Assessing Psychomotor Abilities in Handcyclists using Computerized
Tests: An Initial Study
Wojciech Pasko
, Justyna Dydek
, Janusz Zielinski
, Tomasz Hulewicz
, Maciej
Bartosz Dziadek
and Krzysztof Przednowek
Institute of Physical Culture Sciences, Medical College of Rzesz
ow University, Rzesz
ow, Poland
Psychomotor Abilities, Motor Time, Reaction Time, Disabled Athletes, Handcyclist.
Psychomotor abilities play an important role in any sport, they affect the speed of decisions made in a given
situation, and thus can have a direct impact on the final outcome of sports competition. The study included
ten disabled handcyclists who represented Poland internationally in the H2, H3, H4 and H5 categories. The
control group consisted of non-disabled 5th year physical education students at the University of Rzeszow.
The research methods were psychomotor tests using computer techniques in the Test2Drive system. For the
evaluation, the tests performed were: simple reaction time (SIRT), complex reaction time (CHORT), hand-eye
coordination (HECOR) and spatial orientation (SPANT). Reaction time (RT), motor time (MT) and correct
responses (c.r.) were analyzed. The group of disabled cyclists is characterized by better motor time in each
test while no statistical significance was shown. A better reaction time in each psychomotor test was achieved
by the control group and the differences are statistically significant. Better motor time may suggest that cycling
training has a positive effect on psychomotor abilities.
In recent years, there has been an increased interest
in the study of cognitive abilities in sport (Moran,
2009). It is assumed that cognitive abilities play an
important role in every sporting discipline (Malacko,
2010). Scharfen and Memmert (Scharfen and Mem-
mert, 2019) showed that perceptual-cognitive abilities
allow one to perceive one’s surroundings and use this
perception to make the optimal decision for given ac-
tions. These authors also observed that cognitive abil-
ities cannot be clearly separated from perceptual abil-
ities, as they are a crucial part of perception. Shing et
al. (Singh and Singh, 2016) showed that psychomo-
tor abilities significantly influence the abilities of se-
lected sport skills in volleyball. On the other hand,
Yuksel and Tunc (Y
uksel and Tunc¸, 2018) observed
that in a group of badminton players of the national
e 0000-0001-7374-8472
teams competing during the Rumia tournament, reac-
tion time, in addition to technical and tactical training,
had a very strong influence on victory. The aforemen-
tioned reaction time, which is defined as the time from
stimulus onset to response onset (Ciucurel, 2012) is
considered the main determinant for assessing psy-
chomotor performance (Ando et al., 2005). However,
it is conditioned by a number of factors such as: gen-
der, age, fatigue, nutrition, genetic conditions, indi-
vidual predispositions or type of stimulus (Szafraniec
et al., 2012).
Knowledge regarding the level of psychomotor
abilities among disabled athletes is still fragmented
and incomplete (Di Russo et al., 2010). Physical dis-
ability which is defined as a morphological, perma-
nent or functional impairment of the musculoskele-
tal system, can to varying degrees, make it diffi-
cult or completely impossible to undertake an activity
(Tasiemski et al., 2020), so the type of sport practised
must be adapted to the type of disability. This has
resulted in an elaborate classification system that de-
fines the type and extent of musculoskeletal dysfunc-
tion (Sobiecka, 2011), which translates into a diver-
sity of testing opportunities among disabled athletes
(DePauw and Gavron, 2005).
Handcycling is a form of mobility for people with
Pasko, W., Dydek, J., Zielinski, J., Hulewicz, T.,
z, M., Dziadek, B. and Przednowek, K.
Assessing Psychomotor Abilities in Handcyclists using Computerized Tests: An Initial Study.
DOI: 10.5220/0011553200003321
In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Sport Sciences Research and Technology Support (icSPORTS 2022), pages 137-142
ISBN: 978-989-758-610-1; ISSN: 2184-3201
2022 by SCITEPRESS – Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
lower limb impairments, a competitive sport and a
sporting discipline in paracycling and paratriathlon
respectively (Stephenson et al., 2021). The discipline
can be considered as a combination of perceptual-
motor and cognitive tasks (Wierda and Brookhuis,
1991). The progression of elite handcycling and also
the competitiveness of the sport, is associated with
the need to expand our knowledge of the internal
and external factors influencing athletic performance
(Stephenson et al., 2021). Handcycling has often
been researched in relation to rehabilitation (Kraai-
jenbrink et al., 2021), but information on the level of
psychomotor abilities in the sport training aspect is
scarce. Scientific studies have only assessed the re-
lationship between selected factors and stress coping
strategies in handcyclists (Turo
nska et al.,
2020). Other work has mainly focused on different
sporting disciplines (Di Russo et al., 2010), (Choj-
nacki et al., 2006), (Faber et al., 2019)
Awareness of the leading psychomotor abilities in
sport is fundamental in determining appropriate train-
ing measures. Developing the components of psy-
chomotor abilities significantly helps both young and
skilled athletes in the process of learning to manage
their own motor abilities perfectly and to improve the
performance of their technical skills (Arifjanovich,
2020), therefore the aim of this study is to evaluate
selected psychomotor abilities of handcyclists, mea-
sured by the Test2Drive computerized test.
2.1 Materials
The subjects of the study was a group of ten disabled
males handcyclists representing Poland internation-
ally, who stratify in the H2, H3, H4 and H5 cate-
gories. The athletes were selected from among ath-
letes who practice handcycling in Poland and train at
least three times a week. The training seniority of the
study group was a minimum of three years. The con-
trol group consisted of able-bodied male students who
are in their 5th year of graduate studies in physical ed-
ucation at the University of Rzeszow.
2.2 Methods
The research methods were psychomotor tests per-
formed using computer techniques in the Test2Drive
system (Tarnowski, 2016). The paper by Tarnowski
et al. describes the validity of the tests. The following
four tests were used:
Test SIRT– assesses the speed of the response and
its stability. The stimulus signaling field changed
its color at appropriate points in time. Response
to the stimuli consisted of moving the finger from
the START field to the reaction time field marked
in blue.
Test CHORT assesses the speed and appropri-
ateness of the complex response. The top sig-
naling row displayed horizontal patterns (stimuli)
and vertical stimuli, which require a response, and
an oblique pattern (neutral stimuli), which does
not require a response. Response to the stimuli
consisted of moving the finger from the START
field to one of the two response fields (vertical
or horizontal stimulus field). During the neutral
stimulus, the finger remained in the START field.
Test HECOR– Assesses eye-hand coordination.
The test required careful observation of the board
and a quick reaction to the red signal box dis-
played. The test participant had to move their fin-
ger from the START box to the blue reaction box
and return with the finger again to the START box.
Test SPANT assesses eye-hand coordination us-
ing complex spatial information. At the top left
and right of the test board were signal boxes, two
of which (on a row and one on a column) turned
red simultaneously. In response to a stimulus, the
test participant was to point their finger to the box
at the intersection of the illuminated row and col-
umn, and then put their finger down on the START
Each test was performed in a standing position to
facilitate access to the screen area, which was in a
horizontal position during the tests. At the beginning,
each test participant received detailed instructions on
how to perform each test. After the instructions, the
test subjects went through a practice stage where they
could learn how to perceive stimuli and respond. The
subjects then moved on to the actual testing stage,
where they had to respond as quickly as possible to
the stimuli in all tests. The test stand and the appear-
ance of the tests are shown in Figure 1.
2.3 Statistical Methods
The study used basic statistical measures such as
number, arithmetic mean, standard deviation and co-
efficient of variability. The statistical significance of
differences between groups was determined using the
Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test. The effect size was
calculated using the formula (Tomczak and Tomczak,
icSPORTS 2022 - 10th International Conference on Sport Sciences Research and Technology Support
Figure 1: Reaction panel of the Test2Drive system; a) SIRT–Simple Reaction Time Test, b) CHORT–Choice Reaction Time
Test, c) HECOR–Hand-Eye Coordination Test, d) SPANT–Spatial Anticipation Test.
r =
where: Z–standardized value for the U-value, r
correlation coefficient where r assumes the value
ranging from 1.00 to 1.00, N–the total number of
observations on which Z is based. Calculations and
analyses were performed using the GNU R environ-
ment and at the level of significance α = 0,05 (R Core
Team, 2020).
Table 1 shows the mean values of the computational
psychomotor tests for the group of disabled athletes
and the control group. In the SIRT test, the control
group obtained a shorter reaction time (329.8 ±30.5
ms), while the group of disabled athletes obtained
a shorter motor time (214.4 ±48.8 ms). Figure 2
shows a box plot for the SIRT RT test, which shows
the results obtained for the disabled athlete group
and the control group, where statistical significance
was observed for differences (p=0.0041). Also in the
CHECOR test, the control group had a shorter reac-
tion time (685.5 ms) and the disabled athletes group
achieved a better result in motor time (279.1 ±67.3
ms). The results of the CHORT RT test, where statis-
tical significance was also observed (p=0.0044), are
shown in figure 3. On the other hand, more correct
responses in the CHORT test were obtained by the
control group (96.1 ±5.2 %). A better reaction time
in the HECOR test was obtained by the control group
(390.3±36.2 ms), while in the case of motoric time in
the HECOR test, the better result was obtained by the
disabled athletes group (284.3 ±53.9 ms). The sta-
tistical significance of the HECOR RT test is shown
in figure 4, which was p=0.013. In the final SPANT
test, the shorter reaction time was also obtained by
the control group (643.3 ±116 ms) and the disabled
athletes group had a shorter motor time (321.3 ±95.4
ms). A higher rate of correct responses in the SPANT
test was obtained by the control group. The last sta-
tistically significant difference between the results ob-
tained is shown in figure 5, which relates to reaction
time for the SPANT test, and is p=0.043.
This paper presents the results of psychomotor abili-
ties of handcyclists. The study was conducted using
computer tests, and the results were compared with
the control group.
The analysis shows that the handcyclists were
characterized by worse reaction times in each test than
the control group. However, it is worth noting that
the control group is non-training able-bodied people.
Thus, it seems that lower limb disabilities are char-
acterized by slower reaction times than non-disabled
Assessing Psychomotor Abilities in Handcyclists using Computerized Tests: An Initial Study
Table 1: Numeral characteristics of psychomotor abilities of disabled cyclists vs control group.
Disabled (N = 10) Control (N = 12) d
p r
¯x sd V ¯x sd V (D-C)
Simple Reaction Time (SIRT)
RT [ms] 381,8 39,1 10,2 329,8 30,5 9,2 52,0 0,0041* 0,61
MT [ms] 214,4 46,8 21,8 291,9 131,0 44,9 -77,5 0,0518 -0,41
Choice Reaction Time (CHORT) Test
RT [ms] 799,6 66,6 8,3 685,5 83,2 12,1 114,1 0,0044* 0,58
MT [ms] 279,1 67,3 24,1 297,8 61,9 20,8 -18,7 0,3390 -0,20
c.r. [%] 88,9 10,8 12,1 96,3 5,2 5,4 -7,3 0,0750 -0,38
Hand-Eye Coordination Test (HECOR)
RT [ms] 449,3 48,4 10,8 390,3 36,2 9,3 59,1 0,0134* 0,53
MT [ms] 284,3 53,9 19,0 335,1 63,2 18,8 -50,8 0,0865 -0,37
Spatial Anticipation Test (SPANT)
RT [ms] 706,9 73,6 10,4 643,3 116,0 18,0 63,7 0,0433* 0,43
MT[ms] 321,3 95,4 29,7 331,7 56,7 17,1 -10,4 0,2766 -0,23
c.r. [%] 88,0 11,4 12,9 91,7 13,0 14,2 -3,7 0,2623 -0,24
D– disabled group, C– control group, c.r.–correct responses; x–mean value, sd–standard de-
viation, V –coefficient of variation, p–probability of testing, r–effect size for the the Mann-
Whitney-Wilcoxon test, *–statistical significance.
disabled control
SIRT_RT [ms]
Figure 2: Box plot for SIRT RT for disabled group and con-
trol group showing median and interquartile range.
people. Of course, this conclusion is based on a small
number of subjects and needs to be confirmed by
more extensive research.
The exceptions were the motor times in each test,
where the motor time is beter in disabled group, but
they did not show statistical significance. The bet-
ter motor times in coordination tests may suggest that
cycling training has a positive effect on hand-eye co-
ordination. Analysis of psychomotor abilities in sol-
disabled control
Figure 3: Box plot for CHORT RT for disabled group and
control group showing median and interquartile range.
diers and athletes has shown that sports training sig-
nificantly improves motor time (Pa
sko et al., 2022).
Similar conclusions were reached by Singh and
Amandeep (Singh, 2009), who observed improve-
ments in reaction speed after introducing 6-week ply-
ometric training. Comparisons between young soccer
players and non-trained individuals also suggest that
sports training has a positive effect on reaction speed
o et al., 2000). Similarly, in a study
on handball players, it was observed that those who
icSPORTS 2022 - 10th International Conference on Sport Sciences Research and Technology Support
disabled control
Figure 4: Box plot for HECOR RT for disabled group and
control group showing median and interquartile range.
disabled control
Figure 5: Box plot for SPANT RT for disabled group and
control groupshowing median and interquartile range.
trained had better motor time than those who did not
train (Przednowek et al., 2019).
The presented research is a pilot study and has
a number of limitations. One of the main ones is
the small number of people surveyed. It also seems
that handcyclists should also be compared with non-
training disabled people. Formulating detailed con-
clusions requires expanding the study to include a
larger experimental group, so future work will focus
on considering a more handcyclists.
Ando, S., Kimura, T., Hamada, T., Kokubu, M., Moritani,
T., and Oda, S. (2005). Increase in reaction time for
the peripheral visual field during exercise above the
ventilatory threshold. European journal of applied
physiology, 94(4):461–467.
Arifjanovich, Y. S. (2020). Psychological training of ath-
letes with locomotor system damage. JournalNX,
Chojnacki, K., Blecharz, J., Tyka, A., and Tch
D. (2006). Ocena poziomu zdolno
sci motorycznych i
psychicznych zawodnik
ow kadry niepełno-sprawnych
w narciarstwie zjazdowym. Polish Journal of Sports
Medicine/Medycyna Sportowa, 22(5).
Ciucurel, M. M. (2012). The relation between anxiety, reac-
tion time and performance before and after sport com-
petitions. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,
DePauw, K. P. and Gavron, S. J. (2005). Disability sport.
Human Kinetics.
Di Russo, F., Bultrini, A., Brunelli, S., Delussu, A. S., Poli-
dori, L., Taddei, F., Traballesi, M., and Spinelli, D.
(2010). Benefits of sports participation for executive
function in disabled athletes. Journal of neurotrauma,
Faber, I. R., Pion, J., Willemse, B., Schipper, W., and
Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M. (2019). Is the level of
eye-hand coordination and executive functioning re-
lated to performance in para table tennis players?–
an explorative study. International Journal of Racket
Sports Science, 1(1):45–60.
Kraaijenbrink, C., Vegter, R., de Groot, S., Arnet, U., Va-
lent, L., Verellen, J., van Breukelen, K., Hettinga, F.,
Perret, C., Abel, T., et al. (2021). Biophysical aspects
of handcycling performance in rehabilitation, daily
life and recreational sports; a narrative review. Dis-
ability and Rehabilitation, 43(24):3461–3475.
Malacko, J. (2010). The canonical relations between the
systems of variables of basic motor and cognitive
abilities of top footballers/kanonicne povezave med
sistemi spremenljivk osnovnih motoricnih in kogni-
tivnih sposobnosti vrhunskih nogometasev. Kinesiolo-
gia Slovenica, 16(1/2):61.
o, R., Bueno, I., Candel, J., and Pons, A. M.
(2000). Eye-hand and eye-foot visual reaction times
of young soccer players. Optometry (St. Louis, Mo.),
Moran, A. (2009). Cognitive psychology in sport: Progress
and prospects. Psychology of Sport and Exercise,
sko, W., Guła, P., Bro
zyna, M., Dziadek, B., Zadarko,
z, M., Polak, K., and Przednowek, K. (2022).
Psychomotor abilities of candidates for polish special
forces. Scientific Reports, 12(1):1–8.
Assessing Psychomotor Abilities in Handcyclists using Computerized Tests: An Initial Study
Przednowek, K.,
z, M., Lenik, J., Dziadek, B.,
Cieszkowski, S., Lenik, P., Kope
c, D., Wardak, K.,
and Przednowek, K. H. (2019). Psychomotor abil-
ities of professional handball players. International
journal of environmental research and public health,
R Core Team (2020). R: A language and environment for
statistical computing [internet]. Technical report, R
Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Aus-
Scharfen, H.-E. and Memmert, D. (2019). Measurement
of cognitive functions in experts and elite athletes: A
meta-analytic review. Applied Cognitive Psychology,
Singh, A. (2009). Effect of plyometric training on reac-
tion time of male footballers. J. Strength Cond. Res,
Singh, B. and Singh, J. (2016). Relationship of psychomo-
tor abilities in relation to selected sports skill in vol-
leyball. Science Journal of Education, 4(2):27–31.
Sobiecka, J. (2011). Sport os
ob niepełnosprawnych,[w:]
dostosowana aktywno
c ruchowa. Kultura fizyczna.
Stephenson, B. T., Stone, B., Mason, B. S., and Goosey-
Tolfrey, V. L. (2021). Physiology of handcycling: A
current sports perspective. Scandinavian journal of
medicine & science in sports, 31(1):4–20.
Szafraniec, R., Samołyk, A., Wiazek, W., and Szczuka,
E. (2012). Poprawno
c i czas reakcji po wysiłku
interwałowym o maksymalnej intensywno
sci. Pol-
ish Journal of Sports Medicine/Medycyna Sportowa,
Tarnowski, A. (2016). Test2drive: Podrecznik uzytkown-
ika. ALTA: Katowice, Poland.
Tasiemski, T., Koper, M., and Sobiecka, J. (2020).
Sport jako podstawa rehabilitacji medycznej u os
niepełnosprawnych fizycznie wprowadzenie. Spos
Zycie, pages 184–196.
Tomczak, M. and Tomczak, E. (2014). The need to report
effect size estimates revisited. an overview of some
recommended measures of effect size. Trends in Sport
Sciences, 21(1).
nska, A., Pawlukowska, W., Szyli
nska, A.,
Tomska, N., Mikołajczyk-Kociecka, A., Ptak, M.,
Dutkiewicz, G., and Rotter, I. (2020). Assess-
ment of the relationship between selected factors and
stress-coping strategies in handcyclists—a prelimi-
nary study. Medicina, 56(5):211.
Wierda, M. and Brookhuis, K. A. (1991). Analysis of cy-
cling skill: a cognitive approach. Applied Cognitive
Psychology, 5(2):113–122.
uksel, M. F. and Tunc¸, G. T. (2018). Examining the re-
action times of international level badminton players
under 15. Sports, 6(1):20.
icSPORTS 2022 - 10th International Conference on Sport Sciences Research and Technology Support