The Role of Actor and Ideology in Sociopreneurhsip in Darul
Mursyid Islamic Boarding School
Heri Kusmanto
and Warjio
Program Pascasarjana Studi Pembangunan, Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik,
Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia
Program Studi Ilmu Politik,, Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia
Keywords: Actor, Ideology, Sociopreneurship, Islamic Boarding School
Abstract: Empowerment models developed by civil society, especially Islamic civil society are usually in the form of
da'wah in the form of Islamic education activities and Islamic religious lectures, community empowerment
efforts are also developed through cooperative efforts, orphanages, nursing homes, hospitals, and various
economic forms of business entities. However, very few develop community empowerment through social
entrepreneurship as developed by Darul Mursyid Islamic Boarding School in Sipirok which develops social
entrepreneurship in agroforestry businesses in various commodities developed in forests such as coffee,
vanilla, honey, and others. as well as other efforts that involve the surrounding village communities, so that
these communities can develop their lives to be more prosperous. The innovation of social entrepreneurship
development is a very interesting leap to be studied from the point of view of actors and ideological values
that are the basis for determining the development of social entrepreneurship in Darul Mursyid. Based on
previous studies, it was found that in general the political model for the development of Islamic organizations
or Islamic civil society is determined by actors and ideologies. The role of the actor in the development of the
Darul Mursyid Islamic boarding school was marked by a new leadership change that saw the need for a change
in governance from traditional to more modern. The role of these actors is supported by ideological changes
marked by a change in vision from an educational institution to an institution for empowering the people.
Studies on social entrepreneurship developed by
Islamic civil society are actually not widely studied,
because apart from not many Islamic civil society,
especially Islamic boarding school managers in
empowering the community to develop
entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurship itself is not
widely developed either by the government or the
community itself. This research will conduct a study
on the role of development or community
empowerment by non-state actors, particularly with
regard to the role of civil society or NGOs or NGOs,
especially regarding the roles of actors and the
ideological basis that becomes the direction or
orientation of strategies in an effort to empower
communities to overcome poverty and mobilize
broad community participation in a joint business
activity that is mutually beneficial and creates a
process of capitalization in society.
In general, the political model of development
carried out by Islamic civil society in Indonesia is
indeed driven by actors and the ideological basis in
the form of an Islamic value system which is
understood in different perspectives forms different
schools of political thought so that although they have
the same apparent goal of empowering community
but has a purpose with a different meaning
(Kusmanto and Warjio, 2018).
The Integrated Modern Superior Islamic Boarding
School Darul Mursyid (PDM) was founded by Drs.
H. Ihutan Ritonga who has the title H. Mursyid with
his wife Hj. Riana Siregar in 1992. The Islamic
boarding school which takes its name from its
founder's title began operating in 1993 and grew
rapidly and became famous as an Islamic boarding
Kusmanto, H. and Warjio, .
The Role of Actor and Ideology in Sociopreneurhsip in Darul Mursyid Islamic Boarding School.
DOI: 10.5220/0011508200003460
In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Social and Political Development (ICOSOP 2022) - Human Security and Agile Government, pages 9-15
ISBN: 978-989-758-618-7; ISSN: 2975-8300
2023 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. Under CC license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
school with alumni who were accepted at the best
universities in Indonesia and abroad.
The study of Darul Mursyid's social
entrepreneurship will be placed in the context of
Islamic civil society or civil Islam (Hefner, 2000)
which basically investigates the characteristics of
independence or self-reliance and volunteerism as
previously revealed by Muhammad AS Hikam (2000)
who studies the Islamic struggle in many ways.
aspects of life in the New Order era. Issues discussed
include the issue of Islam and the challenges of social
pluralism and national unity, Islam and human rights,
Islam and modernization, Islam and the
fundamentalism movement, Islam, and civil society
in democratization efforts.
Therefore, Darul Mursyid's study of social
entrepreneurship is not only placed as economic or
management processes but is mainly placed as
political processes. There are at least three important
meanings in this study, first, the development of
social entrepreneurship is not a product of narrow
thinking that leads to capitalism but is a relationship
between actors and ideologies that develop in Islamic
civil society. Second, we can find out the role of
actors in the process of developing social
entrepreneurship as an ideological manifestation that
is believed to be and becomes the orientation of its
activities. Third, social entrepreneurship is a business
that is not individualistic in nature but has dimensions
of capital development in business and shared
ownership, a kind of middle ground between the
capitalist system and socialism that developed in
traditional Islamic thought in the modern
organization of Darul Mursyid.
Based on the background of the problem
presented, the formulation of the problem in this
research is: What is the role of actor Darul Mursyid
in developing social entrepreneurship
(sociopreneurship?; How is the ideological thought in
Darul Mursyid the basis of thought and belief to
develop social entrepreneurship?; How is Darul
Mursyid's social entrepreneurship development
A literature review was conducted to analyze the
literature related to this research (review of related
literature). Literature review functions as a literature
review (research reports and so on) on related
problems, not always identical to the problem area at
hand, but also concomitant and related. Research on
development politics is a direction or orientation
towards development choices, in the form of
ideologies, actors, approaches, systems or methods,
strategies or models developed in development
(Kusmanto, 2013; Warjio, 2016). Based on this
concept, a study will be conducted on Darul
Mursyid's activities in developing social
Development politics is basically a direction or
orientation towards development choices, in the form
of ideology, actors, approaches, systems or methods,
strategies or models developed in development
(Kusmanto, 2012; Warjio, 2016). Based on a concept
like this, many CSO policies that look the same take
place in different formulation processes because they
have different value orientations.
Research on Islamic organizations is generally
placed in the context of Islamic civil society which
basically examines Islamic organizations with the
characteristics of independence or self-reliance and
volunteerism. Muhammad AS Hikam (2000) wrote
about the relationship of Islam with civil society and
democracy. This study is about cases where Islamic
organizations have a very big role in determining the
process of government or democracy.
Hefner (2000) who uses the term civil Islam,
describes the Islamic civil political struggle and
democratization efforts during the early New Order
era until the collapse of the Suharto government. A
study conducted by Hefner (2000) concluded that
Muslims in Indonesia have many differences, both in
ideology or school of thought, socio-economic level,
and political tendencies. In addition, Muslims in
Indonesia from the beginning of independence had a
power orientation and had a great impact on the
emergence of many different Islamic social
organizations and political parties which indicated the
existence of pluralism.
Several other writers not in the context of civil
society have also concluded that the ideological
orientation of Islam is the political determinant of
Islamic development as written by Muhammad
Syukri Salleh (1999, 2002, 2009); Zeenath Kausar
(2000); Khurshid Ahmad (2000) and Syed Serajul
Islam (2000), so that the study of Islamic society
seems endless and attracts a lot of attention among
researchers, but very few discuss it through a political
development approach.
In general, western writers discussing the political
struggles of the Muslims are always viewed with
suspicion with a bad stigma such as anti-pluralism
and anti-democracy (Hefner, 2005), whereas in
various cases in various regions of the world written
by various researchers, there are still many issues that
need to be addressed. arise internally from the
ICOSOP 2022 - International Conference on Social and Political Development 4
Muslims themselves, concerning pluralism of
thought, competition and democracy, so that Muslims
should not be seen as a force with a lot of bad stigma
viewed from a western perspective, even the
possibility of the growth of democracy actually
emerges from the Muslims themselves (Schneier ,
Islamic development politics has a big difference
with conventional development politics which only
emphasizes aspects of achieving success that are
capitalistic and materialistic, so that it creates a lot of
paradoxes, while the Islamic perspective has a more
comprehensive approach to achieve a better life not
only in the natural world, but also in the world. in the
afterlife which will be the real future of mankind
(Kusmanto, 2021).
In addition, so far development analysis is
generally placed in a narrow perspective, namely
from an economic point of view, so that it almost
certainly excludes the role of political actors who
have certain orientations or interests that influence the
choices of development choices they carry out.
Therefore, the political perspective of development is
needed so that the description and analysis of
development does not become shallow, because it
only looks at economic processes (Kusmanto and
Warjio, 2018).
The dominance of the economic approach in
development of course causes the analysis of
development from a political perspective to stop, not
develop. In fact, if you are honest, development is a
political product. There is no development without
political processes. Because this political process
gives birth to a political product, namely development
(Warjio, 2016).
Presenting development as a political product,
political processes are important. In it "fight" various
political actors with various interests ranging from
existence, identity formation to ideological
stabilization. These political actors are not only
individuals but also groups or countries. They can
reflect the interests of certain individuals, local,
national, and even foreign interests. Their ability to
influence other political actors in the political process
is very decisive about the development that will be
produced or carried out according to their ideas or
ideologies and interests as a representation of where
they come from. The bigger their network of power
or authority and their ability to play bargaining
politics, the greater the chance that they will get the
product of the political process, or vice versa, that is
Therefore, an investigation into the political
efforts of the Islamic development of the Darul
Mursyid Islamic Boarding School is a strategic effort
to see the role of actors from the pesantren which are
known ideologically as traditional but have modern
development efforts in driving the learning process
internally within the pesantren environment as an
Islamic Education Institution, as well as external
efforts. to empower the community with social
entrepreneurship efforts with a very modern view,
especially by pursuing agroforestry businesses that
require good knowledge about forests so that these
businesses do not damage the forest later.
This study uses a descriptive analysis method with a
qualitative approach. Theoretically, qualitative
research is a research approach that emphasizes the
data generated in the form of descriptive data, namely
written, or spoken words from the object or person
being observed (Moleong, 2012). This study will
reveal qualitative data so that we know the political
assessment of Darul Mursyid's Islamic development,
by examining the role of actors and ideology in social
entrepreneurship which has the potential to be an
alternative to new development approaches to
mobilize community entrepreneurship so that people
will become more prosperous. In addition, the study
will try to reveal the emphasis on certain thoughts or
their ideological basis with the roles of actors who
give shape and color to their struggles. So that the
proposed study has major advantages such as,
fundamentally revealing the role of actors and
ideologies that form the Islamic-based social
entrepreneurship development model and to
complement previous studies, so that it can enrich the
repertoire of knowledge. This research concerns the
existence of innovations that are closely related to the
role of actors and ideological bases in a development
policy developed by an Islamic boarding school to
empower the community at large through social
In general, the political model of development
carried out by Islamic civil society in Indonesia is
indeed driven by actors and the ideological basis in
the form of an Islamic value system which is
understood in different perspectives forms different
schools of political thought so that although they have
the same apparent goal of empowering community
but has a purpose with a different meaning
(Kusmanto and Warjio, 2018).
The Role of Actor and Ideology in Sociopreneurhsip in Darul Mursyid Islamic Boarding School
At first the Darul Mursyid Islamic Boarding School
was a traditional pesantren with a mission to preach
through Islamic education only. However, after the
death of the Chairman of the Islamic Boarding School
who was also the founder of Darul Mursyid in 1997,
the new leadership has brought about a major change
in the governance of this traditional pesantren into a
modern Islamic boarding school. Empowerment of
the Ummah to Increase the Glory of Islamic
Civilization, meaning that Darul Mursyid not only
prints his students to be able to understand Islam but
more than that, they must master modern science that
will advance Islamic civilization. In addition, the field
of da'wah does not stop only educating students but
also must be able to develop an advanced and
prosperous Islamic civilization directly in the
The new leadership, which is the only son of the
founder of this Islamic boarding school, had obtained
a master's education in the United States and obtained
a Doctor of Business Administration degree at
Universiti Sains Malaysia, has changed traditional
governance to become modern, with a new basis of
thought to advance Islamic civilization so that it can
realizing rahmatan lilaalamiin as written in surah Al-
Anbiya verse 197. Being a mercy for all nature will
be realized if the Islamic community has an advanced
civilization, so there needs to be a change in
governance and patterns of education or da'wah that
refers to the achievement of Islamic civilization
(interview, 2021) ).
Syahbuddin Ritonga, DBA who became the new
Chairman of Darul Mursyid has the traditional
ideological view of Ahlus sunnah wal jama'ah and
continues to worship in that corridor, as evidenced by
his steadfast view of achieving mercy for all nature.
For traditionalists, they usually develop the idea that
the best of humans is that which is useful to others
(khoirunnas) and stops at that state.
However, according to Mr. Ritonga, it is not
enough for young people to be good or useful if the
goodness is not maximally contributed, so it is
necessary to build an advanced Islamic civilization,
which masters science and technology so that
goodness or its usefulness is maximally capable of
turning Islamic society into intelligent, mastering
science and technology. , so that they will become
strong, advanced, independent people and be in front
of other civilizations, not the hegemony, poor and
weak or become the determinants of the direction of
civilization, not being a follower of other people's
Changes in ideological thinking to continuously
encourage people to move forward, what this new
leadership did was to change its vision to make this
Islamic boarding school into a modern boarding
school with the vision of advancing Islamic
civilization, then from there developed operational
changes to its education management which refers to
the birth of santri. Islamic ones who master science
and technology, so that "general knowledge" gets a
large portion of learning outcomes besides
traditionally students also learn about Islam.
To maximize the learning achievement of Darul
Mursyid students, they are freed from independent
living tasks such as washing clothes, cleaning the
room or the boarding school environment, cooking
food and many other activities that we often
encounter in traditional Islamic boarding schools.
Darul Mursyid Islamic Boarding School has managed
these activities professionally by cooperating with
third parties from the local community, even just to
arrange sandals.
As a result, many students won in various student
championships, especially and the most popular was
the Science Olympiad championship or after
graduating the students had reached 100% passing the
new student admissions exams at various state
universities in Indonesia and were even accepted at
Ideologically, the new leadership which has made
many changes towards modernization is still in
traditionalist understanding, it is proven that the
Islamic curriculum and teaching materials for
students still refer to the teachings of Ahlus Sunnah
wal Jama'ah.
In addition, the change in vision towards building
Islamic civilization to make Islam triumphant so that
it does not become a backward society in the view of
modernization is still in the corridor of Islamic
thought which requires the progress of life that must
be continuously fought for so that tomorrow will be
better than today, so that Islamic civilization as
rahmatan lil aalamin can be manifested in the reality
of people's lives.
Based on that view, increasing the progress of
Islamic civilization so that it becomes a superior
civilization and not being colonized or hegemonized
by other parties is practiced for students by
emphasizing aspects of mastery of science and
technology and encouraging people in their
ICOSOP 2022 - International Conference on Social and Political Development 4
environment to have businesses that must be managed
professionally to compete and bring prosperity.
This change of view is still based on traditional
ideology, but by the head of the new Islamic boarding
school it is given a new meaning that encourages
progress through the mastery and development of
science and technology which is the key to the
progress of human civilization without abandoning
Islamic values and doctrines or Islamic ideology,
even with efforts advancing Islamic civilization is
intended as an effort to revitalize the values and
doctrines of Islam itself.
Improvements to the curriculum, governance and
community empowerment activities are carried out in
a modern and innovative manner. The seriousness to
advance Islamic civilization through education and
community empowerment is carried out with
evidence, firstly for PDM educational activities that
focus on education and all governance activities
concentrate on education to make students able to
master Islamic material as ad-Din and mastery of
science and technology oriented to the future with
learning activities based on measurable standard
operating procedures (SOPs), thus enabling
monitoring and evaluation (Monev) to determine the
progress of the learning process.
For this reason, several businesses that are not
directly related to education have been handed over
to other parties with measurable SOPs, even though
these activities are very profitable for the Darul
Mursyid Islamic Boarding School commercially,
such as public accommodation, consumption of
students, cleanliness, and laundry for students'
clothes. shows that both PDM and students are
required to concentrate only on learning activities.
The implications of concentration on learning
activities for the community are very real, namely the
development of home stays or community-managed
lodging or hotel businesses, absorption of labor for
cleaning and laundry businesses, so that economic
activities or community businesses develop.
The pesantren itself also provides knowledge of
the community and fosters the community to develop
businesses, as well as management for lodging
businesses, delicious and hygienic culinary,
cleanliness, laundry business, making artsy
handicrafts and various other forms of handicrafts
with good and attractive packaging. etc.
Sociopreneurship efforts are developing in the
immediate environment in the Darul Mursyid Islamic
Boarding School Area. The release of many
commercially profitable businesses to the community
so that pesantren can focus on the learning process is
an extraordinary sincerity and the results are very real
with the acceptance of 100% of pesantren graduates
in PTNs that are known to have high ratings both
nationally and internationally.
The second evidence is in the form of pesantren's
efforts to establish new governance in community
empowerment in agroforestry in forest conservation
efforts while establishing coffee, vanilla, and
honeybee cultivation businesses in the surrounding
Darul Mursyid Islamic Boarding School in
carrying out the Cooperation Agreement (NKK) with
the Ministry of Forestry has started to manage 200
hectares of forest in the UPT KPH VI Sipirok area
from the 600 hectares that were handed over to be
managed. This activity has involved several
combined poktans with the involvement of 91 farmers
from Saipar Dolok Hole District, namely from
Sidapdap Simanosor Village, Ulumanis Situnggaling
Village, and Batang Garut Village, while from Arse
District there are two villages involved, namely
Lancat Village and Natambang Roncitan Village. ,
then from Marancar District there is only one village
involved, namely Aek Sabaon Village, then from
Sipirok District there is also only one village,
Saragodung Village, and finally from Angkola
District there is also only one village, Sitaratoit
Pesantren have functioned as facilitators and
active coaches as well as forest conservation
supervisors. For this reason, the pesantren has built
various cleaning, drying and coffee processing
facilities that can be utilized by the combined poktan.
Communities must be empowered so that they are
able to use the forest to improve their welfare while
keeping their forest from being damaged or damaged
by others.
This integrated plantation concept which has
involved farmers from 8 villages from 5 sub-districts
has succeeded in exporting coffee in 3 harvests in
2021, an average of 3.8 tons in the form of green
beans, while processed products in the form of
roasted beans and coffee grounds have been marketed
in the region. Sumatra and Java Island with the
trademark PDM (Pesantren Darul Mursyid), for
vanilla commodities are still in the process of growth
and breeding and honeybees have produced in limited
quantities because they are still focused on colony
propagation efforts.
The serious effort of the new pesantren chairman
as the main actor of change to revitalize ideological
thinking about a life that must be better, more
advanced and rahmatan lil aalamin with a new vision
of advancing Islamic civilization through mastery of
science and technology and improving welfare in
The Role of Actor and Ideology in Sociopreneurhsip in Darul Mursyid Islamic Boarding School
society through the form of social entrepreneurship in
various businesses and especially agroforestry is now
showing results with the increasingly prosperous
The successful transformation of a traditional
pesantren to a modern one through a modern
management approach and ideological revitalization
is an important basic capital. Every change in
governance always has clear goals and is easily
understood by all pesantren stakeholders through
good interpersonal communication and is clarified
again with detailed, concise, clear, integrated, and
easy-to-understand SOP guidelines, so that changes
can take place quickly and with little resistance. under
a firm, disciplined, open, sincere, and responsible
leadership so that a new organizational culture that is
good and professional will soon be formed, because
according to Mr. Ritonga it is impossible for him to
continue to lead in this pesantren, one day there will
be regeneration or succession It is hoped that with an
established organizational culture, this Islamic
boarding school will be able to continue and will
continuously innovate.
The new leadership that has taken a new step
through a change in vision has placed the role of
pesantren as an agent of empowering the people
through the process of educating students or santri to
become devout Muslims who understand Islam and
are able to master modern science and technology. In
addition, the role of empowerment to the community
in its environment is in the form of opening various
business fields through social entrepreneurship, in
this case the pesantren does not only open the doors
of business for the community but also aids as an
opener for cooperation, coaches or trainers,
motivators and even facilitators, as well as assisting
in matters of cooperation. marketing the results of
community efforts. This Darul Mursyid Islamic
Boarding School empowerment model is a
comprehensive and integrative model of community
empowerment that is phenomenal or rarely
Theoretically, according to Sachs (2011), the
efforts of pesantren as agents of empowerment are
successful because they can develop human capital as
well as business capital through the transformation of
values, knowledge, and skills, opening businesses,
markets, and cooperation, as well as providing
various work facilities. However, as an empowerment
or development agent, they are not equipped with the
provision of access to microfinance (micro financing)
so that this effort can accelerate business growth
which encourages the acceleration of the process of
community capitalization.
The politics of development carried out by the Darul
Mursyid Islamic Boarding School is rooted in actor
and ideological factors. The main actor of change is
carried out by the new leadership who sees the need
for traditional management or management to
become modern management based on the
revitalization of the ideology of traditional Islamic
boarding schools through changing the vision of an
Islamic Education Institution to an Institution for
Empowering the People to Improve the Glory of
Islamic Civilization.
The path taken with the new vision is an effort to
change education management towards modern
education management and curriculum changes that
do not only teach Islam as Ad-Din, but also
emphasize the need for mastery of modern or
contemporary science and technology for students.
For the community, empowerment efforts are pursued
by opening various business fields and so that they
are successful, the pesantren aids as an opening for
collaboration, as coaches, trainers, motivators and
even facilitators, as well as assisting in the marketing
of community business results. The Darul Mursyid
Islamic Boarding School empowerment model is a
comprehensive and integrative model of community
empowerment that is phenomenal or rarely
The result is the acceptance of 100% of students
or students at various State Universities or well-
known universities abroad or Official Educational
Institutions from various State Ministries in
Indonesia. In addition, many families now have new
businesses such as homestays or hotels, food stalls,
food stalls, laundry, handicrafts, cake businesses,
handicrafts, and agroforestry-based businesses with
coffee commodities., vanilla and honeybees, so that
the welfare of rural communities increases and
encourages social mobility, especially vertically.
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The Role of Actor and Ideology in Sociopreneurhsip in Darul Mursyid Islamic Boarding School