Research on Consumption Behavior of Power Users based on Full
Liberalization of Power Selling Side
Yaman Huang and Yingqi Liu
Department of Business Administration, Beijing Jiaotong University, Haidian, Beijing, China
Keywords: Full Release of Electricity Sales Side, Electricity Market, Power Users, AISAS.
Abstract: Since reform and opening up, China has carried out many electric power reforms. At present, the
marketization reform of electricity selling side has been effective, which has injected new vitality into the
development of electricity market, and the consumption behavior of electricity users has also changed. This
paper analyzes the development of electricity market and electricity trading mode under the background of
full liberalization of electricity sales side, constructs the research model framework of electricity user
consumption behavior through AISAS model, and designs the questionnaire of electricity user consumption
behavior. The basic information of power users and the variables that attract consumers' attention, stimulate
consumers' interest, the variables of consumers' information search, the variables of consumers' purchasing,
and the variables of consumers' information sharing are measured. Finally, the consumption characteristics of
power users are analyzed, and suggestions are put forward for the electric power trading platform.
Electric power is the driving force of national
economic development and an important basis for
supporting modern production and life. At present,
there are some problems in the power market, such as
low efficiency of resource utilization, lack of relevant
management mechanism, lack of effective
competition mechanism for electricity selling side,
insufficient market transaction between users and
power generation enterprises, and the decisive role of
market allocation of resources is difficult to play. In
August 2017, China selected the south (starting from
Guangdong), Mengxi, Zhejiang, Shanxi, Shandong,
Fujian, Sichuan, Gansu and other eight regions as the
first batch of pilot, to accelerate the organization and
promotion of power spot market construction. With
the full liberalization of electricity sales side, power
users' participation in power purchase and
consumption behavior will also have an impact. This
paper studies the consumption behavior of power
users under the background of full liberalization of
electricity sales side, analyzes the characteristics of
consumption behavior of power users, and provides a
theoretical basis for the power trading platform to
better meet the needs of power users and enhance
For the research on the power trading platform,
Wang (Wang, 2016) and others summarized the
achievements since the power system reform and the
problems existing in the market construction, such as
the opaque transmission and distribution price
verification mechanism and the incomplete
transformation of enterprise role, and analyzed the
corresponding reasons. Zeng (Zeng, 2016) et al.
analyzed the reform of electricity selling side and
electricity selling companies and held that the key to
the market-oriented reform of electric power is the
reform of electricity price, in which the liberalization
of electricity selling market is closely related to the
construction of energy Internet. Yang (Yang, 2017) et
al. designed a strategic platform for electricity sales
of power grid enterprises from the perspective of
power grid platform strategy from five aspects,
including electricity sales business positioning, target
market segmentation and user filtering mechanism.
As for the research on power users, based on the
market-oriented environment, the basic power supply
can no longer meet the needs of power users, and
customized and personalized energy services will be
more desirable. In addition, users can independently
choose electricity sales companies with better power
consumption mode and high power consumption
efficiency, and these companies are allowed to charge
reasonable fees for providing corresponding services.
Huang, Y. and Liu, Y.
Research on Consumption Behavior of Power Users based on Full Liberalization of Power Selling Side.
DOI: 10.5220/0011359100003440
In Proceedings of the International Conference on Big Data Economy and Digital Management (BDEDM 2022), pages 924-929
ISBN: 978-989-758-593-7
2022 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
Sun et al. (Sun, 2018) analyzed the main factors
influencing users' selection of electricity selling
companies in the electricity market, divided users into
three categories: large industrial users, general
industrial and commercial users and residential users,
and then modeled according to the load
characteristics of different users to analyze users'
behavior of choosing electricity selling companies.
2.1 Definition of Electricity Market
Broad electricity market. Power market in the broad
sense refers to the economic system including the
relationship between power production, transmission,
use and sales.
Narrow electricity market. In the narrow sense,
the electricity market refers to the competitive
electricity market, which refers to the electricity
producers and users through negotiation, bidding and
other ways of electricity and related products related
to the transaction, and through market competition to
determine the behavior, product price and quantity.
The market is characterized by openness,
competition, planning and coordination.
2.2 Impact of Power Selling Side
2.2.1 Promote the Transformation of the
Role of the Original Market Players
Before the release of the power sales side, the
participants in the power market were power
generation enterprises, power grid enterprises and
power users. Because users have little influence on
the market, a pattern of power generation and power
grid is formed. After the official issuance of
Document No. 9, power generation enterprises
actively participate in the market and competition,
and are allowed to sell electricity directly to large
users. Due to the impact of various power sales
entities, power grid enterprises take the initiative to
join the competition and provide users with various
power sales services.
2.2.2 Promote More Diversified Markets
and Businesses
In order to win the market, various power sales
companies have launched various power sales
packages to meet the needs of different users, and the
competition is extremely fierce. Moreover, all kinds
of emerging power selling companies have the
characteristics of small individuals, rapid
transformation and strong adaptability, which has a
great impact on the original market subjects and their
3.1 AISAS Model Overview
AISAS model divides consumer behavior into five
stages: A: Attention; I: Interest; S: Search; A: Action;
S: Share. The core of the AISAS model is search and
AI stage is the customer gathering stage, gathering
target users to the enterprise Internet platform is the
most important step of Internet platform marketing.
In this link, enterprises can provide targeted
information and related services, gradually establish
and enhance the brand image of enterprises through
the Internet platform, and gather more and more
target users.
SAS stage is the customer interaction and sharing
stage. In the three links of information search,
generation and purchase and information sharing,
enterprise Internet platform interacts with customers
and customers interact with their own customers at
multiple levels.
3.2 Construction of Power
Consumption Mode System based
Table 1: construction of power consumption mode system.
Tertiary Index
The degree of
concern about
trading patterns
Level of interest in trading
Level of interest in the
transaction method
The degree of
concern on the
generator side
Degree of preference for
renewable energy
The degree of
concern on the
selling side
Degree of preference for
electricity suppliers
Interest Power trading
platform to
with consumers
The extent to which the
platform disseminates
electricity trading
The degree to which
platforms build relationships
with consumers
Research on Consumption Behavior of Power Users based on Full Liberalization of Power Selling Side
The degree to which the
platform maintains a
relationship with consumers
for power
Customers' ideal
expectations for the service
quality of the platform
The customer's minimum
expectation of the service
quality of the platform
convenience of
Through which channels to
search for power trading
platform selection
Through which channels to
search for trading patterns to
Reliability of
power trading
Grade the performance of
Evaluate whether the
platform personnel are
Whether the grid load is
properly planne
Convenience of
Convenience of telephone
and Internet consulting
The convenience of door-to-
door service
Timeliness of
Score information release,
electricity price settlement,
contract signing, complaints
and feedbac
Fairness of
Score the fairness of
resource allocation, power
purchase plan and
transaction results
Consumers like
and are willing
to share
Score the e-commerce
providers who are willing to
share and promote sales
Score your willingness to
share and promote
transaction patterns
Rating generators willing to
share promotions
3.3 Questionnaire Distribution and
Data Collection
Formal questionnaires are mainly electronic
questionnaires issued on the network as the carrier,
and the survey objects are people related to electricity
trading. Questionnaires were issued to electricity
consumers in different industries and regions. 350
formal questionnaires were issued and 332 were
recovered, with a recovery rate of 94.9%. 32 invalid
questionnaires were deleted, and 300 valid
questionnaires remained, with a valid questionnaire
recovery rate of 90.3%.
4.1 Basic Statistical Analysis of
4.1.1 Power Consumption Attribute
In the 300-point questionnaire, there are 170
commercial users, accounting for 56.67% of the total
number of respondents, 95 industrial users,
accounting for 31.67% of the total number of
respondents, and 89.34% of industrial and
commercial users, which is similar to the power
consumption proportion of industrial and commercial
users in the Analysis Report on The Status of China's
Electricity Consumption Demand in 2019. Indicates
that this data is representative in the proportion of
4.1.2 Electricity Consumption Market
There were 232 consumers in the retail market,
accounting for 77.33%; 68 users, accounting for
22.67%, consume electricity in the wholesale market,
which involves the sale of electricity between power
companies and power traders, and ultimately sells it
to consumers; In the retail market, electricity sales
companies are the main agents to purchase electricity.
Due to the low bargaining power of small and
medium-sized enterprises, they are more inclined to
purchase electricity on behalf of electricity sales
companies. This is consistent with the conclusion that
electricity users tend to be medium and small in the
electricity Trade Report 2020, indicating that the
survey results are representative in the electricity
consumption market structure.
4.1.3 Electricity Trading Category
Among the 300 surveyed users, 82 and 101 users used
spot trading frequently and secondary users
respectively, accounting for 61% in total; There are
43 frequent users and 81 secondary users of futures
trading respectively. Frequent users and secondary
users account for 41.33% of futures trading. If the
frequent users or secondary users are classified as the
main users, it can be found that the total proportion of
main spot trading and main futures trading is close to
100%. It shows that the results of this investigation
are true in terms of electricity trading varieties.
4.1.4 Option of Electricity Seller
From the 300 valid questionnaires, it can be
BDEDM 2022 - The International Conference on Big Data Economy and Digital Management
concluded that there are 224 users who often use and
secondary use the power sales of power grid
companies, ranking first in all power sales industries,
and the selection of power users for the other six types
of power sellers is similar. This shows that with the
opening of China's power market, a new market
pattern of "multiple buyers and multiple sellers" has
gradually taken shape. Under this pattern, China's
power users have the right to choose their own power
sellers after comprehensive consideration of factors
such as price, service and reputation of power selling
companies, In the research, we can provide new ideas
for the innovation of power trading mode by
observing the differences of power users' choice of
power suppliers.
4.1.5 Electricity Trading Cycle
Electricity consumers mainly choose the form of
annual transaction and monthly transaction, among
which the number of regular and minor annual
transaction consumers account for 31.33% of the total
number, the number of regular and minor monthly
transaction consumers account for 55% of the total
number, both more than 50%; Power consumers
seldom choose the form of day-trading and day-
trading, and the number of consumers who never use
day-trading and never use day-trading exceeds one
third of the total number. It can be seen that medium
and long term electricity transaction is still the most
common form of electricity market transaction at
present, and electricity consumers rarely participate
in electricity spot transaction. China to speed up the
pace of reform of electricity market, promote the
construction of electric power spot market, but the
current electricity spot market also is not very perfect,
also has the very big development space, along with
the advancement of electric power spot market, the
future to participate in electricity will gradually
increase the proportion of the spot transactions.
4.1.6 Mode of Electricity Transaction
The vast majority of electricity consumers are
inclined to participate in bilateral negotiated
transactions, and the number of consumers who often
use bilateral negotiated transactions and those who
use bilateral negotiated transactions is 67.33%. In
terms of economics, bilateral electricity transaction
maximizes the interests of both sides of supply and
demand, and reflects the fairness of the electricity
market. The transaction is simple, flexible and
practical, with low technical requirements and low
transaction costs. It is the most important form of
electricity transaction. Centralized bidding
transaction and listing transaction solve the real-time
problem and the imbalance of power supply and
demand respectively, complement and perfect the
deficiency of bilateral negotiation transaction, and are
also widely used by power consumers.
4.1.7 Degree of Preference for Green Power
On the whole, most power consumers are interested
in using renewable energy, which is consistent with
the trend of expanding green and low-carbon energy
supply and building a clean, low-carbon, safe and
efficient energy system in China. Specifically,
electricity consumers prefer hydropower in the use of
green power. In practical use, hydropower generation
has low cost, low price, high power generation
efficiency and flexibility, while photovoltaic power
generation and wind power generation have high cost.
Photovoltaic power generation is not the first choice,
which may be due to the high cost of photovoltaic
power generation, low conversion efficiency,
intermittent work, inconsistent with people's power
demand and other reasons.
4.2 Statistical Analysis of Each
4.2.1 Interest
Consumers are highly satisfied with the power trading
platform's use of various channels to disseminate
power trading information, establish relations with
consumers, maintain relations with consumers and
the service quality of the power trading platform. The
number of "satisfied" and "very satisfied" with these
services accounts for more than 80% of the
investigated people. This shows that before the
purchase behavior of power consumers, all power
trading platforms pay great attention to mastering and
meeting the interests of consumers, disseminate
power information targeted, establish and maintain
the relationship with consumers, shape a good
corporate image and gather more loyal customers.
Therefore, consumers are more satisfied with the
service of the power trading platform before
Consumers have high ideal expectations for the
service quality of the power trading platform, the
number of people who choose "very expected"
accounts for more than 50% of the total, indicating
that power users have high requirements for power
trading, there is much room to improve the service
quality of the current power trading platform.
Research on Consumption Behavior of Power Users based on Full Liberalization of Power Selling Side
4.2.2. Search
For the search channel of electric power trading
platform, 34.2% of the respondents chose power grid
companies, 27.9% responded to power generation
enterprises, 19.1% responded to customer
relationship, and 18.8% responded to Internet. For the
search channel of transaction mode, 36.3% of power
grid companies, 25.7% of power generation
enterprises, 18.8% of customer relationships and
19.2% of the Internet were selected. This shows that
users prefer to obtain electricity transaction
information from power grid companies.
4.2.3. Action
The survey results show that in the process of power
purchase, power users are satisfied with the service of
the power trading platform, electricity price and
electricity settlement and the fairness and impartiality
of the transaction. More than 70% of the respondents
chose "satisfied" or "very satisfied", indicating that
the current power trading platform can basically meet
the needs of users when purchasing power. The
satisfaction of electricity price and electricity
settlement is slightly low, which needs to be further
With regard to the relationship between power
trading platform and power trading, more than 75%
of respondents agree that power trading platform
promotes the fairness of power trading and the degree
of competition in power trading. This shows that the
power trading platform enlivens the power trading
market to a certain extent, reduces the information
barrier, increases the competition of participants, and
makes the power trading more transparent and fair.
4.2.4. Share
The survey results show that consumers are willing to
recommend to other enterprises for information
sharing when they are satisfied with the cooperative
power sales market, power producers and the existing
power trading mode.
Combined with the era background of the full
liberalization of the power selling side, this paper
analyzes the development of the power market and
the development of the power trading mode,
constructs the research model framework of the
power user's consumption behavior through the
AISAS model, designs the power user's consumption
behavior questionnaire, and analyzes the basic
information of the power user, the variables that
attract the attention of consumers, the variables that
stimulate the interest of consumers By measuring the
variables of consumer information search, consumer
generated purchase and consumer information
sharing, the consumption characteristics of power
users are as follows:
Characteristics of consumption concept:
power consumers tend to buy electricity in
the retail market. Electricity consumers tend
to use spot trading.
Characteristics of consumption mode: the
vast majority of power consumers tend to
participate in bilateral negotiation
transactions. Medium and long-term power
trading is still the most common form of
power market trading.
Characteristics of consumption trend:
electricity consumers prefer hydropower in
the use of green electricity. The new market
pattern of "multi buyer - Multi seller" has
gradually taken shape.
Therefore, the following suggestions are put
forward for the power trading platform:
First, market transaction organization and
Implementation. According to the transaction rules
formulated by the government, the power trading
center should builds an open, transparent and fully
functional trading platform for market members to
carry out bilateral negotiation, centralized bidding,
listing and other trading activities, and publish the
trading results. In terms of transaction contracts, the
rights and obligations of all parties to the transaction
should be further detailed and clear; Straighten out
the dispute resolution mechanism, establish timely
and effective communication channels, and
coordinate the settlement of contract disputes.
Second, statistical analysis and information
release. The power trading platform shall regularly
publish market analysis reports, evaluate the
operation status of the power market through the
analysis of key indicators of power trading operation,
and provide market environment prediction and
analysis for the next stage of trading. The power
trading platform must follow the principles of
openness, transparency, timeliness, accuracy,
standardization and unity and high-quality service,
treat all kinds of market subjects fairly.
Third, risk prevention and control. When
formulating the business process, the power trading
platform should fully consider the compliance risk,
integrate the compliance management into the
business process, and run through the whole process
of market trading activity organization, so as to
BDEDM 2022 - The International Conference on Big Data Economy and Digital Management
effectively avoid the occurrence of compliance risk.
At the same time, do a good job in compliance and
self-discipline of their own operations.
This work is supported by Science and Technology
Project of SGCC (Research on electricity
consumption mode innovation and company business
mode based on energy Internet, No. 1400-
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Research on Consumption Behavior of Power Users based on Full Liberalization of Power Selling Side