Quality Services for Elementary Schools in Medan City
Zoraya Alfathin Rangkuti and Mohammad Ridwan Rangkuti
Public Administration, FISIP Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia
Keywords: Information, Illegal Charges, Education.
Abstract: Information is a discourse that serves to become knowledge for those who receive it. This study aims to
analyze how the process of illegal levies that occur in elementary and middle schools from the information
submitted. As well as analyzing what are the causes of illegal levies in elementary and middle schools in
Medan City. As there are reports from the KPK, ORI (Ombudsman of the Republic of Indonesia), and the
Mass Media which state that there are still illegal levies in the education sector in Medan City. The method
used in this research is a descriptive qualitative method with a case study approach to determine the
specifications of the information. Based on the results of this study, illegal levies in primary and secondary
schools still occur in all processes of the education system, such as new student admissions (input), learning
period (process), and completion of study period (output). Illegal levies in public services in primary and
secondary schools are caused by economic factors because there is an unbalance between receipts and
expenditures by bureaucrats and illegal levies are also caused by cultural factors that have been used since the
days of the Kingdom. Illegal levies also occur due to inconsistent or changing regulatory factors.
People tend to have high trust in the government
because the government is considered capable of
meeting the needs of services (Dwiyanto, 2011).
Furthermore, Dwiyanto explained, to meet the need
for good service to the community, the government
must have a credible commitment, namely what is in
the interests of the citizens as well as the interests of
government bureaucratic officials, or at least the
actions of the government and its officials are always
based on the desire to realize the common good with
Public. In Indonesia, public service matters are
stipulated through Law Number 25 of 2009
concerning Public Services. In Article 1 it is stated
that, public services are activities or series of
activities in the context of fulfilling service needs in
accordance with statutory regulations for every
citizen and resident of goods, services, and/or
administrative services provided by public service
providers. Thus, it can be said that public service is
an activity to serve the needs of the community.
In addition to Law No. 25 of 2009, the definition
of public service can also be seen in the Decree of the
Minister for Empowerment of State Apparatus No.
63/KEP/M.PAN/7/2003. The Minister of PAN in
2003 defined public services as all service activities
carried out by public service providers as an effort to
fulfill the needs of service recipients and the
implementation of statutory provisions. Thus, the
purpose of public service is to meet the satisfaction of
the community. To meet the satisfaction of the
community, the need for excellent service quality or
good service according to applicable service
standards or owned by the agency in providing
services. Good service is seen if there is transparency,
accountability, conditional, participatory, equal
rights, and a balance of rights and obligations
(Ridwan et al., 2009). To develop good public
services (good governance), various aspects are
needed that must be addressed in the public
bureaucracy, so that excellent public services can be
realized, especially changes in mindset, which have
been the cause of poor public services (Safroni,
Based on the results of the Governance and
Decentralization Survey (GDS) research in 2002, it
was stated that there were 150 Cities/Regencies in
Indonesia (Dwiyanto, 2002). There are three
important problems that often occur in the field in the
implementation of public services that support this
conclusion. First, the magnitude of service
discrimination. Service delivery is still heavily
influenced by the relationship between similar
Rangkuti, Z. and Rangkuti, M.
Quality Services for Elementary Schools in Medan City.
DOI: 10.5220/0011541000003460
In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Social and Political Development (ICOSOP 2022) - Human Secur ity and Agile Government, pages 110-116
ISBN: 978-989-758-618-7; ISSN: 2975-8300
2023 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. Under CC license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
political, ethnic and religious affiliations. Second,
there is no certainty about the cost and time of service.
This uncertainty is often the cause of the emergence
of Corruption Collusion Nepotism (KswKN),
because service users tend to choose to bribe at high
costs to service providers to get quality services. And
third, the low level of community satisfaction with
public services.
This is a logical consequence of the existence of
service discrimination and the uncertainty of the cost
and time of service. Weak public services result in
low quality of public services. As revealed by the
Ombudsman of the Republic of Indonesia (ORI) who
said that the level of compliance of the Indonesian
government is very low in providing public services,
which is only around 18 to 20 percent. This can be
seen from the increase in the number of reports,
which on average is only 1500 complaints per year,
now increasing to 5000 reports per year or around an
increase of 350 percent in the last 3 years, namely
2011-2014 (ORI, 2016). In addition to ORI,
Indonesia Corruption Watch (ICW) also touched on
the issue of public services in Indonesia. According
to the 2016 ICW Report, the quality of public services
in Indonesia still has problems in several
fields/sectors. There are 5 top sectors with low quality
of public services and the most vulnerable to
corruption, namely; Regional finance (Rp.144.1
billion); Education sector (Rp. 142 billion);
Transportation sector (Rp.191.4 billion); Social
sector (Rp.12.1 billion); and Health sector (108.3
billion) (ICW, 2016). The sectors of low public
service quality in Indonesia are described below:
Picture 1.1
Low Service Quality Sectors in Indonesian
Source: Indonesia Corruption Watch, 2021
Transparency International (TI) Indonesia also
touched on the issue of public services, especially
those that are vulnerable to corruption. According to
TI Indonesia, the total number of corruption cases that
were investigated during 2010-2015 amounted to
3,042 cases with a total state loss of Rp. 33.2 trillion,
as well as the value of bribes of Rp. 999.6 billion.
These corruption cases are grouped into 3 (three)
public service sectors that are most vulnerable to
corruption, namely: the education sector (71 cases)
with a loss of Rp.185 billion; the transportation sector
(54 cases) with a loss of Rp.199 billion, and the sector
that most harmed the state was social society (50
cases) with a loss of Rp.639.8 billion (TI, 2021).
Similar to ORI and the KPK, the Head of the Task
Force (Kasatgas) for the Sweeping of Illegal Charges
(Saber Pungli) Komjen Dwi Priyatno also said that
the highest extortion practice was in the education
sector and the practice of extortion still occurred until
now in 2017 (Republika, 2017) . Given the high cases
of extortion practices in North Sumatra Province,
especially Medan City and the focus is on the
education sector, the researchers are interested in
studying more deeply the process of illegal levies on
elementary and middle schools in Medan City and the
causes of illegal levies on elementary and middle
schools. in Medan City.
This study uses a descriptive qualitative research
design with a case study approach. The use of
descriptive type as a procedure for solving problems
investigated by describing or describing the state of
the subject or object under study (a person,
institution, community, etc.). This type of qualitative
research has the aim of explaining a phenomenon
interpretively and is used to understand the
perspective of the actor (Sarosa , 2012:7-8)
Qualitative research uses inductive methods to draw
conclusions from research results so that it does not
require generalization.
Based on reports from a number of official
institutions that pay attention to public services,
various kinds of levies and donations still occurred
until 2017. Especially, donations or levies on public
services at elementary and secondary schools in
Medan City. The Ombudsman of the Republic of
Indonesia (ORI) Representative of North Sumatra, for
example. In the 2017 ORI Report, it is stated that
extortion still occurs in public services in the
education sector in Medan City. Extortion in
elementary school, for example. ORI Representative
Quality Services for Elementary Schools in Medan City
for North Sumatra stated that there was an allegation
that the Principal of the SD Negeri Jl. Sei Farmers,
doing illegal levies (extortion) to parents of students
amounting to Rp. 15,000/student for the construction
of school gates (ORI, 2021).
In the previous year, 2016 for example, ORI said
there were also a number of administrative mall
activities and extortion in a number of elementary and
junior high schools in Medan. For example, the mal
administration of illegal levies at SMP Negeri 7
Medan. Allegations of maladministration related to
education carried out by the Principal of SMP Negeri
19 Medan. There was a request for money from
students by the MI Negeri Medan, which is located in
the suburbs of Medan City (Tembung). There are
allegations of requests for money/illegal levies for the
purchase of brooms; money for retired teachers; and
the teacher's wife who died. In addition, the money
for the purchase of SBK (Art and Culture Skills) and
money for LKS (Student Work Sheets) were made by
the Principal of SMP Negeri 6 Medan. A number of
research informants who were willing to be
interviewed also confirmed the Report of the ORI
Representative for North Sumatra. That there are still
levies and donations to parents of students carried out
by several schools in Medan, both elementary and
junior high schools. This is as revealed from the
results of the interview:
"Yes, in general, I think there are still extortion in
Medan (performed by) elements. However, they are
also good at accepting such extortion. And not open.
In my opinion, togetherness is needed, including ORI.
If according to ORI there is still extortion, ORI should
have the courage to report it to the DPRD so that it
can act together. Don't just make an opinion. Because,
to eradicate this extortion, we must be able to act
together. There must be action and OTT. And make
traps. Not just talking. Do not just look, and do not
dare to act. Should there be extortion, we should trap
them together. So, don't just talk. If you look at the
city of Medan, it is recognized that there are still
individuals who carry out such extortion” (Member
of the Medan City DPRD, 18 October 2021).
Likewise several other informants. For example,
a journalist for a daily newspaper in Medan, as well
as parents of students. They also admit that extortion
is still happening in Medan City elementary and
secondary schools. Journalists stated that illegal
levies most often occur in Medan. Meanwhile,
parents of students who also still have children who
are attending elementary and middle schools in
Medan. As a parent, he always follows the
development of school education through mass
media. He said, "...if you look at the mass media...,
there are still extortion going on." (Parents of
students, October 19, 2021). Meanwhile, other
informants from the Medan City Government
bureaucracy also confirmed that there were still
illegal fees for elementary and middle schools in
Medan. He stated,
“...justifies the existence of extortion, but it cannot
be proven.” (Education Department employee,
October 24, 2021).
Illegal levies in schools will continue to take root
and spread if left unchecked. How not, the number of
students who register for school until now continues
to grow. This was done not only by unscrupulous
educators or teachers, but also by elements of the
school bureaucracy to practice extortion in collecting
rupiah coffers. The world of school education has
entered the practice of extortion which of course does
not reflect the behavior of educators. This occurs in
public schools in the city of Medan, such as
elementary and middle schools.
The policy in the education sector aims to achieve
at least the 12-year compulsory education program so
that students can attend high school or the equivalent,
delay the age for marriage, and improve the quality of
education to face competition. To see the process by
which illegal levies for primary and secondary
schools in Medan City occur, the Ministry of National
Education (2007) suggests that the education system
in schools is a complex process, involving various
interrelated components. If the educational effort is to
be carried out properly, then the various components
and their interrelationships need to be identified,
studied and developed so that the overall working
mechanism between the components, namely
educational activities, will be able to produce optimal
results. The current education system includes input
elements, namely the acceptance of new students, the
process is said to be during the learning period and
the output is the completion of the study period
3.1 New Student Admission (input)
In public services at primary and secondary schools
in Medan City, there are various forms of levies and
donations contained in the stages of the education
process. This was obtained when the researcher
studied information from a number of people who
were willing to become informants in this study. It is
known that illegal levies occur at all stages of the
education process system in schools, namely during
the process of accepting new students, during the
learning period, and completing the study period.
ICOSOP 2022 - International Conference on Social and Political Development 4
Extortion that occurs at the time of admission of new
students is at the time of entering the new school year.
At the time of the new school year, many
unscrupulous educators collect fees, such as when
students wish to enroll in favorite schools, they must
"pay" to be accepted into the school. The amount of
the payment has been determined by the school. As is
known, the admission of new students at SMP Negeri
1 Medan and other favorite junior high schools, they
set a price of around Rp. 7 million per student. The
conditions that must be met beforehand are not only
by providing money but also in the "zone" of the
school. As is known, the zone system has now been
implemented. And for favorite elementary schools,
schools set a price of around Rp. 3 million per student.
This has become an open secret that is no longer
hidden (Parents of students, 2021). In conducting
interviews with lecturers and education consultants.
He mentioned, several forms of illegal levies that
occur at all stages of the education process. Start
acceptance of new students, at the time of graduation.
And, in extra-curricular activities during school. This
is as revealed from the results of the interview:
“The most frequent extortion is at the time of
admission of new students in elementary and junior
high schools. Because, at that time the school usually
set some funding. For example, development
financing, financing related to school attributes.
Then, money dues for several student activities. Then,
in the second stage, at the time of graduation, students
are usually charged fees beyond what should have
been incurred. This usually happens to parents
because they are afraid that their child will not
graduate, so parents do anything related to payments”
(Lecturer and Education Consultant, October 17,
Regarding illegal fees in the process of accepting
new students, he then explained further:
“The process of receiving extortion is still going
on. We get many reports from the public, from up
loading on social media as well as information being
spread, there are still many extortion cases in Medan
for 2017. There are still a lot of admissions for
students who are entrusted with it. We see that there
is a term in Medan called “stealth” students. This
happens not only at the elementary, junior high, but
also at the high school level. Recently there was a big
case, for example in SMA N 9 it still happens often.”
(Lecturer and Education Consultant, 17 October
In another part of the interview, the Lecturer and
Education Consultant tried to make criteria for levies
that could be categorized as extortion in schools. This
can be expressed from the results of the interview:
“Receipts that can be considered extortion exist
when, for example, an increase is made without the
approval of the Education Council. Like,
development money. Then, there is more stealth
money. The biggest extortion was bribe money so that
his son could enter. Because, the current system
already uses the actual zoning system, the greater the
incidence of extortion. Because, parents are having a
bit of trouble sending their children to school outside
of their area. In addition, the quota from elementary
and junior high schools has led to widespread
citations to new students” (Lecturer and Education
Consultant, 17 October 2021).
Meanwhile, a journalist who came from among
journalists, gave a more detailed explanation of the
forms and processes of extortion at the stage of new
student admissions.
“Extortion that occurs when purchasing school
books at the cooperative. Only yesterday there was a
purchase of school supplies/ATK equipment.
Yesterday, there was also a polemic regarding the
purchase of books and stationery at the Cooperative.
However, Kadis provides a middle ground. Because,
this cooperative is definitely looking for profit. And
this cooperative also they are not like in the market.
Looking for profit is not too high from the market
price, and can be paid in installments. And you can't
make unilateral decisions. In other words, the
Cooperative may not sell. And in fact, many
comparisons even support. Like many students'
parents who support the existence of cooperatives."
(Journalists, 16 October 2017).
Even at the 2017 admissions, there were no
outstanding problems. However, in the interview
section, the parents of the students admitted that there
was a quotation of ATK equipment to him amounting
to Rp. 10 thousand per month. However, in another
part of his interview, he mentioned the existence of
students entrusted to several elementary and junior
high schools in Medan City. He said:
"Students who have been entrusted have received
reports. In one school, there was an excess of quotas
in SD and SMP 1. There was chaos at the time of
admitting new students, which were determined
according to the zone. So it seems that such polemics
have been handled by the Education Office. So, it's
not there anymore. The children who have excess
quota are transferred.” (Journalists, October 16,
Regarding the existence of illegal fees in the
process of admitting new students, an employee of the
Education Office who is also a former Principal of a
State Elementary School in the Helvetia Region, said
that illegal fees generally occur in favorite schools.
Quality Services for Elementary Schools in Medan City
According to him, illegal levies are not the only desire
of the school. But, also because of the strong
encouragement from parents who tend to force their
desire to send their children to these favorite schools.
3.2 Economic Factors and Cultural
Of the various processes and forms of illegal levies
that still occur in public elementary and secondary
schools in Medan City, this is motivated because the
practice of extortion has become a culture in addition
to economic factors in Medan City in particular.
Illegal levies are mentioned as a cultural
phenomenon, which is a habit that is usually carried
out by the State Civil Apparatus (ASN). In this case,
school officials and teachers. Habits that have existed
since the past, until now, and even in the future.
Soedjono (2016) suggests that economic factors and
cultural factors are some of the factors that cause an
individual to commit illegal levies. Illegal levies that
occur in schools are caused by cultural factors other
than economic factors. This is as revealed from the
results of interviews by DPRD members:
“The reason someone commits extortion is
because of mental/spiritual faith which over time
becomes a cultural factor. Not an economic factor. So
if the faith is strong then any temptation that exists
will not be contaminated. If the faith is weak, over
time it becomes easily contaminated which in time
becomes a culture. To increase our faith, it is
necessary to study more in the field of religious
knowledge in school. The bad thing is that in the
world of education in our country, when the
leadership changes, the education curriculum system
also changes. We see now that religious subjects have
been reduced to even more emphasis on general
subjects (not supported by the government). Then
give a reason that says "I understand, the teacher's
salary is small" even though we see that there are
many existing allowances." (Member of DPRD, 18
October 2021).
A lecturer also admitted that extortion occurs
based on cultural reasons behind it. In full, he stated,
"We also can't justify this only on economic
reasons as a justification. But by looking at the actual
conditions in the city of Medan, extortion has become
an ordinary culture. It is necessary to take very special
actions or be considered as special crimes so that this
extortion culture does not run rampant. There needs
to be firmness and willpower from all parties so that
extortion does not run rampant. The existence of the
Saber Extortion organization, for example, we see
that it has not been effective in preventing extortion
that is rampant in Medan City.” (Lecturer, October
17, 2017).
Meanwhile, journalists see extortion more as an
economic problem. He said,
“...The economic reasons behind the existence of
extortion. Because the salary is less. And to take care
of promotions and classes, it is said that teachers have
to pay fees but the teachers are reluctant to be open
about it.” (Journalists, October 16, 2021).
In the Medan City government, the Mayor has not
issued regulations as a follow-up to Permendikbud
Number 44 of 2012, so there is no legal umbrella for
schools in Medan to make donations and levies. So
that it can be said that all donations and levies are
illegal levies. The causes of illegal levies in public
services at elementary and secondary schools in
Medan City are not only caused by economic and
cultural factors but also due to regulatory factors. For
this reason, the role of individuals and bureaucrats is
very important to make changes both in terms of
culture and following up on educational regulations.
Based on the results of the research analysis and
associated with the objectives to be achieved, the
conclusions that can be drawn in this study are as
follows: 1. The Process of Illegal Charges Following
up on the existing research questions, it can be
concluded that there is still a practice of illegal levies
in primary and secondary schools in Medan City. The
practice of extortion still occurs at all stages of the
education system. This study discusses several
education systems related to the existence of illegal
levies. According to the Ministry of National
Education (2007) suggests that education services in
schools are said to be a system. The education system
in question is that the education business is a complex
process, including various interrelated components
such as input, process and output. a. Illegal levies still
occur at all stages in schools, both in the process of
admitting new students (input), learning period
(process) and completion of study period (output).
This has violated the regulations set by the
government and set forth the policy form
Permendikbud No. 60 of 2011 where in the regulation
it is stated that the Government and Regional
Governments guarantee the implementation of
compulsory education programs at the elementary
and secondary school levels without charging a fee.
In addition, it was also emphasized that levies burden
the community so that it can hinder public access to
basic education services. Based on these two things,
ICOSOP 2022 - International Conference on Social and Political Development 4
the rules are set. The regulation has stated that schools
owned by the government and local governments
(State Elementary Schools and State Junior High
Schools) as implementing compulsory education
programs are prohibited from collecting investment
and operational costs from students, parents or
guardians. b. The Minister of Education and Culture
Regulation Number 44 of 2012 concerning levies or
donations for elementary and secondary school fees
(SD and SMP) reaffirms that every levy/donation is
said to be legal/extortionate. Such as selling
textbooks, teaching materials equipment, uniforms,
or learning clothing materials in education units;
collect fees in providing tutoring or tutoring to
students in education units, paying tuition fees,
development contributions, registration fees for re-
registration, birthday fees for school heads or
teachers, teacher retirement fees, and art performance
fees. Doing everything, either directly or indirectly,
that injures the integrity of the evaluation of student
learning outcomes and/or collects levies on students,
either directly or indirectly, which is contrary to the
provisions of laws and regulations. c. Then it was
added to the Regulation of the Minister of Education
and Culture Number 80 of 2015 concerning technical
instructions for the use and accountability of BOS
funds (School Operational Costs) for elementary and
junior high schools. He explained that the BOS funds
were a government program to help meet school
operational costs and other financing to support the
learning process.
But now a lot of BOS funds have been
misappropriated. Extortion as an economic factor
because as a means to increase income or income.
Extortion is also to meet the increasing expenses.
Routine income received every month is considered
not/less sufficient expenditure. Income that is not
sufficient for the necessities of life or not in
proportion to the duties/positions carried out makes a
person compelled to commit extortion. Start routine
operational expenses every month. Until, the cost for
promotion/ class for teachers. In addition, the extra
costs of maintaining social relations in the community
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