Parents’ Personality as Social Withdrawal Agent of a Child and
Presentation of Reflexive Methods of “Mother’s Diary”
Zoia Miroshnyk
and Yelyzaveta Davoian
Kryvyi Rih State Pedagogy University, Gagarin Avenue, 54, Kryvyi Rih, Ukraine
Keywords: Parent Personality, Autism, Autistic Spectrum Disorders, Social Withdrawal, Withdrawal Condition.
Abstract: In the article an integrated view is given toward understanding of etiology of autistic spectrum disorders which
summaries 3 methods: clinical, psychoanalytic, and psychosocial. Using of given methods let to look more
widely at causes of autism occurrence. Generalized comparative of characteristics of the parents’ personalities
who raise the children with autistic spectrum disorders and parents who raise neurotypical children are given.
For comparative analysis of parents’ personalities specificity in its structure thank to theoretical search and
practical work with families, psychological aspects were separated out: autistic features, systematization,
personal anxiety, depression neuroticism and psychoticism with the help of which comparative analysis of
the parents of adducted groups was carried out. Specific characters of parents’ personality who raise the child
with autistic spectrum disorder can be the one which influences interaction with the child and the environment
which can lead to social withdrawal. In reference to the question of social withdrawal generalization of the
views is done in the article. Fragmentarily of ideas of the notion is adduced in scientific periodicals. And
comparison of its definition with the notion “autism” and consideration it in the connection of social and
secondary social withdrawal. Generalization of the relatively explanation social withdrawal allowed to clarify
and complete specific notion and discover the conditions which can influence social withdrawal occurrence.
Reflexive methods “Mother’s diary”, the aim of which is to prevent negative psychological and medical
conditions among women during pregnancy and the first year after giving a birth for improvement her
interaction with the child and prevention further social withdrawal, are presented in the article.
Toward the paradigm of steady progression regarding
not only the environment but social justice (1), we
suppose it is essential to open up a discussion about
parents who raise the children with autistic spectrum
disorder. Both for Ukraine and other countries one of
the main questions before the pandemic was the
question of autistic disorder spread and involving the
autistic children to inclusive school environment.
The task of modern Ukrainian school is providing
of appropriate conditions for educating of all children
of all categories of students. So the main participants
of educating process are children, teachers and
parents. Their interaction should be built on the basis
of partnership and social equality. The success of
involving a child into inclusive programs depends on
it. (Kalinichenko, 2012), (Kolupaieve
&Taranchenko, 2018), (Miroshnyk & Davoian,
2021), (Ostrovska and Savchenko, 2010), (Saiko,
Parents of the children with specific educating
problems and with autism in particular, as we
mentioned, are ones of the educating process
participants their personal particularities can play
both supportive and prevent a child from socialization
by the process of through the school environment.
(Bondar, 2019). The personal practical experience
and theoretic generalization which we are going to
mention below showed us urgency of the issue of the
parent psychological particularity studying and their
influence on child and family social withdrawal in
general. It can happen due to specific perception of
the families, who raise the children with specific
educating needs, by society, which can influence
adverse event of parent personality and social
Miroshnyk, Z. and Davoian, Y.
Parents’ Personality as Social Withdrawal Agent of a Child and Presentation of Reflexive Methods of “Mother’s Diary”.
DOI: 10.5220/0011357000003350
In Proceedings of the 5th International Scientific Congress Society of Ambient Intelligence (ISC SAI 2022) - Sustainable Development and Global Climate Change, pages 335-346
ISBN: 978-989-758-600-2
2022 by SCITEPRESS – Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
inequality of its social group toward others which
leads to closeness of these families.
In sum, psychological aid to the families who
raise the autistic children, preventing work toward
child social withdrawal is an urgent issue, which
relates to both personality steady progression and
school inclusive environment, which only accepts
general tendencies in Ukraine.
The aim of the article is theoretical generalization
of child social withdrawal issue and potential
influence on this process of certain parent personal
particularities. Presentation of preventing method of
potential child social withdrawal “Mother’s diary”.
2.1 Autism Etiology Issue
Autistic spectrum disorder has started to be studied
since 19 century. Since then, the development of
neuroscience, psychology and contiguous science
directions has supported the widening of the criteria
which help to diagnose presence of autistic disorders
and understanding but not total, the reasons, which
can have influence on autism occurrence. Theoretical
research allowed separating out three main, in our
opinion, methods in etiology of autistic spectrum
disorders: clinical, psycho-analytical and social-
Clinical methods can see the etiology of autism in
genetic: inheritance of vulnerability to pathology, in
phenomenon of assertive breeding, Down syndrome,
double Y chromosome, frangible X chromosome
(Lebedinskaya, 1991), (Mikadze, 2013), (Baron-
Cohe, 2012), (Baron-Cohe, 2013), (Miroshnyk,
Davoian, 2021); inborn metabolic profiles, influence
of Vitamin D on the amount of testosterone in
delivery waters during the pregnancy (Ali, 2020),
(Lee 2019); phenylektonuria, histidinemia
(Lebedinskaya, 1991), (Mikadze, 2013); organic
disorders in central nervous system: dysfunction of
mirror neurons (Kosonogov, 2009), (Mikadze, 2013),
(Chernigovskaya, 2006), dysfunction of TPO zone
(Davoian, 2014).
Psychoanalytical method connects etiology of
autism with mother to child adaptation disorder,
which can be seen in destructive reactions to child’s
attempts to interact (not reacting on crying, pushing
out etc. ,overwhelming and specific behavior during
pregnancy, mother’s feeling of insecurity and
inability to feel support from father of a child; lack of
supportive environment; negative conditions of baby
feeding, which can been seen in specific mother’s
inability to interpret baby’s actions (to give them
sense);in mother’s depression; objectivation of a baby
to which refers non-inclusion of a baby to language
environment, symbiosis, which doesn’t give a child
opportunity to subject though formation of her/his
own desires and putting a child in a position of an
object for adult wish fugue, perception of a child
through a handicap disease (Winnikott, 1998),
(Battelheim, 2013), (Grin, 2005), (Dolto, 2018),
Davoian, 2014), (Davoian, 2015), (Mykhailenko &
Davoian, 2020).
Social-psychological method understands
etiology of autistic spectrum disorders not in forming
of the activity subject; mother depressive conditions;
parent personal particularities; child autism can be as
systematic roll-based compensation from the
perspective of the system which the child belongs to
(family); mother hostility to her child (attempt of
abortion); disorder of communication between a child
and a father. (Shulzhenko, 2010), (Syrotkin, 2018),
(Khomulenko, 2020), (Asperger, 2010).
Therefore, considering etiology of autistic
spectrum disorders from several positions (clinical,
psychoanalytical, psycho-social) we have
opportunity to look at issues, which can become agent
of this disorder and understand that role, which
parents may have during etiology issue research more
3.1 Parent Personality
Certain psychological personal peculiarities of the
parents who raise autistic children were discussed by
S. Baron-Coen (Baron-Cohen, 2012), (Baron-Cohen,
2013), (Baron-Cohen, 2006), (S. Baron-Cohen,
2003), P.B. Hannushkin (Gannushkin, 2017), F.B.
Berezin (Berezin, 2011), N. Mc. Williams (Williams,
2015), S. Falstein, M. Rutter М, D. Piven, М. Murphy
(Murphy, 2000). Among the main particularities the
following ones are emphasized: personal anxiety,
depression, autistic features, systematization which
appears through professional direction, neuritis and
The diagnostic the mentioned psychological
particularities of parent personalities, who raise the
autistic children and neuro-typical children who we
mentioned in our publication, was done by us. (Z.
Miroshnyk, Y. Davoian, 2021). We are going to look
at the generalization of the results of the comparative
research conducted by us more circumstantial.
Comparison of psychological personal particularities
ISC SAI 2022 - V International Scientific Congress SOCIETY OF AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE
of both groups was done by comparative analyzing of
the created personality constellations and profiles.
Therefore, analyzing of the Pleiades allowed talking
about differences in appearing of the psychological
personal particularities (autistic features,
systematization, which can appear throughout
professional direction, personal anxiety, depression,
neuroticism and psychoticism) of the parents who
raise the autistic children (group А, n = 110) and
children who raise neuro-typical children (group B, n
= 122). Psychological particularities of the parents of
the group A were divided into three emphasized
Pleiades which mentioned above were divided into
other five ones. Strong bonds predominated in the
Pleiades, which makes her visual performance similar
to a closed circle. Regarding the Pleiades of the parent
psychological particularities of the group B we were
watching one emphasized pleiad consisted of four
other ones. In the pleiad of the parents of group B
mild bonds predominated, which makes her visual
performance be more opened and less strong (close).
Therefore the leading role of the parents of group A
is in their personal particularities: autistic features,
systematization, psychoticism, personal anxiety,
depression, techno and science direction. The parents
from group B have personal anxiety, depression,
neuroticism and psychoticism as their leading role.
Autistic features, systematization and techno-science
direction is apart from the main pleiad. We concede
specific of the Pleiades parent personality of group A
such as are able to influence on their interaction with
the child leading to social withdrawal of a child and a
family in general, which is mentioned below.
Regarding profiles of parent personalities of both
groups we saw that the female and male profiles of
group A were similar, mathematically significant
difference we were watching in depression
performance. Regarding the profiles of the parents of
group B we saw that the male and female profiles
were similar too, the difference was seen in
systematization data. The difference between the
parent profiles of both groups was seen in autistic
features and systematization data. They were higher
in the personal parent profile of group A. the female
profiles had more differences in signification
dynamic of systematization, depression and autistic
features, which were higher among the female parents
of group A. Therefore, we can suppose that specific
of the parents of group A (combining of male and
female parents with the mentioned personal
characteristics) can lead to influence of their
personality on the child social withdrawal.
3.2. Social Withdrawal
As L. E. Smith, Jr Grinberg and M. P. Mailik have
mentioned in their research “Family context of
autistic spectrum disorder: influence on behavioral
phenotype and living standards” (Smith, 2014) family
environment can have great influence on behavior
(improvement or decline) of pathological patterns of
autistic teenagers. The authors think that warmness
(sincerity, sociability) acceptance in parental
relationships with an autistic teenager relieves
behavior of autistic patterns, on the other hand,
criticism, parental excessive emotional engagement,
their self-sacrificing attitude can cause child
depression and provoke more dynamic demonstration
of autistic patterns. (Smith, 2014). Everything
mentioned above by the scientists is considered to be
characterized as the process of “social withdrawal”.
We come across the term “social withdrawal” in a
big amount of Ukrainian and Russian speaking
periodicals but we cannot find its detailed and full
description. The term “social withdrawal” is
considered as weakening of the contacts in the
“Dictionary of complex rehabilitation of the disabled
(Bronnikov, 2010, p. 52), which doesn’t differ it from
the definition of “autism” as mental health in our
opinion. We do not come across the mentioned term
in English speaking periodicals at all, expect the
description of certain conditions which can influence
on “improvement” or “decline” of child autistic
M.K. Bardyshevska, I.B. Barylnik, D.A Shultina,
N.V Fillippovata and others consider the notion
“social withdrawal” in tight connection with the
notion of social and secondary withdrawal.
The authors D Sulgina, N.V. Filipova, I.B.
Barylnik (Sulgina, 2014) emphasize the feeling of
stress in autistic child upbringing and necessity of
psychological intervention for preventive of
destructive family rebuilding and occurrence of
secondary family social withdrawal. D.A. Shulgina,
N.V. Filippova, I.B. Barylnik describe the
demonstration of secondary social withdrawal, which
occur in : weakness of the contacts with close people;
decline of emotional ground; new stereotypy
occurrence which is connected with psychological
condition of parents end child environment; members
of the family take over childs behavior, which can de
seen as closedness from society; showing up the
demonstration of excessive exigency from the parents
of the autistic child to family members(they demand
more standard attitude to their child and to
themselves);both mother and child can have the
coalition which can influence on unconscientious
Parents’ Personality as Social Withdrawal Agent of a Child and Presentation of Reflexive Methods of “Mother’s Diary”
unwilling of a child to get over autism, after all the
child can support his mother’s attitude to the world,
especially distrust to the world.(Shultina, 2014).
Also, secondary social withdrawal as family
closedness phenomenon can occur as certain answer
to the environment, which can transmit negative
emotions to the family (Shultina, 2014). The
mentioned thing can influence on the feeling of social
inequality of families (who suffer from secondary
social withdrawal) toward others. It is expressed
through the complication of social interactions and
the absence of the preventing measures for the
families who raise the children with autistic spectrum
Talking about isolation as a specific disorder in
autistic children’s psychological connections M.K.
Bardyshevska considers “confusion” – child inability
to differentiate their own psychological functions
from mother psychological functions. The scientist
can see another reason in premature splitting of the
early affective-behavioral complexes which appears
as a part of close communication with the mother
naturally (Bardyshevskaya, 2015). M.K.
Bardyshevskaya’s description can be defined as the
term “separation”. The author describes
complications which occur and lead to isolation
through mother’s and child’s inability to separate
from each other which is considered as one of the
agents of social withdrawal.
Both G.A. Evlampieva (Evlampieva, 2017) and
M.K. Bardyshevska emphasize the necessity of
separation in mother and child relationships, which
contributes successful child socialization. Simbiotic
connection between a child and a mother can be an
obstacle for child socialization. The socialization of
the baby with autistic disorder will depend on the
ability to build the contact with the child and mother’s
attitudes. In a worse case secondary social withdrawal
can occur, which the scientist writes about.
L.S. Pechnikova, G.A. Krupnik research
(Krupnik, 2020) and V. Osioldo’s research shows up
the ability of the birth order regarding parent attitude
to the children; the specific of the interaction of the
parents and the child with autistic spectrum disorders
if there are neurotypical siblings. Parents are more
demanding to the first children, they have higher level
of expectance to them. Parents tend to show
micromanagement to the middle children,
importunity (they can infantile the child). L.S.
Pechnikova concluded that the mother who raise an
only child may accept his’her peculiarities with
higher possibility rather than the mothers who raise
several children. If there is a neurotypical sibling(s)
can influence on mother’s complications to change
behavioral styles, which is directed on the autistic
child. It can strengthen pushing out the autistic child
and cause secondary social withdrawal (Pechnikova,
V. Osiodlo and L.C. Pechnikova emphasizes
importance of sibling relationship and the birth order
- the birth order and interaction between siblings can
influence on personality development and
establishment (Osiodlo, 2017). In our opinion, the
mentioned above can have more severe character in
the families who raise an autistic child, which can be
one of the agents of social withdrawal of a child.
The scientist O.M. Svintsova and O.V.
Karanievska describe the condition which parents
have when they find out their child diagnosis and
emphasize that this condition is similar to “loss” of a
child. In our opinion feeling of loss can influence the
relationships between parents and child, be an agent
of social withdrawal of a family alike the people
isolation in mourning. The authors say when the
family faces the complication with the child behavior,
it starts losing social contacts, shorten the contacts
with others and it ends up feeling stronger fear of
being in society, secondary social withdrawal of the
whole family starts to develop (Svintsova, 2020).
Social-psychological coordinates of social
withdrawal which according to S.F. Sirotkina and
M.L. Melnikova, is a phenomenon of psychological
disengagement and tendency to being introverted
(Sirotkin, 2018). The scientists think that social
withdrawal can occur as the reflaction of the trauma
of the generation (Sirotkin, 2018). The agents of
social withdrawal are thought to be social fears,
generation disappointment during social crises, and
protective response to inflated ego danger. The result
of it is giving a birth to children from the generation,
which is characterized by social and psychological
O.S. Nikolska, E.R. Baenska, M.M. Libling, I.E.
Moreva, T.V. Sirotina raise the issue of inadequate
attitude to an autistic child by the environment. The
authors say about the attitude to an autistic child by
the environment as a misbehaved one. This attitude
can lead to family’s unwilling to visit public places,
which leads to closedness and shrinking of the
contacts with the environment and causes social
withdrawal (Nikolskaia, 2007). The mentioned above
confirms the emergency of the topic and shows social
inequality which is caused by social and secondary
Generalizing everything that was mentioned
above we conclude that social withdrawal is
understood as the process of separating the family
from society, over focusing of the family on their own
ISC SAI 2022 - V International Scientific Congress SOCIETY OF AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE
problems, breaking the contacts with others,
occurrence of the public place fear and the feeling of
danger from the environment, which may not have
right attitude to their child and themselves. Regarding
secondary social withdrawal, in most cases, the
agents are the same that for social withdrawal, but in
secondary social withdrawal bigger accent is in
interaction of the parents and the child. A child has
deepening of destructive processes during secondary
social withdrawal as a result of interaction disorder
with parents (especially with mother): disorder of
communication or symbiotic relationships, which
prevent a child from socialization the notion “social
withdrawal” is understood as painful separation from
the world, severe breaking of contacts.
The analysis of theoretical sources, practical
experience gave have given an opportunity to clarify
and complete the notion “social withdrawal” and to
perform it as certain process of progress, which is
accompanied with showing up of child behavioral
autistic features due to the certain conditions of
his/her development, which can lead to autistic
conditions and further autism.
Based on the theoretical analysis and practical
work with the families, we have concluded that parent
personality can be classified into two groups. As the
basis of our classification we took the personality
classification which was made by S.B. Baley
(Rybalkа, 2015). He divided personalities into
harmonic and disharmonic. Therefore, we place the
individuals who have adequate somatic and
psychological condition to the harmonic type of
parents taking into account those personal
particularities which had been described above. Point
Index of this particularities discovery is suitable to
average index. Those who have unsatisfactory
somatic and psychological condition are placed to the
disharmonic type of parent personalities taking into
account mentioned psychological particularities. The
index of these particularities deviates from the
average index. We suppose that the parents of the
disharmonic group can be influenced by social
withdrawal and they influence on second child and
family social withdrawal occurrence to a considerable
degree, which leads to the feeling of social inequality.
Therefore, we can see that those conditions, which
influence on occurrence of social withdrawal, are
shown in periodic fragmentarily, that is why basing
on the mentioned above, we separate the following
conditions of social withdrawal:
Social injustice which can be expressed
through misunderstanding and imperceptions
(blaming of parents) the families, who raise the
children with autistic spectrum disorders;
Peculiarities of the parent interaction with the
child, specifically: absence of warmness and
acceptance of the child; criticizing of the child; over
demanding; excessive emotional parent involvement;
parent self-sacrifice; parent perception of the
environmental influence as a negative one, which
leads to shortening of the contacts; behavioral autistic
pattern copying, which leads to shortening of the
contacts; symbiotic relationships with the child;
communication disorder; rigid parent behavioral
patterns; excessive care; sibling relationships
(existence of siblings);
Special nature of parent peculiarities
(disharmonic features).
3.3 Mother’s Diary
Analyzing of theoretical sources and personal
practical experience showed us the importance of the
work with parents during pregnancy period and the
first year after giving a birth for preventing social
withdrawal. It is important for the family (especially
the mother and the child) during pregnancy period
feeling good somatically and psychologically.
Feeling healthy will help to prevent different
illnesses, especially early social withdrawal, during
pregnancy and the first year after giving a birth, in our
opinion. Consequently, an important task of
psychological work of different directions is quality
support of parents during pregnancy and the first year
after giving a birth. Mentioned generalization comes
out of our practical experience of the work with
parents of both categories. With those, who raise a
child of autistic spectrum disorder and those, who
have a neurotypical child. Let us give you one of the
examples of the practical work with a young mother,
who suffered from certain period of crisis both before
and after the pregnancy. Her own portrait, the portrait
of her husband and the family are suitable for the
portraits of the parents from group A (Miroshnyk &
Davoian, 2021). But in comparison with group A
there was quite early psychological work with the
parent couple. The child of this family does not have
autistic spectrum disorders (without social
withdrawal). That experience the first months after
their daughter’s birth which were described by her
mother can be experienced by anybody, in our
opinion. And without early aid this specific nature of
such experience may be the agent of social
withdrawal. As we have mentioned before, any
woman can have such experience of the family
(especially the mother of the child), mentioned below.
But the public stereotype about the pregnancy,
emotional condition, which the mother must have
Parents’ Personality as Social Withdrawal Agent of a Child and Presentation of Reflexive Methods of “Mother’s Diary”
during her pregnancy and the first year after giving a
birth, the stereotypes about what feelings she should
have, that women are not allowed feeling tiredness or
negativity, or nagging feelings which is connected
with their anxiety. The mentioned above becomes the
reason why women can hesitate asking for help. The
women who were not worked with (especially the
mentioned case, were talking about non-admission of
their anxiety as something serious by the doctors and
close people. The mentioned became the reason why
women asked for help so much later and in cases
when women raise their children with autistic
spectrum disorders, the women began to work with
their own fears of their pregnancy and the first year
of giving a birth only when the child was diagnosed
(3-5 years old) and the baby began to attend a
psychologist. The mentioned sharing became
possible only within parents’ meetings.
The structuring of the case which was described
below is based on the method of watching and
interviewing. Therefore, it is a report of the case L.
The characteristic of the family (members of the
family, the age of the child, sex, parents’ education
and job direction):
The family consists of a mother, a father and a
child (a girl, 2,5 years old, the first child). Parents’
parents are included to the family.
The parents’ parents are mentioned all the
time. There is a child in the husband’s family (his
sister), which has special educational needs (the
diagnose is infantile cerebral paralysis and sacred
The mother, who was worked with, has social-
behavioral educational direction, during our
experiment she was in a maternity leave. The father
has higher technical metallurgy education. The
grandparents from the mother’s side have higher
pedagogical science education, they are
entrepreneurs. The grandmother from the husband’s
side has education in the humanities (Art subject), she
does not work due to the care of the disabled child.
The observation has been held for a year.
Mother’s personal peculiarities (the case, the
Un expected pregnancy, the mother was
worried about economics ability to facilitate high
quality life for the child. She had strong feeling of
guilt because of this.
The woman was constantly worried about her
health of the child-to-be due to her husband’s sister’s
condition, she was afraid that her child will inherit
this condition.
Before the pregnancy the woman had had
depression that was diagnosed with the help of her
hypochondria condition. During her pregnancy the
depression declined and the hypochondria became a
obsessive neurosis about “cleanliness” and
She has romanticized a lot about her child-to-
be and that she will love it immediately.
When they found out the sex of their child, she
chose a name and started to call her baby-to-be by
name and finally accepted her pregnancy.
She had strong offence to her husband’s
mother but did not tell her about that.
The delivery was on time, cesarean section
was made.
When she first saw a child, it seemed that it
was not her child (not the child she had born and “the
right child had been replaced)”, she understood she
felt nothing to her child.
First weeks after the childbirth she was very
tired and angry with the baby, because the girl was
crying all the time (the first week the baby had high
temperature, she felt disgust to herself because she
still did not feel anything to her child.
The postnatal depression has started, during
which it was difficult for the woman to look at her
baby, to feed it.
She felt anger to the father of the child,
because he didn’t help due to being busy at work. The
wife felt it as abandoning and loneliness.
After an unpleasant accident during the breast
feeding (she shouted at her child because she didn’t
want to take the breast and she was crying), she
understood that she needed to ask for some
professional help (psychologist) and for her parents’
Sometimes when the child starts to express her
negative feelings, her mother prohibits her to do it,
using the phrase that her daughter wouldn’t do it. It
points to that fact that it is difficult for the mother to
accept her negative emotions and that she did not
accept her daughter as her “right” child
The child started speaking when she was two,
some negative points had been about her language
and psychological development, the child started
attending development center, and also the mother
started teaching her child at home, which corrected
the child development. It became possible thanks to
that fact that the mother asked for psychological help
due to her emotional condition and during the
sessions she understood what to do.
After the work with the psychologist and some
help from her husband’s parents, her emotional
condition became steady, the feeling of love to her
child started to occur, but in combination with a great
ISC SAI 2022 - V International Scientific Congress SOCIETY OF AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE
feeling of guilt, which expresses in inability to reject
her daughter’s wishes and buying the toys constantly.
The feeling of being mother has appeared.
Father’s personal peculiarities (the case, the
The father is a busy man, who supports both
his family and his mother and sister financially. That
is why he cannot pay enough attention to his wife and
He had to change his job during his wife
pregnancy, which became rather big stress, but the
husband did not show it, using his humor as defense
activity. Anxiety and stress were expressed through
excessive fastening of the speech, talkativeness and
certain hyperactivity.
When the daughter was born and he had to
change the job again and this new job started to bring
good money, the husband’s speech changed, the
speech became slower, and the movements became
less sharp.
He didn’t know about his wife anxiety during
her pregnancy, because she didn’t talk about that,
because her husband wouldn’t understand and accept
as something serious.
Angry and humor behavior due to his wife
obsessive neurosis are infantile expression of her
For the family safety and improvement of
interpersonal understanding, the husband agreed to
visit the psychologist together with his wife. During
the session they found out that the hiden motive of the
visiting the psychologist was curiosity in
understanding the interaction with the psychologist,
which also shows the husband’s infantilism.
The father shows big love to his daughter, but his care
has more demonstrative character, which can be seen
in the obvious instructions to his wife about care after
their daughter, which are directed to the third person
(the psychologist as an observer). Indeed, the husband
becomes tired very fast from the child. He is ready to
play with her but not to take care, he is ready to pay
everything necessary, but not to take part in it (to find
development centers, to take his child there, to
continue visit the psychologist with his wife).
3.3.1 «Mother’s Diary» – Preventing
To conclude, we can see necessity to prevent some
parent personal demonstration to some crisis point
(diagnosing of a child), which can influence on social
withdrawal. It challenged us to create an additional
methodology of discursive analyzing “Mother’s
diary”, Mothers can fill it during their pregnancy and
first months after it. Women can discuss the changes
which happen in their psychological and somatic
condition with their doctor or psychologist with the
help of “Mother’s diary”. Studying women’s notices,
doctors will be able to find the decline or
improvement in psychological and somatic condition
of a woman-mother and her child.
Implementation schedule of “Mother’s diary” as
an additional methodology of discursive analysis:
Implemental: “Mother’s diary”.
Participants: the women who felt the need for their
own psychological and somatic condition, child’s
condition during their pregnancy or the first year after
it for preventing of disorders the interaction with the
child; professional psychologists, family
psychologists, pre-natal psychologists.
The terms: during pregnancy 9 months or
starting with certain pre-natal period; the first year
after the childbirth.
Topics (request): preventing of depressive
conditions and anxiety of the mother; preventing of
interaction decline with the child.
Stages of implementing: diagnosing /preparing:
the woman herself or according to the specialist’s
recommendation takes a decision of necessity to use
an additional reflexive methodology “Mother’s
diary”; the main one is filling “Mother’s diary”;
calculating of the quantitative result; quality analysis
of the results; further psychological work according
to the results; final: the woman herself or with
professional psychologist takes a decision about
stopping of the used methodology.
General result: steady emotional condition;
neurotypical interaction with the child and the other
members of the family.
The diary consists of two parts: the first one is
directed to display the period of pregnancy; he other
one is directed to display the period after the
“The questions”, which have the character of
unfinished sentences (on an example of projective
methodologies), have been formed by us. And we
were ruled by the main rule of psychoanalysis, such
as: in the manual the woman was recommended to
write everything, which comes to her mind (Z. Freud
1998). We did it for the woman to be easier using of
“Mother’s diary”, it did not take a lot of time, it did
not bother her with narrow-formulated questions
(terms), it gave her an opportunity to express herself
and to display her feelings and emotions, to tell more,
to avoid the defense mechanisms, which can occur
answering direct questions.
During the work with “Mother’s diary it is
necessary to pay attention to a positive or negative
Parents’ Personality as Social Withdrawal Agent of a Child and Presentation of Reflexive Methods of “Mother’s Diary”
connotation of the woman’s narration, repeating of
certain words, which can express existence of the
main topic, which worries her. Insufficient complete
of the answers, their briefness or absence of the
answer at all can say about certain problems, which
deals with the group of questions the woman cannot
find “the right words”. For instance: the woman does
not write about her husband at all. It can be connected
with the fact that they have tensed relationships; the
woman invalidated her husband’s participation in
their family and child’s life for some reasons. The
mentioned has to be talked in the office to work out
the questions of relationships of the parents-children
for avoiding negative relationships with the husband,
which can be reflected to the child in the future. And
vice versa, excessive description of some category in
comparison with the others can point to the anxiety
demonstration or uncoscientious wish to turn their
attention from the important to something “seemed”
important. Slips of the pen in the narration can say
about the breakthrough of the uncoscientious into the
conscientious and find out that really worries the
woman. It is necessary to stop on it more carefully
and to analyze according to the other text.
For easier analyzing of the other “notebook”, we
designed the scale of the emotional narration
intensive grades for every unfinished statement
2 maximally, clearly, strongly positive
emotional characteristic, description, attitude in
continuation of the statement;
1 – positive attitude;
0 – indifferent attitude to something is talked
about, absence of cleanliness of any emotions, laconic
-1 – negative attitude;
-2 – maximally, clearly expressed, rather negative
emotional characteristic, description, attitude in
continuation of the statement.
The statements mentioned above are united into 2
groups. The statements in the pregnancy period
applied to the first group according to the logic of the
“notebook”. The statements after the childbirth are
applied to the second group.
The first group of the statements:
1. Woman health (the first statement).
2. Child health (the second statement).
3. Dreaming about the child (the third statement.
4. Child’s father (the fourth statement).
5. Wife’s parents (the fifth statement with the
6. Husbands’ parents (the sixth statement with
the added.
7. The woman’s work (the seventh statement).
Maximum number of the points, which can be
received in this group is 14, minimal number of the
points is -14, which will reflect negative condition of
the woman. Middle number of the points is 7. It
shows that certain moments have to be discussed
additionally not to leave aside bad health.
The second group consists of the statements of the
period after the pregnancy:
1. Woman health (the first statement).
2. Child health (the second and the fifth
3. Self-attitude (the third and the ninth
4. The interaction during the breastfeeding (the
fourth statement).
5. Wife’s parents (the sixth statement with the
6. Wife’s parents (the seventh statement with the
7. Husband’s parents (the eighth statement).
Maximum number of the points, which can be
received in this group is 14, minimal number of the
points is -14, which will reflect negative condition of
the woman. Middle number of the points is 7. It
shows that certain moments have to be discussed
additionally not to leave aside bad health.
For the work with the diary, psychologists must
have experience with projective methodologies.
Let’s come to the description of the “Mother’s
diary” itself.
The diary begins with the suggestion to the mother
to write down her name. Then there is the manual
with the greetings. The greetings, explanation and
instructions of the appealing to the woman is done in
the informal way. This conscientious step was done
for preventing of the anxiety and separation, which
can occur during filling in the materials where
appealing is formal (documents, health bills etc.).
Formal appealing can recall the “right answer” but we
try to avoid this.
The first pert “Pregnancy” begins after the
introduction. It contains of the seven unfinished
sentences and the suggestion of the free associations.
The instruction to the unfinished sentence has the
following form: “Please, continue the sentence
without thinking for long time”. Till the last
suggestion about free associations the following
instruction is:
“Please, write everything that comes to your
mind; the first thoughts (or images), which occur,
even if they seem strange or “wrong” in some way.”
First two sentences are about the condition of the
mother and the child-to-be: “I feel myself…”, “I think
my child feels …”. We can find out about her body
ISC SAI 2022 - V International Scientific Congress SOCIETY OF AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE
and mind condition through the mother’s narration,
which will continue unfinished sentences. Appealing
to the child’s health in care can help the woman and
the specialists to find out about the beginning of
psychological processes on time. The questions about
the child’s health will draw mother’s attention to
monitoring of child conditions antenatal.
The next unfinished sentence is about mother’s
dreams of the child-to-be (Zalewska, 2017): “I
imagine that my child will be… in the future”. The
discourse about the future child will help the mother
and the specialists to find out excessive expectations
to the child, to articulate them, to form images about
both “perfect child” and “imperfect child”.
An unfinished sentence about the father of the
child “Today the father …” let us understand in what
way the woman feels support and involvement of the
father, if she has feeling of independence and to try
finding out open or hidden conflicts with the husband,
which can lead to excessive stress. The opportunity of
working out the conflicts, which have been found out,
will appear for parents-to-be. The opportunity to
repair the relations will occur, which will decrease
stress level and possible woman’s feeling of being
The next one is a group of unfinished sentences
about the families of the husband and wife: “Today
me and my parents (mum/dad)…”, “My parents…”,
“My husband’s parents…”. Woman’s discourse
about all these unfinished sentences let us understand
what relationships the woman has with her own
family and her child’s father’s family, what attitude
the family have to her, if she feels support and help,
if there are the conflicts which need to be solved.
The last unfinished sentence in the part
“Pregnancy” is about the woman’s work. ”Today at
work…” the woman’s narration about this point can
help the dynamic, which happens at her working
place and the way it changes during the pregnancy.
After all the unfinished sentences we suggest
women writing down their free associations, which
will allow relieving their free association, which the
woman did not write in the unfinished sentences. The
aim of the course is to create the image about the main
issue, which can worry the mother-to-be, but she does
not realize it for some reason, and it prevents to work
it out during work with the psychologist/psychiatrist
or with the doctor who leads the woman during her
The second part is about the period after the
childbirth. The part begins from the unfinished
sentence about the mother’s health. Further
unfinished sentences are about the child and her/his
interaction with the mother: “I can see that the
baby…”, “The baby can see me percept…”, “When
I’m breastfeeding …”, “The baby…this week”. The
mentioned unfinished sentences are directed to open
the understanding baby’s health by the mother and the
understanding how much the mother adapted to the
baby (perception of the mother by the baby),
perception of the child by the mother and the
interaction with mother and the child, her dreams
about the child’s perception to her as the mother, co-
ordination of the breastfeeding process and
communication with the child (during the
breastfeeding). The last unfinished sentence of the
block will help the mother and the specialists to watch
the changes of the baby’s development and to notice
the progress on time.
“Today the child’s father…” is the unfinished
sentence which is about the father and the child. The
text about this unfinished sentence can help the
specialist to understand the perception of the father
by the mother in their relationships with the child and
the involvement the husband into the relationships
with the child in the dyad “mother-child”.
Next, there is a group of unfinished sentences,
which are about the parents’ parents. They will help
to understand the grandparents’ involvement in the
help to the mother with childcare, if there are any
The last unfinished sentence is about the
perception of herself as the mother: “I am the
mother…” Mother’s narration about this point will
help the specialists to see how much women can see
herself in the maternity role.
The structure of the diary and the unfinished
sentences are given below.
Greetings and the instructions:
“Hello! This is mother’s-to-be diary”. It can help
you to watch your health and your child’s health.
Also, you can take it as the notes for communication
with your doctor and your psychologist in case of
During the rereading of your notes, pay attention
to what way you write more often (positive or
negative), if there is any repeating of certain topic or
words in your notes, which relate to certain topic or
question. Also pay attention to slips of pen, do not
correct them, they can be the key to understanding
that fact what worries you most of all. If you have
noticed that your text became more negative in
relation with your health or your child’s health, if you
have understood that there is the topic that is worrying
you very much, talk to your doctor about this or
psychologist. They will help you to solve all the
This is the diary: ___________________
Parents’ Personality as Social Withdrawal Agent of a Child and Presentation of Reflexive Methods of “Mother’s Diary”
The first part of the “Mother’s diary”
1. Please, continue the sentence and do not think
too long. Today I feel … (more than 4 answers).
2. Please, continue the sentence and do not think
too long. I think my child feels… (more than 4
3. Please, continue the sentence and do not think
too long. I imagine that my child in the future.
4. Please, continue the sentence and do not think
too long. Today the child’s father.
5. Please, continue the sentence and do not think
too long. Today me and my parents (mum/dad).
My parents.
6. Please, continue the sentence and do not think
too long. Today my husband’s parents (mum/dad).
My husband’s parents (mum/dad).
7. Please, continue the sentence and do not think
too long. Today at work.
8. Please, write down everything that comes to
your mind; first thoughts (or images), which come,
even if you think they are strange or wrong” in some
way, continue to write, do not stop.
The second part of theMothers diaryThe
period after the childbirth”:
1. Please, continue the sentence and do not think
too long. Today I feel… (more than 4 answers).
2. Please, continue the sentence and do not think
too long. I can see that my baby… (more than 4
3. Please, continue the sentence and do not think
too long. The baby can see me/percept.
4. Please, continue the sentence and do not think
too long. When I breastfeed.
5. Please, continue the sentence and do not think
too long. The baby…this week.
6. Please, continue the sentence and do not think
too long. Today the baby’s father...
7. Please, continue the sentence and do not think
too long. Today me and my parents (mum/dad).
My parents.
8. Please, continue the sentence and do not think
too long. Today my husband’s parents (mum/dad).
Husband’s parents (mum/dad).
9. Please, continue the sentence and do not think
too long. I am the mother.
10. Please, write down everything that comes to
your mind; first thoughts (or images), which come,
even if you think they are strange or wrong” in some
way, continue to write, do not stop.
Using the scale for the calculation is given above.
On the basis of the theoretical generalization, the
theoretical relevant to the outlined topic, we observe
The etiology of autistic spectrum disorders should
be considered from the point of the integral approach,
which unites several views on this question in our
opinion, specifically from the point of view of the
clinical, psychoanalytical and social-psychological
methods. The mentioned will allow studying the
phenomenon of autistic spectrum disorders.
Personal psychological peculiarities of the parents
who raise the children with autistic spectrum
disorders and the parents who have a neurotypical
child, have differences in such characteristics: autistic
features, systematization (which appears through
professional direction), personal anxiety, depression,
neuroticism and psychoticism. These personal
psychological peculiarities can influence on
interaction of the parents and the child and the feeling
of social injustice.
One of the agents which lead to social and
secondary withdrawal may be social injustice, which
is expressed through not understanding and
imperceptions (blaming of parents) of the families,
which raise the children with autistic spectrum
disorders. The other agent of social withdrawal can be
parent personality and the specific of their interaction
with the child. Also, the specific of the psychological
peculiarities of the parents can influence on the
interaction with the society, (professionals, teachers,
practicing and school psychologists, who work with
the child, other adults); it can be the obstacle for
involving the child to inclusive studying environment
and cause the feeling of social injustice of the parents
relevant to the family and the child in particular.
“Mother’s diary” (as an additional methodology
to reflex) can become a tool for preventing of social
withdrawal of the child and the family; to prevent the
feeling of social inequality due to inability to find out
certain psychological and somatic conditions of the
mother during her pregnancy and the first year after
the childbirth, to help correcting relationships with
the baby and family.
We plan to continue the research relevant to
implementation of Mother’s diary as preventing
measure of social withdrawal.”
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ISC SAI 2022 - V International Scientific Congress SOCIETY OF AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE
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