Factors Affecting the E-Services Channel Usage in E-Government: A
Literature Review
Vita Pusvita
and Moh. Muttaqin
Research Center for Society and Culture, Institute of Social Sciences and Humanities, National Research and Innovation
Agency, Gedung B.J. Habibie Jalan M.H. Thamrin Nomor 8, Jakarta Pusat 10340, Indonesia
Keywords: Channel Usage, E-service Adoption, E-government, Government to Citizen.
Abstract: This study aims to identify the factors that influence the use of service channels in accessing government
services. A literature review was conducted using the Google Scholar database. Articles are limited to Scopus
indexed journal and proceeding. In addition, the object of this research is limited to the citizen so that the e-
government relationship that is discussed is only government to citizen (G2C). The results showed that there
are several factors that influence the selection of individual channels, namely socio-demography, tasks,
individual factors, external factors, and technology. This finding can help the government to provide
electronic service channels that are in accordance with the citizen channels usage, so as to increase the use of
electronic services.
The implementation of e-services changes the use of
channels in public services from traditional to
electronic. Not only providers, service users must also
be a determining factor in the successful
implementation of e-services. Without adoption from
the user's side, the goal of implementing e-services
will not be achieved. Therefore, in addition to
assessing the government's readiness, the perspective
of service users is also needed to support the success
of e-services.
The research has been conducted on the adoption
of citizen e-services is more focused on the type of
technology applied. In fact, citizen’s usage of the
channel to access services is also very important for
successful e-service implementation. To achieve this,
the government generally uses multichannel in the
implementation of e-services. The use of a
multichannel system makes the government have to
maintain more channels than a single-channel system,
which means it requires more resources (Pappel et al.,
2019). Meanwhile, the government must consider
efficiency and effectiveness in providing service
channels to provide sustainable services (Tangi et al.,
https://orcid.org/ 0000-0002-6345-6975
On the other hand, citizens as users are still
reluctant to adopt electronic services (W. Pieterson &
Ebbers, 2008). Citizens will prefer to use electronic
services than traditional services if the available
channels are convenient for them (Al-Ghaith et al.,
2010). This shows that in addition to technology
adoption factors, it is also necessary to know the
factors that encourage the use of a channel to access
services. The implementation of e-services with
electronic channels that are preferred by citizen can
help increase the success of sustainable e-services
Channel choice has different definition from
channel use, but both will affect channel behavior (W.
Pieterson & Teerling, 2008). Channel use is an
individual's use from time to time. Meanwhile,
channel choice is an individual decision in selecting a
channel to carry out certain activities. The internet has
changed the use of channels by citizens to access
services (Lee et al., 2018). The increasing number of
internet adoptions by the public causes changes in
behavior towards service channels (W. J. Pieterson &
Ebbers, 2020). C. G. Reddick et al. (2012) found that
internet users generally access government services
using traditional and electronic channels. Meanwhile,
Faulkner et al. (2019) revealed that the shift in the use
Pusvita, V. and Muttaqin, M.
Factors Affecting the E-Services Channel Usage in E-Government: A Literature Review.
DOI: 10.5220/0011508500003460
In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Social and Political Development (ICOSOP 2022) - Human Security and Agile Government, pages 16-22
ISBN: 978-989-758-618-7; ISSN: 2975-8300
2023 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. Under CC license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
of service channels from traditional to electronic in
accessing e-services can be achieved if users are
Many researches related to service channels have
been carried out, both regarding channel selection,
multichannel management, and multichannel
strategies. Even Madsen & Kræmmergaard (2015)
have also conducted a literature study related to
channel selection from an individual point of view
and channel selection management from an
organizational point of view. However, what is more
important than channel selection is the use of
channels in e-services itself. There is a gap between
the desire or selection of service channels and the
actual use of electronic service channels. To find out
the channel selection preferences in actual conditions,
E. Ebbers et al. (2016) conducted a survey using
scenario-based. In contrast to previous research, in
this paper, a literature review will be conducted on the
factors that influence the use of digital service
channels by the public. This research is very
important, because the success of e-government
implementation is determined by citizen orientation,
channel orientation, and technology orientation
(Malodia et al., 2021).
The study was conducted with a systematic literature
review in determining the factors that influence the
use of channels by the public. We used three stages in
conducting the systematic literature review, namely
planning the review, conducting the review, and
reporting the review.
First stage, planning the review, we defined a
research question. The research question for this
study is “What factors are affecting the e-services
channel usage in e-government”.
Second stage, conducting the review, we searched
for primary study. We have done some steps in this
stage. First step, we used keywords to find articles
which related to our study. The keywords are
"channel choice", or "multichannel", or “channel
usage”, and “e-services”, or “e-government services”.
We used Google Scholar as our primary database
because it indexes articles from various sources such
as ScienceDirect Elsevier, IEEE Xplore and
Association for Computing Machinery Articles.
Second step, we used inclusion and exclusion criteria
to filter the articles. The inclusion and exclusion
criteria are shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria.
Inclusion Criteria Exclusion Criteria
Articles written in
Articles is not written in
Articles published in
journals and
proceedings indexed on
Articles published in book
Articles was published
in the period from 2016
to 2022
Articles published before
Articles discussing
government to citizen
Articles discussing
government to government
or government to business
After screening articles with these criteria, another
filter was applied in the third step. To confirm articles
meet our research need, we used Quality Assessment
Criteria. In this stage, we filtered articles four
questions. The Quality Assessment Criteria are
showed in Table 2.
Table 2: Quality Assessment Criteria.
Control Question Criteria
Does the factors affecting
channel preferences explained in
Yes: Move to next
No: articles will be
Does the articles discuss
government to citizen services?
or Does the articles discuss
citizen service channel
Yes: Move to next
No: articles will be
Does the articles contain data on
service channel usage (proven
with government data or
secondary data)? or does the
articles discuss the preferences of
service channel users (explained
in methodology: the object was
service users)?
Yes: Move to next
No: articles will be
Does the articles compare the use
of several service channels
provided by the government?
Yes: Articles will be
No: Articles will be
As we shown in Table 2, if the answered is “no” than
articles will be excluded from this study. The paper
will be selected if it has all quality assessment criteria.
Initially, we found 52 articles when we searched
articles by keyword and by inclusion and exclusion
criteria in Google Scholar. But we found that four
articles are inaccessible and ten articles are duplicate.
After screening the articles by quality assessment
Factors Affecting the E-Services Channel Usage in E-Government: A Literature Review
criteria, we found that nine teen articles are meet our
research need.
The last stage is reporting the review. In this stage
We reported the review based on year and publication
In reporting the review, we reported by the year and
publication type. They will be showed in Figure 1 and
Figure 2.
Figure 1: Number of Articles per Year.
Figure 1 shows the year of the articles which we
analysed have been published. The highest
publication period is in 2020, followed by 2019.
Figure 2: Publication Type.
Figure 2 shows the type of the publication of
articles which consist of journal articles and
conference article. The majority of publication is in
form of journal article.
Referring to the literature review results of the 19
articles, several factors affecting the channel usage to
access e-Government services were found. These
factors are classified into 5 categories, namely socio-
demographic, individual/personal factors, tasks,
external factors, and technology. These findings are
summarized in Table 3.
Table 3 show that factors that is most discussed in
channel usage is nature of interaction, followed by
age and internet access. Meanwhile, external factors
are the least discussed factors in the study related to
the use of service channels.
The discussion of the factors affecting the service
channel usage are divided into three parts. The first
part is individual internal factors (covering socio-
demography and individual factors), the second is
service channel product factors (covering tasks and
technology), and the third is external factors.
Individual internal factors are divided into two factors
that influence the use of electronic service channels
from the individual side, namely socio-demography
and individual factors. The socio-demography factor
consists of several variables that affect the use of
service channels, namely education, age, gender, and
income. Several studies have shown that the higher
the level of education, the more people prefer to use
electronic channels than face-to-face (Ebbers et al.,
2016; Hooda Nandal & Singla, 2019). Another socio-
demographic factor, age shows that older people
prefer traditional channels (Laenens et al., 2018).
Meanwhile, a study conducted by Rey-Moreno et al.
(2018) and Rodriguez Müller et al (2021) revealed
that there is a difference in the frequency of using
electronic services between men and women, where
men use electronic channels more than women. On
the income variable, a research which has been
conducted by C. Reddick et al. (2020) stated that
income will affect the use of mobile-government
service channels and traditional channels. On the
other hand, Medina Macaya et al. (2019) found that
each type of channel has a specific user profile that
can be categorized based on their income.
In addition to socio-demography, there are
several individual factors affecting the e-service
channel usage. When the habit of using the internet
has been formed among citizens, the tendency of
citizens to use e-service channels in accessing e-
services is getting bigger (E. Ebbers et al., 2016). The
knowledge gained during the use of e-service
channels built on usage experience will increase the
adoption of e-services (Fakhoury & Aubert, 2017). It
is also explained in the channel expansion theory that
this experience will also affect service channel choice
in the community. With the increasing use of
services, the quality and quantity of information
related to service channels provided by the
government can help increase citizen awareness (Wu,
2017). When awareness has been built in the
community, it allows for increased use of service
2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Number of Articles
Journal Proceeding
Number of Articles
ICOSOP 2022 - International Conference on Social and Political Development 4
channel. Meanwhile, the satisfaction of using the
channel can increase the use of not only electronic,
but also traditional services. The satisfaction depends
on the expected results and user expectations. When
the satisfaction of using e-service channels is
achieved, there will be an increase in the use of e-
For the technological factor, digital skill has no
effect on the e-services channel usage in developed
countries with advanced infrastructure. It because the
habit for the internet has been bulit in the midst of
citizens. However, digital skills, especially internet
skills, are still an important variable for developing
countries in the e-services channel usage because of
the existence of these channels on the internet (W. J.
Pieterson & Ebbers, 2020). Internet access is an
important variable in technology for the e-services
channel usage. In fact, Rodriguez-Hevía et al. (2020)
revealed that the presence of the internet at home will
increase the e-services channel access compared to
access through public facilities. On technological
aspect, trust in the internet also has an influence in
increasing the e-services channel usage.
Regarding the use of service channels, it is
necessary to pay attention to the task factors. These
factors consist of the nature of interaction and ease of
use. Each service channel has a different nature of
interaction, as well as the type of service. Ebbers et
al., (2016) found that the type of interaction needs by
user while accessing services determines the channel
used to access government services. Rey-Moreno &
Medina-Molina (2016b) found that the internet is
only used to obtain initial information. If follow-up is
needed, people will use other channels. In addition,
Distel, (2020) revealed that people are reluctant to use
e-services with types of services that require
interaction in the form of consultations, so it is
necessary to evaluate services before digitizing.
Citizens need personal assistance to access complex
services (Van de Walle et al., 2018; Wu, 2017). For
example, the case reports will be more easily
communicated using traditional channel, such as
telephone lines (Rodriguez Müller et al., 2021). Thus,
the e-service access will increase if the government
provide the right channel for suitable services,
moreover the government can also provide service
assistance to increase the use of electronic channels.
Faulkner et al. (2019) revealed that this personal
service assistance will also assist migration to digital
services with an emphasis on ease of use and benefits.
Table 3: Factors affecting the channel usage to access e-services.
Factors Variables Number of
Education 3 (Distel, 2020; W. J. Pieterson & Ebbers, 2020; C. Reddick et
al., 2020)
Age 4 (Ebbers et al., 2016; C. Reddick et al., 2020; Rodriguez Müller
et al., 2021; Rodriguez-Hevía et al., 2020)
2 (W. J. Pieterson & Ebbers, 2020; C. Reddick et al., 2020)
Income 1 (Medina Macaya et al., 2019)
Satisfication 2 (Ma & Zheng, 2019; Rey-Moreno et al., 2018)
Experience 1 (Fakhoury & Aubert, 2017)
Awareness 1
Wu, 2017
Habit 1
, 2018
Task Nature of
5 (Distel, 2020; Ebbers et al., 2016; Rey-Moreno & Medina-
Molina, 2016a; Rodriguez Müller et al., 2021; Van de Walle
et al., 2018)
Ease of Use 2 (Faulkner et al., 2019; Wu, 2020)
External Facto
Social influence 1 (Wu, 2017)
1 (Ramirez-Madrid et al., 2022)
Technology Digital skill 2 (C. Reddick et al., 2020; Rodriguez-Hevía et al., 2020)
Internet access 4 (Aranyossy, 2018; Camilleri, 2019; C. Reddick et al., 2020;
uez-Hevía et al., 2020
Internet trust 2 (Aranyossy, 2018; C. Reddick et al., 2020)
Benefit 2 (Faulkner et al., 2019; Ma & Zheng, 2019)
Factors Affecting the E-Services Channel Usage in E-Government: A Literature Review
The ease of use of electronic service channels will
also increase the use of electronic services (Wu,
The last factor, external factor, also has a big role
in the use of electronic service channels. Wu (2017)
revealed that family and colleagues have a big
influence on encouraging the use of certain e-services
channels compared to social media. In addition, the
government as a policy maker also has the authority
to make the e-service channels as the main channel in
public services delivery, which has an impact on
increasing the use of e-services by citizens (Madsen
& Kræmmergaard, 2016). The government needs to
classify citizens regarding what channels they use to
access e-services so that they can provide better
public services (Medina Macaya et al., 2019).
However, the citizen is a determinant of the success
of e-services provided by the government (Alabdallat,
2020). Setting up access to e-services using
multichannel allows to increase the number of service
users (Laenens et al., 2018). The availability of
service access through multichannel is highly
dependent on the capacity of the government as a
service provider, and usually does not consider the
characteristics of service channels (Wirtz & Langer,
2017). In providing e-service and their channels, the
government generally only focuses on the technical
aspects without considering the sociological aspects
of the technology (Dawood Mulung & Rosun, 2017).
The discrepancy between the provision of e-services
and their channels with the needs of the community
can affect the use of e-services by citizens (Thiel,
2016). Thus, regulations that make electronic
channels as the main access to public services must
be accompanied by an evaluation of their needs and
their impacts on citizens.
The factors that influence the use e-services channels
in e-Government consist of socio demography,
individual factors, technology factors, tasks, and
external factors. This study collects various studies on
the e-services channel usage and summarizes them in
several factors that influence the use of electronic
channels in accessing e-government. In contrast to
previous studies which emphasize more on channel
choice and channel preference, this study attempted
to find factors that influence the use of existing e-
service channels. The results of this study can be used
to help increase the use of existing e-service channels.
However, this study also reveals that the provision of
multichannel is still needed. By knowing the user
profile of each service channel through consideration
of the factors studied, the government can increase
service delivery both online and offline. This study
still has many limitations, especially in the use of
database and keywords. Future research can use
different databases and different research objects.
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