2018). Owing to the practical nature of their courses
or modules, many computer science students tend to
concentrate primarily on hands-on experiences, over-
looking a thorough understanding of the theoretical
Calabrese, F., Piras, L., Al-Obeidallah, M., Egbikuadje, B. and Alkubaisy, D.
Gamification of E-Learning Apps via Acceptance Requirements Analysis.
DOI: 10.5220/0012550400003687
Paper published under CC license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
In Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering (ENASE 2024), pages 291-298
ISBN: 978-989-758-696-5; ISSN: 2184-4895
Proceedings Copyright © 2024 by SCITEPRESS – Science and Technology Publications, Lda.
aspects. They may perceive practical learning as more
enjoyable, and engaging, while traditional lectures, or
classroom activities, aimed at theoretical comprehen-
sion, may seem less appealing (Zainuddin et al., 2020;
Kyewski and Kr
amer, 2018).
This paper aims to address the crucial need of of-
fering a balanced approach to learning, by effectively
engaging students in both theoretical and practical as-
pects of their computing modules, via Gamification
and E-Learning applications. Furthermore, in order
to address that, educators, as designers of such appli-
cations, need supporting strategies, frameworks and
processes enabling them to analyse, design, and pro-
totype such applications in a way that can effectively
engage and motivate the student.
To achieve such goals, we consider the concept
of “Gamification”, and the usage of related sup-
porting analysis and design frameworks. Gamifi-
cation involves the application of “game design el-
ements and principles to non-gaming contexts” to
enhance engagement, motivation, and learning out-
comes (Zichermann and Cunningham, 2011; Deter-
ding et al., 2011; Bassanelli et al., 2022). Vari-
ous studies have demonstrated positive impacts of
gamification elements, such as points, badges, and
leaderboards, on students’ motivation and involve-
ment (Bouchrika et al., 2021; Kyewski and Kr
2018; Yildirim, 2017; Ding et al., 2018). Primary
objective of gamifying education is to make learn-
ing experiences more enjoyable and stimulating for
students. Gamification can enhance students’ enjoy-
ment and intrinsic motivation in the learning process
(Saleem et al., 2022; Bouchrika et al., 2021).
In summary, different gamified E-Learning appli-
cations have shown promising results (Saleem et al.,
2022; Bouchrika et al., 2021). Therefore, integrating
gamification principles into E-Learning applications
for education has the potential to create a more dy-
namic and interactive learning environment, further
engaging students, and bridging the gap between the-
oretical knowledge and practical application. How-
ever, to create effective gamified software it is nec-
essary to consider not only the “pure” technological
and technical aspects, but also human science cru-
cial areas such as psychological, sociological and hu-
man behavioural (Simperl et al., 2013; Zichermann
and Cunningham, 2011; Deterding et al., 2011; Pi-
ras et al., 2017a). Moreover, it is necessary to iden-
tify the most suitable engagement strategies to imple-
ment within the software functionalities (Piras et al.,
2016a; Piras et al., 2017a; Zichermann and Cunning-
ham, 2011). Accordingly, this paper aims: (i) to
address the crucial need for a balanced approach to
learning, by effectively engaging students in both the-
oretical and practical aspects of their computing mod-
ules, and (ii) to individuate strategies for supporting
the creation of tools able to encapsulate and foster
such approaches. In this work, we identify and apply
effective processes towards a systematic requirements
analysis and design, which can support the designer
in considering all the relevant aspects involved when
creating such solutions.
In line with the aims outlined above, we consid-
ered a relevant computer science university module,
titled “Web-based Mobile App Development”, and we
individuated the next Research Question (RQ):
RQ1. How can we design a gamified solution, for
a “Web-based Mobile App Development” univer-
sity module prototype, able to engage and moti-
vate students towards learning both theoretical and
practical aspects of the module?
To answer RQ1, we performed a case study carry-
ing out a systematic acceptance requirements anal-
ysis, using the Agon framework (Calabrese et al.,
2022; Piras et al., 2020; Piras, 2018), for designing
and prototyping a gamified E-Learning tool, to foster
engagement and learning of the module (RQ1). We
performed different phases: (i) Context Character-
isation. Initial research steps with literature review
for context characterisation, plus questionnaires (to
students) to characterise the users to engage, and to
collect the input required by the Agon Framework.
(ii) Acceptance Requirements Analysis and Gam-
ification Design. Based on the context information
collected, analysis and design of a gamification solu-
tion for the module, by using the Agon framework.
(iii) Prototyping. Based on the Agon gamification
solution, prototype creation of the gamified E-Learn-
ing app for the module. (iv) Prototype Evaluation.
Involvement of students for using the resulting gam-
ified prototype, and evaluation via observations, and
questionnaires to compile, in relation to their expe-
rience with the prototype. Evaluation results show
that our gamification solution can engage and mo-
tivate students towards learning both theoretical and
practical aspects of the module.
The rest of the paper is organised as follows: sec-
tion 2 outlines background and initial research steps
(according to point (i) above). Section 3 describes
the acceptance requirements analysis and gamifica-
tion design we performed by using the Agon frame-
work, to design our gamification solution (point (ii)
and (iii) above). Section 4 discusses our case study,
evaluation, and results (point (iv) above). Section 5
outlines related works. Section 6 concludes the paper.
ENASE 2024 - 19th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering
In this section, we first outline relevant studies and
concepts related to gamification of E-Learning apps;
then, we list lessons learned on contextual aspects and
gamification elements to consider when gamifying E-
Learnign apps. Such concepts are useful as contextual
information to use as input for the Agon framework,
and for analyst’s decisions to take for the acceptance
requirements analysis based on gamification, which
we illustrate in section 3. In the last subsection, we
discuss the Agon framework and motivations con-
cerning its use within this work.
Gamification of E-Learning Apps and Lessons
Learned. In recent years, gamification has been in-
creasingly used in education as a mean to elevate
student motivation and engagement as it holds the
potential to combat disengagement among computer
science students and improve their overall learning
outcomes (Yildirim, 2017; Toda et al., 2019; Toda
et al., 2019; Ge, 2018). Numerous studies underscore
positive impacts of gamification elements like points,
badges, and leaderboards on student motivation and
engagement (Bouchrika et al., 2021; Kyewski and
amer, 2018; Yildirim, 2017; Ding et al., 2018). Pri-
mary goal of integrating gamification in education is
to enhance learning experience, making it more en-
joyable and stimulating for students. This approach
also increases students’ enjoyment and intrinsic moti-
vation (Saleem et al., 2022; Bouchrika et al., 2021). A
key gamification advantage is its immediate feedback,
which students find beneficial for understanding their
progress and staying motivated to learn (Bouchrika
et al., 2021; Toda et al., 2019). Gamification of-
fers promising solutions to combat student disen-
gagement and improve learning outcomes (Zainud-
din et al., 2020; Calabrese et al., 2022; Piras et al.,
2020; Piras, 2018). Incorporating gamification ele-
ments helps educators to cultivate environments con-
ducive to higher engagement, motivation, and collab-
oration (Ding et al., 2018; Ding, 2019).
The gamification of education has become a popu-
lar strategy to enhance student engagement and moti-
vation (Ge, 2018; Zainuddin et al., 2020). Six primary
game design elements have been identified, drawing
insights from existing systems and literature reviews
(Saleem et al., 2022; Pedreira et al., 2015; Hamari
et al., 2014). (a) Points: Points serve multiple pur-
poses in educational applications, recognising student
progress and providing feedback which award points
upon completing tasks or lessons. (b) Badges: sig-
nify accomplishment and act as a tool to sustain mo-
tivation and competition. (c) Progress Bars: they en-
courage users to complete activities and track their
progress, reminding them of their achievements and
how far they have come. (d) Levels and Stages: mo-
tivate users to advance and fosters competitiveness.
(e) Social Leaderboards: list individuals with the
highest scores, encouraging users to complete tasks
and boosting engagement. They create a competitive
environment, driving students to work harder to climb
the ranks. (f) Rewards: used to engage and moti-
vate students. They have proven to be a successful
approach to encourage learners. Such game items can
significantly impact students’ motivation and engage-
ment in educational contexts. Incorporating such ele-
ments in e-learning apps, educators can create a more
interactive and stimulating learning environment, fos-
tering greater students’ interest and involvement.
Gamification Frameworks and the Acceptance Re-
quirements Framework: Agon. The selection of
an appropriate gamification framework is crucial for
conducting an effective analysis and designing a suc-
cessful gamification solution. In the literature, it
was observed that most gamification frameworks only
partially address essential aspects related to partici-
pant characterisation and fail to adequately consider
acceptance and social aspects while operationalising
and selecting gamification strategies to engage users
(Ge, 2018; Ding et al., 2018; Toda et al., 2019).
In light of the identified gaps and of the need for a
comprehensive acceptance requirements analysis, the
Agon Framework (Calabrese et al., 2022; Piras et al.,
2020; Piras, 2018) emerged as a candidate solution.
Agon is composed of: (i) Acceptance Meta-Model
(AM): which gathers user needs (requirements), en-
abling the analyst to identify factors and strategies
from human sciences (e.g., Psychology, Sociology,
Human Behaviour, Organisational Behaviour, etc.)
which can encourage the target user to embrace and
utilise a software system. (ii) Tactical Meta-Model
(TM): allows the analyst to identify tactical goals as
refinements for needs selected in AM. (iii) Gamifi-
cation Meta-Model (GM): provides the analyst with
readily available game design solutions, which trans-
late tactical goals and, consequently, the needs chosen
within the higher-level models (AM and TM).
The Agon Framework is a framework capable
of performing a systematic acceptance requirements
analysis specifically based on game principles and
strategies (Calabrese et al., 2022; Piras et al., 2020;
Piras, 2018). Furthermore, to the best of our knowl-
edge, there are no other frameworks, at the require-
ments analysis level, which can support (as Agon
does) the analyst by providing him with a systematic
Gamification of E-Learning Apps via Acceptance Requirements Analysis
acceptance requirements analysis based on gamifica-
tion. In fact, most of the other gamification frame-
works/engines/languages offer support mainly at the
development and architectural levels (Herzig et al.,
2013; Herzig et al., 2012; Sripada et al., 2016). More-
over, Agon has demonstrated successful application
in various EU research projects and case studies,
highlighting its practicality and effectiveness (Cal-
abrese et al., 2022; Piras et al., 2020; Piras, 2018).
Accordingly, the decision to adopt the Agon
Framework for this research is well-founded given it
supports a complete acceptance requirements analysis
(Egbikuadje et al., 2023a). Using the Agon Frame-
work, designers holistically address participant char-
acterization, acceptance, social aspects while strate-
gically selecting game strategies to engage users, a
successful gamification solution tailored to specific
needs and preferences of the target audience (Cal-
abrese et al., 2022; Piras et al., 2020; Piras, 2018).
In the next Section, we discuss briefly most im-
portant phases of the systematic Acceptance Require-
ments Analysis based on Gamification supported by
Agon. Same phases had been applied within the case
study of this paper, and are discussed in detail in sec-
tion 3.1.
The Agon framework encapsulates a wide range of
gamification elements and strategies; this makes it a
supporting tool for performing acceptance and gami-
fication analysis and for designing gamification solu-
tions enhanced with motivation and engagement as-
pects (Calabrese et al., 2022; Piras et al., 2020; Piras,
2018; Deterding, 2012; Bassanelli et al., 2022).
In the next, we summarise most important analy-
sis and design phases we performed using the Agon
framework to gamify a “Web-Based Mobile App De-
velopment” module as a E-Learning mobile app.
3.1 Acceptance Requirements Analysis
and Gamification Design Based on
Goal Modeling
The use of Agon and its goal models (Piras et al.,
2017b) provided essential guidance for the prototype
design, allowing the integration of gamification ele-
ments and meeting users’ needs and preferences. We
had 12 participants, (3rd year) IT BSc students (at
Middlesex University London, UK). Full models ob-
tained within the analysis are available at (Egbikuadje
et al., 2023a) while original full models of Agon are
available at (Piras et al., 2016b).
Context Model Instantiation and Acceptance Re-
quirements Analysis. In terms of instantiating the
context model of Agon, according to characterisation
of our participants, most of the Users were male and
young (18-25 years old) (Egbikuadje et al., 2023a).
In examining student preferences and characteristics
within the context of the gamified Web-Based Mobile
App Module, most students exhibited traits of achiev-
ers and explorers, demonstrating a desire to explore
various technologies while striving for success (Pi-
ras, 2018). Notably, many students are not currently
employed. Regarding acceptance factors, participants
possessed a high level of expertise and willingly en-
gaged with the module, which is optional. The pres-
ence of existing e-learning platforms indicates com-
petition within the domain. Communication effec-
tiveness in conveying messages is high, yet user par-
ticipation in defining goals is lower. However, goal
clarity is deemed high due to participants’ familiarity
with the module. Task variety is low but specificity
and identification levels are high, reflecting partici-
pants’ specific skills and keen interest in achieving fa-
vorable outcomes. The social structure is hierarchical,
with limited interaction expected among students, and
potential engagement with the lecturer. The nature of
the good being produced is considered a private good,
as students use the app to enhance their knowledge
and acquire personalized skills for individual growth.
By using the instantiation of the Agon context
model (Egbikuadje et al., 2023a), acceptance analysis
has progressed, enabling the identification of accep-
tance needs to be addressed by our gamification solu-
tion. A relevant example will be covered below. As
Figure 1: Example from the Acceptance Requirements
Analysis model; full models at (Egbikuadje et al., 2023a).
for analysts’ decisions, we want a gamified app that’s
quick to use (because students have different parallel
modules), and more effective in improving their learn-
ing for both theoretical and practical aspects. Those
are refined in the Acceptance Goals of Agon.
ENASE 2024 - 19th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering
Acceptance Requirements Refinement and Tac-
tical Goal Decisions. Based on acceptance needs
proposed by Agon and by our analyst’s decisions,
Agon identified Tactical Goals (Egbikuadje et al.,
2023a), to refine our acceptance requirements. The
goal is to favour deeper strategies concerning support
on skill improvement, then support on minor assis-
tance due to the topic importance.
Context-Based Operationalisation via Gamifica-
tion. Based on acceptance needs, and tactical goals
identified, Agon automatically suggested Training El-
ements strategies and concepts to consider for the de-
sign of our gamification solution. This is because,
even though that is a game strategy useful for other
domains, we do not want to provide the possibility
to skip quickly important learning parts. Students
should achieve related knowledge through gamifica-
tion strategies suggested by Agon.
Figure 2: Example from the resulting Gamification Model;
full Agon models available at (Egbikuadje et al., 2023a).
3.2 Gamified Prototype
Based on the acceptance requirements analysis and
gamification design performed by using Agon, we
had been able to create a gamified prototype, avail-
able at (Egbikuadje et al., 2023b), and described in
the next. Our application incorporates Agon’s con-
cepts (Piras, 2018) to stimulate user motivation and
engagement in educational contexts. Focusing on
game elements, progress tracking, interactive chal-
lenges, and social interaction, the app design aims
to provide an enjoyable and effective learning expe-
rience. The prototype illustrates key components of
the learning experience, offering detailed curriculum
information and enabling the exploration of various
topics (Fig. 3). The app encourages consistent learn-
ing via streaks and rewards users with points for at-
tending lectures regularly, fostering social interaction
via user reviews and contributions. Achievements are
displayed alongside users’ progress; a Social Leader-
board promotes competition (Fig. 4). Social notifi-
cations keep users updated on messages and updates,
contributing to collaborative learning. The compre-
hensive course on mobile app development, struc-
Figure 3: View of lesson’s topic (Egbikuadje et al., 2023b).
tured into Agon Levels and Challenges, incorporates
game elements (Piras et al., 2016b; Calabrese et al.,
2022; Piras et al., 2020; Piras, 2018) such as badges,
social leaderboards, and progress bars to enhance en-
gagement and motivation, following the Agon frame-
work for optimised learning and active participation.
Figure 4: Comprehensive view of Badges, Leaderboard,
and Notifications (Egbikuadje et al., 2023b).
In summary, the implementation of our E-
Learning app via the Agon framework (Piras, 2018)
integrates a diverse array of core concepts to max-
imise user motivation and engagement. By leverag-
ing game elements, the app provides an enjoyable
and effective learning experience for students pursu-
ing web-based mobile app development modules. The
incorporation of Agon’s concepts empowers users to
pursue learning goals, fosters a sense of achievement,
Gamification of E-Learning Apps via Acceptance Requirements Analysis
creates a dynamic learning environment, encouraging
collaboration and healthy competition among users.
To address our research question RQ1 we performed
a case study by carrying out a systematic accep-
tance requirements analysis, using the Agon frame-
work (Calabrese et al., 2022; Piras et al., 2020; Pi-
ras, 2018), to analyse, design, and prototype a gam-
ified E-Learning tool - resulting gamified app avail-
able at (Egbikuadje et al., 2023b) - to foster engage-
ment and learning of a university module (RQ1). The
module considered is a relevant computer science uni-
versity module titled “Web-based Mobile App De-
velopment” at Middlesex University London. In re-
lation to our research method, we performed differ-
ent phases: (i) Context Characterisation. Initial re-
search steps with literature review for context char-
acterisation and lessons learned (discussed in section
2, with questionnaires (to students) to characterise the
users to engage and to collect the input required by the
Agon Framework (discussed in section 3.1). (ii) Ac-
ceptance Requirements Analysis and Gamification
Design. Based on the context information collected,
analysis and design of a gamification solution for the
module, by using the Agon framework (discussed in
section 3.1). (iii) Prototyping. Based on the Agon
gamification solution, prototype creation of the gami-
fied E-Learning app for the module (discussed in sec-
tion 3.5). (iv) Prototype Evaluation. Involvement
of students for using the resulting gamified prototype,
and evaluation via observations of their usage, and
questionnaires to compile, concerning their experi-
ence with the prototype (discussed in the following).
This evaluation involved 12 participants (3rd year
BSc IT students at Middlesex University London). To
gauge the effectiveness of our gamification solution,
we developed a prototype of the app (section 3.5), and
distributed it to the participants for use. After ob-
serving the students, we administered a questionnaire
to extract valuable insights and feedback regarding
their experience with the gamified version. We now
summarise the findings and valuable elements derived
from this evaluation process. In the questionnaire, we
presented inquiries to gauge the participants’ percep-
tions regarding the gamified app.
Due to space constraints, in the next we discuss
2 of the most relevant questions: (Q1) To what ex-
tent do you agree that the incorporation of transitions
and game elements heightened the overall enjoyment
and engagement of the app?”. The purpose of this
question was to assess the participants’ views on how
the integration of transitions and game elements influ-
enced their experience with the application. (Q2) To
what extent do you agree that this app effectively fa-
cilitated your acquisition of both theoretical knowl-
edge and practical skills pertaining to the web-based
mobile app development module?” This query aimed
to discern the participants’ perspectives on the app’s
efficacy in fostering their learning of theoretical con-
cepts and practical proficiencies to the web-based mo-
bile app development module. The outcomes of such
questions are presented in Figure 5.
Figure 5: Q1 results in the top, Q2 ones in the bottom part.
Q1 aimed to evaluate the app’s effectiveness in
integrating game elements and transitions into the
educational process to enhance the material’s qual-
ity. The feedback obtained from participants is valu-
able in identifying the most valued features, guiding
the prioritisation of these aspects in future app iter-
ations. According to the questionnaire results (Fig-
ure 5), 70% of participants strongly agreed that the
inclusion of game elements and transitions made the
app enjoyable, while 20% somewhat agreed. Con-
sequently, it can be inferred that the incorporation
of game elements and transitions successfully en-
hanced the app’s fun factor. Q2 aimed to assess the
app’s success in providing a comprehensive educa-
tional experience, encompassing theoretical knowl-
edge and practical skills in web-based mobile app
development. Feedback obtained from participants
(Figure 5) shows that 50% strongly agreed, 30% were
neutral, and 20% somewhat agreed with the app’s ef-
ficacy in achieving this educational goal. However,
it is acknowledged that current prototype limitations
(e.g., absence of actual lecture videos and authentic
ENASE 2024 - 19th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering
learning materials) may have effected the perceived
learning outcomes. Nevertheless, with all intended
features implemented in a real scenario, it is expected
that students’ engagement in the learning process will
improve, leading to effective knowledge acquisition.
To conclude, answering RQ1, according to our
evaluation, observations of the use of our gamified
prototype, and analysis results, the approach used
to gamify the module and the final gamified proto-
type have been considered positively by the partic-
ipants, and it can engage and motivate students to-
wards learning both theoretical and practical aspects
of the module. Therefore, our gamification solution
has the potential to stimulate students when it be-
comes a full product. This will be re-evaluated on
a larger scale as future work.
There are different contributions concerning gamified
E-Learning apps. ParulKhurana et al. (ParulKhurana,
2012) emphasizes the importance of motivating stu-
dents in learning programming, focusing on software
development. Their proposed solution involves im-
plementing gamification to create a motivating class-
room environment, aiming for increased student en-
gagement and improved outcomes. In contrast, our
approach utilizes the Agon framework to comprehen-
sively understand learners’ diverse needs and prefer-
ences. By considering individual characteristics and
motivations, we tailor gamification strategies to ad-
dress specific challenges and interests, enhancing the
effectiveness of learning applications. Ge et al. (Ge,
2018) explore the impact of a forfeit-or-prize gam-
ified teaching approach in e-learning, aiming to un-
derstand its effects and inform the design of effective
educational games for online learners. While existing
research primarily focuses on reward strategies in tra-
ditional classroom settings, this study addresses the
gap by investigating gamified teaching in online con-
texts. By utilizing a comprehensive framework and
models, the researchers not only analyze user engage-
ment but also identify and apply suitable gamification
techniques. This approach offers valuable insights
for designing and implementing engaging educational
games tailored to the needs of e-learners.
Aguilos et al. (Aguilos V., 2022) explore un-
dergraduate students’ perceptions of gamification in
tertiary education. Key findings suggest that effec-
tive design aligning with course content and learn-
ing outcomes is crucial for gamified online courses.
Instant feedback strongly motivates students, partic-
ularly competitive ones, while non-competitive stu-
dents prioritize content and evaluation. Understand-
ing game mechanics and peer interaction influences
the effectiveness of game elements, with gamifica-
tion’s impact varying based on individual behavior
and preferences. The study underscores the impor-
tance of user engagement and course design in gam-
ified learning. Our approach distinguishes itself by
employing a comprehensive framework and models
to tailor gamification techniques to individual learner
needs, thereby creating effective strategies that ad-
dress specific challenges and interests.
Gamification in e-learning holds promise for boosting
student engagement in software programming. The
design’s success hinges on understanding user needs
and psychological aspects systematically. Tailoring
gamification strategies to individual users is pivotal
for motivation. Accordingly, in this work, we de-
scribed and proposed the use of the Agon framework
and its systematic acceptance requirements analysis
based on gamification as a valuable candidate frame-
work for the analysis and design of gamification so-
lutions for e-learning systems. Agon advocates for
systematic design and user-tailored solutions. Using
Agon, we created a gamified solution for a mobile app
supporting students in a ”Web-Based Mobile App De-
velopment” Module at Middlesex University London.
The resulting prototype, tested with 12 students, ef-
fectively engaged them in the theoretical and practi-
cal aspects of the module. Observations and ques-
tionnaires supported positive evaluation results. Fu-
ture works aim to broaden the evaluation to a wider
participant pool using a full product application.
Aguilos V., F. K. (2022). The perceived usefulness of gam-
ified e-learning: A study of undergraduate students
with implications for higher education. In Frontiers
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Andrade, P., Law, E. L.-C., Farah, J. C., and Gillet, D.
(2020). Evaluating the effects of introducing three
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Bassanelli, S., Vasta, N., Bucchiarone, A., and Marconi, A.
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