Content Rating Classification in Fan Fiction Using Active Learning and
Explainable Artificial Intelligence
Heng Yi Sheng and James Pope
Department of Engineering Maths, University of Bristol, Bristol, U.K.
Natural Language Processing, Text Classification, Fan Fiction, Content Rating Classification,
Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI), Active Learning.
The emergence of fan fiction websites, where fans write their own storied about a topic/genre, has resulted
in serious content rating issues. The websites are accessible to general audiences but often includes explicit
content. The authors can rate their own fan fiction stories but this is not required and many stories are un-
rated. This motivates automatically predicting the content rating using recent natural languages processing
techniques. The length of the fan fiction text, ambiguity in ratings schemes, self-annotated (weak) labels, and
style of writing all make automatic content rating prediction very difficult. In this paper, we propose several
embedding techniques and classification models to address these problem. Based on a dataset from a popular
fan fiction website, we show that binary classification is better than multiclass classification and can achieve
nearly 70% accuracy using a transformer-based model. When computation is considered, we show that a tra-
ditional word embedding technique and Logistic Regression produce the best results with 66% accuracy and
0.1 seconds computation (approximately 15,000 times faster than DistilBERT). We further show that many of
the labels are not correct and require subsequent preprocessing techniques to correct the labels. We propose
an Active Learning approach, that while the results are not conclusive, suggest further work to address.
The rapid evolution of fan fiction works throughout
the years was driven by the endless creativity of fan
fiction writers, whereby fan fiction culture has now
been recognised globally, and it is also a form of so-
cial interaction among fandom communities. Fan fic-
tion refers to fictional stories about fictional charac-
ters created by the fans of the original story or work,
which can often be found published online on the in-
ternet. The original story could be from a famous TV
series, movie, anime, video game, or book. Not to
mention, the fanmade stories could also involve non-
fictional settings such as celebrities or historical fig-
ures. In this digital era, fan fiction works have slowly
become a digital practice on a global scale, whereby
the fan fiction works that were shared online will be
read by other fans (Vazquez-Calvo et al., 2019). Fan
fiction stories can take various forms ranging from
novels and short stories to poetry, whereby the con-
tent and length of the fan fiction stories can vary de-
pending on the writers. Most importantly, fan fiction
stories are created by the fans, contributing to the fic-
tional worlds that the fans adore, which are not affil-
iated with the original author’s works. The freedom
of fan fiction allows writers to explore alternate story-
lines, different genres and sometimes to fill the gaps
in the original work.
Fan fiction writers often publish their work on fan
fiction platforms, such as Archive of Our Own (AO3)
or According to AO3 (Archive of Our
Own, 2023), more than 11 million works from more
than 59 thousand fandoms are published on the web-
site, as of August 2023. Moreover, a content rating
should be given for each published fan fiction work,
guiding the readers to understand the nature of the
content the readers are about to read. However, prob-
lems arise when fan fiction writers are responsible for
providing content ratings for the works. In this sense,
either the content ratings are not provided for the fan
fiction work, or the fan fiction works might be anno-
tated incorrectly, which could be problematic. Ac-
cording to an article from CNN Health, fan fiction
has many unhealthy themes and genres that are in-
appropriate for certain age groups (Knorr, 2017). For
instance, sexual assault, domestic violence, toxic re-
Heng, Y. and Pope, J.
Content Rating Classification in Fan Fiction Using Active Learning and Explainable Artificial Intelligence.
DOI: 10.5220/0012313400003654
Paper published under CC license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Pattern Recognition Applications and Methods (ICPRAM 2024), pages 224-231
ISBN: 978-989-758-684-2; ISSN: 2184-4313
Proceedings Copyright © 2024 by SCITEPRESS – Science and Technology Publications, Lda.
lationships, and other explicit content. Furthermore,
a recent UK study has reported that more than 63% of
children aged 3 to 17 own a mobile phone and have
regular access to the internet (Ofcom, 2022). Reg-
ularly exposing underage children to potentially un-
healthy fan fiction content can seriously harm chil-
dren’s development and well-being. Hence, having a
content rating for each fan fiction work will help pro-
tect vulnerable audiences, especially underage chil-
dren, from exposure to content that might be harm-
ful whilst preventing any psychological or emotional
damage at a young age.
Natural language processing (NLP) is a grow-
ing interdisciplinary field, especially due to the ever-
expanding text data in different industries (Minaee
et al., 2021). As such, automated text classification
has become widely popular and important. Hence,
to solve the issue mentioned earlier, this paper pro-
poses different classification techniques using ma-
chine learning and deep learning approaches to tackle
the problem of content rating annotation whilst reduc-
ing the burden of the fan fiction writers of having to
decide on a rating for the writer’s own work. The
classes for the content rating of fan fiction, which is
the target variable, are as follows:
G-Rated. General audiences
T-Rated. Teen audiences, suitable for ages 13 and
M-Rated. Mature audiences
E-Rated. Explicit content and only suitable for
The motivation of this project is to help auto-
mate the annotation of the content rating for fan fic-
tion works for the convenience of the writers need-
ing to annotate the content rating manually. Most im-
portantly, it will help protect underage children from
harmful, sensitive, or explicit content whilst comply-
ing with industry standards and compliance.
The contributions of the paper are as follows:
Comparative analysis between different embed-
ding techniques and classification models for fan
fiction content rating.
Used Explainable AI to discover weak labels in
the dataset whilst potentially establishing trust in
the model.
Applied Active Learning (AL) approach to ad-
dress the weak labels.
To our knowledge, this is the first fan fiction con-
tent rating analysis and use of Explainable Artificial
Intelligence (XAI).
Numerous content rating classifications research of
different domains has been conducted in the past.
For instance, content rating for digital fiction books
(Glazkova, 2020), social media (Barfian et al., 2017)
and movies (Shafaei et al., 2019; Mohamed and Ha,
2020; Murat, 2023).
After conducting thorough research, most of the
content rating classification research centres around
movies or social media, but the fan fiction domain
is given less attention. Since (Qiao and Pope, 2022)
has highlighted the annotation issues that persist in
the study, AL strategies will be adopted to address the
weak labels. Moreover, it is evident that most of the
content rating classification research only focuses on
improving the performance of the classifiers. How-
ever, none of the studies have attempted to use XAI to
understand how ML and AI model predicted the out-
come and discover weak labels in the dataset. This
is a huge gap presented in past studies. Hence, XAI
techniques will be deployed that will act as a surro-
gate model in this study.
3.1 Data Collection Process
The fan fiction corpus will be scraped from the fan
fiction online platform, Archive of Our Own (AO3)
with the help of the prebuilt web crawler written in
Java by (Donaldson and Pope, 2022). The working
web crawler aims to scrape English fan fiction web-
pages from AO3. This includes the content rating,
language, word counts, and other useful additional
features (kudos, bookmark, and hits). In this project,
almost 18,000 fan fiction (i.e., approximately 7 GB of
data) was scraped from the AO3 website. However,
a subset of these data will be randomly selected for
experimentation, which will be discussed in the next
section. Figure 1 shows the overview of the data col-
lection process from the AO3 website.
3.2 Data Pre-Processing
Many researchers have outlined the importance of
data cleaning, which helps improve data quality, en-
abling more robust ML and AI models to be created,
even if the data cleaning process is costly and time-
consuming (Ridzuan and Wan Zainon, 2019; Tae
et al., 2019). As such, a data pre-processing pipeline
Content Rating Classification in Fan Fiction Using Active Learning and Explainable Artificial Intelligence
Archive of Our
Own (AO3)
.html files
.txt files
Java Web
Python Spacy
Fan Fiction Data
(.csv file)
To scrape content rating, languages words, and
additional features (kudos, bookmark and hits)
To get the fan fiction text (5 sentences, 15 sentences,
25 sentences, 35 sentences and 45 sentences)
Figure 1: Data Collection Process.
will be designed to clean the fan fiction text corpus
thoroughly before fitting it into the ML and AI mod-
els. Before applying the data pre-processing pipeline,
a quick inspection of the fan fiction dataset was con-
ducted, whereby it was evident that there were a few
blank fan fiction contents. Also, some fan fiction text
scraped by the web crawler was not English language.
Hence, these abnormalities were filtered out accord-
ingly. Furthermore, to address the data imbalanced
issue, a subset of 3000 instances from each class
will be collected randomly from the entire fan fic-
tion data scraped from the AO3 website. After that,
both rated and unrated fan fiction will be cleaned thor-
1. Remove any URLs from the text
2. Replace the contractions
3. Remove the entity names (i.e., organisation, per-
son, and location names)
4. Remove non-ASCII characters
5. Remove any hashtags, punctuations, and non-
alphanumeric characters
6. Convert all the text to lowercase
7. Remove stopwords
8. Perform lemmatization while taking into account
the verbs and adjectives part-of-speech (POS)
Finally, the cleaned data, excluding the ”Not
Rated” fan fiction, will be divided into training (64%),
validation (16%) and testing (20%) datasets for fur-
ther analysis and model building.
4.1 Evaluating Indicator
Model evaluation is an important part of the content
rating classification task. This paper used accuracy
and F1 score as part of the content rating classifica-
tion evaluation process. Accuracy refers to the per-
centage of correct classification that a fully trained
model achieved, whereas the F1 score is the harmonic
mean of precision and recall. Since the class imbal-
ance issue has been addressed as outlined in section
3.2, there will be not much discrepancy in the ac-
curacy and F1 score. Furthermore, to ensure a fair
comparison between models whilst mitigating over-
fitting issues, the training process will be executed
three times, whereby the mean of the accuracy and
Macro-averaged F1 score will be recorded.
4.2 Accuracy Against Different Number
of Sentences per Instance
Figure 2 shows the experimentation conducted with
the TF-IDF + Logistic Regression (LR) model to
study the changes in accuracy on varying numbers of
sentences per instance. The experiment reveals that
the accuracy increases as the number of sentences per
instance increases. Although it has a steep increase
in accuracy from 5 to 25 sentences per instance, any
further increase in the number of sentences will not
lead to apparent accuracy increases. One assumption
that can be made is that not all fan fictions are lengthy
that consists of many sentences, as some fan fiction
are just short stories. Hence, picking more sentences
doesn’t mean that it could result in better predictive
accuracy. Not to mention, training an ML or AI model
with more sentences could take a longer time and re-
quires more computational resources. Therefore, af-
ter careful deliberation, 25 sentences per instance
would be an ideal number for further experimen-
Figure 2: Analysis of Number of Sentences against Accu-
4.3 Experiment with Different Word
Embedding Techniques
Table 1 shows the LR experimentation conducted
with different types of word embedding techniques
such as TF-IDF, GloVe, and Word2Vec to identify
how different types of word embedding techniques
affect the performance of the models. The research
primarily relied on unigrams for experimentation and
analysis. The result shows that TF-IDF outperforms
GloVe and Word2Vec embeddings, even though both
ICPRAM 2024 - 13th International Conference on Pattern Recognition Applications and Methods
GloVe and Word2Vec are part of the more recent de-
velopments in NLP.
One assumption that could be made is that
the complex semantic relationships that GloVe or
Word2Vec captured or learned are ineffective in the
fan fiction task. Instead, a simpler representation such
as TF-IDF is sufficient for the given task, and hence
it outperforms much more complex word embedding
techniques. Thus, TF-IDF will be employed in this
Table 1: Performance of Various Word Embedding Tech-
Word Embedding Mean Mean
Model Techniques Accuracy F1 Score
TF-IDF 41.54 % 41.69 %
GloVe 38.75 % 38.42 %
Word2Vec 28.63 % 26.82 %
4.4 Multiclass Classification
Table 2 shows the multiclass classification perfor-
mance of different models with and without addi-
tional features (Kudos, Bookmarks and Hits). LR,
XGBoost, BiLSTM and transformer-based models
such as DistilBERT and TinyBERT slightly improved
when it was trained with the additional features com-
pared to the models trained without additional fea-
tures. Nonetheless, some models like RF and Light-
GBM show no discernable improvements in classi-
fication performance, when additional features are
added. It is suspected that these additional features,
when included in the fan fiction text, might confuse
these models during the training process. Among all
the models trained with additional features, Distil-
BERT clearly outperforms all other models with an
accuracy and F1 score of 44.18% and 44.91%, re-
spectively. However, suppose the model’s complex-
ity, computation resources required, and training time
are taken into account, a simple model such as LR
model, which requires lesser computational power, is
generally a better pick since the accuracy difference is
only around 2% compared to DistilBERT that is com-
plex in nature. Table 3 shows the computation time
for all the models. Thus, further experimentation will
be conducted with the binary classification approach
before making a conclusive decision.
4.5 Binary Classification
Due to the poor multiclass classification performance,
binary classification approach was adopted and eval-
uated accordingly. In this sense, the binary approach
will be to classify fan fiction into either the “General
Audiences” classes or the “Explicit” classes. More-
over, to avoid having to drop the “Teens And Up Au-
diences” classes and “Mature” classes and having to
lose half of the training data, these labels will be con-
verted to the respective labels shown as follows:
Convert all “Teens And Up Audiences” labels to
“General Audiences” labels
Convert all “Mature” labels to “Explicit” labels
Table 4 shows the performance results of the bi-
nary classification. Surprisingly, transformer-based
models such as DistilBERT and TinyBERT demon-
strated a noteworthy boost in classification perfor-
mance, showing an approximate increase of 3% when
additional features are considered. For instance, Dis-
tilBERT emerged as one of the best-performing mod-
els achieving an accuracy of 69.74% and an F1 score
of 69.72%, nearly crossing the 70% threshold.
However, given the complex architecture, sub-
stantial computation time (proven in table 3), and
hardware prerequisites of the transformer-based mod-
els, it might not always be optimal to employ the
transformer-based model. Instead, a much simpler al-
ternative like the LR proves to be effective, delivering
respectable performance. For instance, LR emerges
as one of the top-performing models among the sta-
tistical and ensemble models, attaining an accuracy
of 66.50% and an F1 score of 66.06%. Notably, this
achievement is merely 3% lower than that of Distil-
4.6 Summary and next Step
In summary, 25 sentences per instance is an ideal
number to be fed into the ML and AI models during
the training process, whereby employing more sen-
tences per instance will not lead to an apparent in-
crease in accuracy and might lengthen training time.
After performing various experimentations, it is
evident that binary classification methods generally
exhibit at least a 20% accuracy increment compared
to multiclass classification methods, whereby this dif-
ference arises due to the inherently simpler nature of
distinguishing two classes, as opposed to the fairly
more complicated task of classifying four classes.
In addition, DistilBERT, a state-of-the-art method
clearly outperforms all models with the highest ac-
curacy and F1 score. However, considering the lim-
itation of employing the state-of-the-art methods ex-
plained previously, adopting LR model might be a
more feasible option without having to worry about
substantial computational time or hardware prerequi-
sites. Hence, the LR model, which is considered a
Content Rating Classification in Fan Fiction Using Active Learning and Explainable Artificial Intelligence
Table 2: Performance of Different ML and AI Models - Multiclass Classification.
Model Word Embedding Without AF Without AF With AF With AF
Techniques Accuracy F1 Score Accuracy F1 Score
Logistic Regression TF-IDF 42.01% 41.86% 42.11% 41.89%
Random Forest TF-IDF 40.04% 40.15% 39.72% 39.76%
XGBoost TF-IDF 39.25% 39.44% 39.75% 39.95%
LightGBM TF-IDF 41.25% 41.55% 40.75% 41.13%
BiLSTM Tensorflow Embedding 37.79% 37.77% 38.56% 38.46%
DistilBERT DistilBERT 42.46% 42.98% 44.18% 44.91%
TinyBERT 41.28% 41.81% 43.14% 43.93%
Note: AF = additional features
Table 3: Computation Time of Different ML and AI Mod-
Model Computation Time (s)
Logistic Regression 0.1147
Random Forest 9.5757
XGBoost 53.9561
LightGBM 58.2580
BiLSTM 157.0404
DistilBERT 1922.4387
TinyBERT 420.6284
relatively simple and computationally efficient model,
will be employed to perform further experimentation.
5.1 LIME with Multiclass Classification
According to the experimentation, all the prediction
probabilities for most of the fan fiction content are
nearly identical except for the explicit content, sug-
gesting that the LR model is very uncertain about
which class to choose. To be precise, the LR model
lacks clear confidence in distinguishing between the
four content rating classes, probably due to factors
like inherent similarities between the classes or poor
quality of labelled data.
The LIME local explainer helps improve the LR
model’s interpretability by uncovering important fea-
tures that highly contribute to the model’s decision,
as presented in those highlighted words. Besides
analysing the explanation for the correct prediction,
the LIME explainer can also shed light by providing
explanations for wrong predictions made by the LR
model. Figure 3 shows the LIME explanation given
the scenario when the LR model made the wrong pre-
(a) Predicted Teens Class but Actual is General Audience
(b) Predicted General Audience Class but Actual is Mature
Figure 3: Comparison of the LIME Explanation Output in
Multiclass Classification (Wrong Prediction).
Figure 3a reveals that the LR model predicted the
fan fiction as a teen’s content rating, but the actual
is a general audience content rating. However, upon
analysing the text, it is evident that the word “kill” is
present, suggesting that this fan fiction might be more
appropriate for teens or mature audiences. In con-
trast, figure 3b reveals that the LR model predicted
the fan fiction suitable for the general audience, but
the actual is a mature content rating. However, the
prediction probabilities are almost similar across the
general audience, teens, and mature content rating,
with the general audience being 1% higher than the
others. Besides, the text contains many “death” and
”war” words, suggesting it is much more suitable for
a mature audience. After careful deliberation and de-
duction, it is clear that there are some noisy fan fic-
tion labels, as evident in figure 3a, causing the poor
model’s predictive performance whilst confusing the
LR model during the training process. The follow-
ing section will examine how the LIME explanation
behaves in the context of the binary classification.
ICPRAM 2024 - 13th International Conference on Pattern Recognition Applications and Methods
Table 4: Performance of Different ML and AI Models - Binary Classification.
Model Word Embedding Without AF Without AF With AF With AF
Techniques Accuracy F1 Score Accuracy F1 Score
Logistic Regression TF-IDF 66.46% 65.93% 66.50% 66.06%
Random Forest TF-IDF 64.64% 64.54% 65.00% 64.90%
XGBoost TF-IDF 65.29% 63.99% 65.00% 63.55%
LightGBM TF-IDF 66.08% 65.28% 65.42% 64.53%
BiLSTM Tensorflow Embedding 64.10% 63.94% 63.68% 63.62%
DistilBERT DistilBERT 67.32% 67.31% 69.74% 69.72%
TinyBERT 65.35% 65.34% 68.29% 68.29%
Note: AF = additional features
5.2 LIME with Binary Classification
Similar experimentation was also being conducted in
the context of binary classification, where XAI shows
promising explainability outputs. However, some dis-
crepancies still persist as shown in figure 4. For in-
stance, the LR model predicted the fan fiction text as
a general audience content rating, but the actual label
is explicit. Nonetheless, the text itself does not seem
to contain any explicit elements, which is evidence of
poor quality labels presented in the fan fiction dataset.
Figure 4: Comparison of the LIME Explanation Output in
Binary Classification (Wrong Prediction).
5.3 Critical Evaluation of XAI
In summary, the XAI technique, specifically LIME,
helps provide insight into how the LR model arrives
at a specific decision. Besides improving the robust-
ness of the LR model, employing LIME helps iden-
tify weak labels and facilitates transparency in the LR
Upon analysing the LIME results, it is evident that
there are lots of inconsistencies among the labels of
the fan fiction datasets, resulting in poor predictive
accuracy. In most cases, the model is very uncertain
about which classes to choose, especially for multi-
class classification, whereby even humans face dif-
ficulty categorising the content rating for certain fan
fiction. The label inconsistencies are believed to stem
from the stochastic nature of data collection when 25
sentences are gathered for each fan fiction. For in-
stance, explicit labels do not contain explicit texts
within the 25 sentences collected. Thus, future re-
search should probably take note of such issues and
potentially revise the data collection process before
model building.
6.1 Pool-Based Active Learning
Active learning (AL) is an learning algorithm that
interacts with a human annotator (i.e., oracle) using
a querying strategy to select and annotate the most
informative instances from the unlabeled fan fiction
dataset. The primary goal of AL is to potentially el-
evate model performance whilst helping the model to
better generalise on unseen data. In addition, AL is an
emerging approach that has been adopted in various
text classification scenarios (Ul Haque et al., 2021;
Zang, 2021; Al-Tamimi et al., 2021). As the perfor-
mance of the fan fiction content rating classification is
still unsatisfactory, the AL approach, specifically the
pool-based AL framework, will be implemented in
this study while evaluating its effectiveness towards
the performance of the content rating classification
The pool of unlabelled fan fiction datasets (e.g.,
“Not Rated” content rating) will be gathered, whereby
uncertainties for each unlabelled data point are com-
puted. The strategy chosen to estimate the uncertainty
is entropy, and the mathematical equation for entropy
is given by:
ˆx = argmax
P( ˆy
|x)logP( ˆy
|x) (1)
where P( ˆy
|x) is the conditional probability of the ith
class y for the given unlabelled instance x whereas C
refers to the number of classes.
Content Rating Classification in Fan Fiction Using Active Learning and Explainable Artificial Intelligence
Furthermore, for simplicity, the calculated entropy
will be normalised to values between 0 and 1, such
that the entropy value will be divided by the maxi-
mum uncertainty. In this sense, 0 signifies that there
is no uncertainty, and 1 signifies that the model is very
uncertain and will be selected for annotation. The se-
lected data points will be passed over to the human an-
notator, and a new label will be given based on the fan
fiction text. After the labelling process, the newly la-
belled data points will be added to the training set and
retrain the LR model, in which the performance of the
LR model will be measured using accuracy and F1
score. Figure 5 illustrates the workflow of the pool-
based AL approach implemented in this study:
Estimate uncertainty
Machine Learning
Select queries
Unlabeled Pool of Fan
Fiction Data ("Not Rated")
Add the annotated data
to the training pool
Oracle (e.g. Human Annotator)
Train the model
Labeled Fan Fiction
Training Data
Figure 5: Pool-based Active Learning Framework.
6.2 Active Learning with Multiclass
Figure 6 shows the performance results of AL in
the context of multiclass classification comparing LR
trained with only fan fiction text corpus and LR
trained with additional features in addition to fan fic-
tion text. The results reveal that adopting AL did not
help improve the LR model’s performance in classi-
fying the fan fiction content rating, whereby the graph
fluctuates around 41% and 42% accuracy. More-
over, it is also suspected that performing AL led to
further confusion in the LR model, resulting in de-
creased accuracy as the number of newly annotated
fan fiction increases. According to figure 6 , LR
trained with plain text corpus achieves the highest ac-
curacy of 41.80% with 250 newly annotated fan fic-
tion, whereas LR trained with additional features in
addition to fan fiction text achieves the highest accu-
racy of 42.24% with only 50 newly annotated fan fic-
tion. Even though the accuracy discrepancy is only
marginal, the model with additional features still per-
forms better than the model trained with only plain
text corpus. The next section will proceed with the
AL experimentation using the binary classification
approach before making a conclusive decision.
Figure 6: Active Learning in the context of Multiclass Clas-
sification (With and Without Additional Features).
6.3 Active Learning with Binary
Figure 7 shows the performance results of AL in the
context of binary classification comparing LR trained
with only fan fiction text corpus against LR trained
with additional features in addition to fan fiction text.
Similar to the previous experimentation, the LR did
not show obvious performance improvement even if
the AL approach is adopted. Instead, the line graph
shows a downward trend indicating that the model’s
accuracy worsens as the number of newly annotated
fan fiction increases for both scenarios. Nonethe-
less, according to figure 7, LR trained with plain text
corpus achieves the highest accuracy of 66.28% with
200 newly annotated fan fiction, whereas LR trained
with additional features in addition to fan fiction text
achieves the highest accuracy of 66.58% with only 50
newly annotated fan fiction. The following section
will critically evaluate the AL approach in content
rating classification while considering both multiclass
and binary classification performances.
Figure 7: Active Learning in the context of Binary Classifi-
cation (With and Without Additional Features).
6.4 Critical Evaluation of Active
The pool-based AL approach has been applied and
experimented on both multiclass and binary classifi-
cation problems. However, upon meticulous evalu-
ation of the outcomes, it was observed that the AL
approach, in general, did not yield notable improve-
ments in the predictive performance of the LR model
for enhancing the predictive capabilities of the fan fic-
tion content rating classification problem.
Several assumptions could be made about why AL
ICPRAM 2024 - 13th International Conference on Pattern Recognition Applications and Methods
did not help improve the classification performance of
the LR model. These include the existence of noisy
labels in the initial pool of labelled fan fiction data,
the selection of the uncertainty measure for the AL
strategy, and the quality of the new annotations.
Despite the results of the content rating classification
carried out in this research, several improvements can
be made to this project for future enhancement. For
instance, future works could consider including the
summary part of the fan fiction apart from the
main stories, whereby this approach may help in bet-
ter generalising the model.
In addition, future studies should also consider
adopting different AL strategies, which could in-
volve experimenting with uncertainty measures
other than entropy. For example, least confidence,
margin sampling, ratio sampling, or other uncertainty
measurement techniques. Moreover, while employ-
ing a professional annotator might be costly, it en-
sures consistent annotations throughout the fan fiction
dataset, maintaining controlled quality for the labels.
Last but not least, ML and AI models with global
explanations could also be explored, which provide
a high-level overview of how these models make cer-
tain decisions. An example will be employing the
SHAP technique, whereby the impact of the features
on the model output was computed with the Shapley
value (Lundberg and Lee, 2017). Other XAI tech-
niques, such as Dalex or Shapash, that support local
and global explanations could also be taken into con-
sideration, which might bring additional value to the
content rating classification task.
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