Towards a Service Brokering Model for IT Departments
Linda Rodriguez and Oscar Avila
Department of Systems and Computing Engineering, School of Engineering, Universidad de los Andes, Bogota, Colombia
Keywords: IT Unit, IT Service, Outsourcing, Intermediator, Integrator, Aggregator.
Abstract: The accelerated increase of new IT suppliers and services is allowing organizations to easily access to
specialized outsourced services. Consequently, IT departments are increasingly developing fewer IT services
and relying more on external providers to satisfy the needs of their customers. This new context requires a
change in the IT function, which should move from its traditional role of service builder and operator to a
new role of service integrator and broker. However, IT managers do not know in most of the cases which are
the capabilities, skills and resources required in the IT area to implement this new role. To cope with this lack,
we propose a management model built in two steps: (i) a review of the literature that help us to identify and
analyze the current contributions in the IT service brokering area, and (ii) to validate the findings made in the
literature review through a focus group with IT professionals and managers. The presented model aims at
establishing the basis for a complete approach to help IT organizations to adopt the IT service broker role.
The development of the digital market and the
accelerated increase of Information Technology (IT)
suppliers in the last few years has produced a growing
offer of increasingly specialized and robust IT
services. In this context, business areas of the
organizations are self-supplying IT services because
they can find easy access and rapid response to their
needs in the external market (Zimmermann and
Rentrop, 2014). In many cases, they contract and
access to external services without making requests,
seeking approvals or consulting the IT department
(Zimmermann and Rentrop, 2014). Gartner have
found that around 30% of IT spending in large
enterprises correspond to IT services and applications
that have not been authorized by the IT department.
In addition nearly 24% of corporate employee admit
they have purchased and/or deployed a cloud
application without the knowledge of their IT
departments (Stratecast, 2016). If this is the case this
could mean that the business areas would be meeting
a part of their needs and taking advantage of the
benefits offered by external services without the
intervention of the IT department. However, this
scenario could bring security threats since users
would be overlooking the information security
policies and requirements of their organizations
(Zimmermann and Rentrop, 2014). Considering the
potential benefits and risks associated to such
scenario it could be said that the IT area should, on
the one hand, facilitate the use of external IT services
in order to allow business areas to reap the benefits
they offer, and, on the other hand, govern the
procurement and access to such services in order to
reduce potential risks.
To succeed in, IT departments need to assume a
new management model allowing them to
intermediate between the external suppliers and the
business customer in order to ease and control the
supply of IT services. This model has been defined by
Erbes et al. (2012) and Rackspace (2014a) as IT
service brokering. According to these works, in this
model IT exercises the role of intermediary between
external suppliers and internal customers in the
provision of IT services, with the aim of focusing its
own efforts on the delivery of solutions that leverage
the business strategy. In this new role, the IT
department acts as a strategic partner and as the sole
responsible for the provision of IT services to the
business. But the reality is that in most of cases IT
departments do not know how to take on this new
model because there is a lack of knowledge about the
organizational capabilities, roles, skills and resources
that need to be changed or implemented in the IT
function in order to offer a unique and flexible catalog
of services that meets business needs from the
aggregation and integration of external services.
Rodriguez, L. and Avila, O.
Towards a Service Brokering Model for IT Departments.
DOI: 10.5220/0006902901820189
In Proceedings of the 15th International Joint Conference on e-Business and Telecommunications (ICETE 2018) - Volume 1: DCNET, ICE-B, OPTICS, SIGMAP and WINSYS, pages 182-189
ISBN: 978-989-758-319-3
Copyright © 2018 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
Considering the need above mentioned, this
research work contributes a conceptual model that
aims at establishing the basis for a complete approach
to help IT organizations to make the transition to this
management model. This conceptual model was built
by undertaken two steps: (i) a review of the existing
literature in the IT service brokering area in order to
identify and describe the capabilities, roles, skills and
resources that the IT function needs when working as
a service broker; (ii) a validation of the findings made
in the literature review through a focus group activity
in which IT professionals and managers working in
the IT areas of different industrial sectors companies
express their opinions and reactions.
This paper presents our work as follows: Section
2 presents the literature review by following a
systematic method that help us to identify the main
organizational elements of the IT Service Brokering
model. Section 3 presents the findings of the focus
group activity and introduces the resulting manage-
ment model. Finally, Section 4 concludes the paper.
The following steps were used to conduct the review
process: (i) Planning: This stage focuses on planning
the search to identify the most relevant contributions.
We define thus in this step the review objective and
questions in order to conduct the search as well as
select and validate the most pertinent works. (ii)
Realization: It consists in making an exhaustive
search for works defining the search criteria and
assessing the found approaches in order to select
those that answer the research questions. (iii)
Analysis: This stage is related to the extraction of the
relevant information of each selected approach and to
synthesized it in order to answer the review questions.
2.1 Planning
The objective of this review is to identify and analyze
the main organizational elements of the IT Service
Brokering model stated in the literature. To perform
this analysis, we propose the following review
What are the capabilities required by the IT
area in the Service Brokering model?
What are the roles required by IT experts in
the Service Brokering model?
What are the skills needed by IT experts in
the Service Brokering model?
What are the resources required by IT
experts in the Service Brokering model?
2.2 Realization
With the purpose of finding potential research works
answering the research questions previously
announced, the Scopus database was used by
introducing the following criteria:
Search area: Computer Science, Business,
Management and Accounting and
Document type: book, book chapter, article,
conference paper and journal paper.
Search field type: Abstract, title and
Language: English.
The query introduced in the database was:
TITLE-ABS-KEY (("brokering" OR "broker"
OR "mediator" OR "inter-agency" OR "interagency"
OR "inter agency" OR "builder" OR "integrator" OR
"integration" OR "composition" OR "composer" OR
"decomposition" OR "decomposer" OR "break
down" OR "breakdown" OR "unbundled" OR
"unbundling" OR "brokerage") AND ("IT service"
OR "ITC service" OR "cloud service" OR "saas" OR
"paas" OR "iaas" OR "cloud computing" OR "cloud
management" OR "outsourcing" OR "Information
technolgy" OR "enterprise mashup") AND ("IT
department" OR "CIO" OR "IT function" OR "IT
area" OR "IT unit" OR "IT functional unit" OR "IT
business unit" OR "IT functional area" OR
"enterprise IT" OR "emerging trends" OR "academic
With these criteria, the Scopus search engine
returned 98 candidate articles. To evaluate the
pertinence of these works, firstly, a review of the
articles titles was carried out. This filter reduced the
number to 35. Secondly, a reading of articles abstracts
was undertaken to filter those works that do not
present evidence of answering any of the analysis
questions. This filter limited the number of articles to
12. Lastly, a complete reading of the articles was
performed to select the final works set made up of 7
articles which were identied and included in the
Considering the low number of academic works
that were found, we decided to carry out a Google
search to find articles, books or white papers
concerning our research objective. As a result, 5
white papers from technology companies that talk
about the model were found. In addition, to include to
our analysis the contributions made by practitioners
in existing standards, best practices and reference
frameworks in the area of IT service management, we
include the following works to our review: IT4IT
Towards a Service Brokering Model for IT Departments
(Information Technology for Information
Technology) (TheOpenGroup, 2017), ITIL
(Information Technology Infrastructure Library)
(AXELOS, 2017), FitSM (Fitsm, 2017) and COBIT
(Control Objectives for Information Systems and
related Technology) (ISACA, 2012).
2.3 Analysis
A synthesis of the literature review with reference to
the review questions is presented in Table 1. The
detail of the found values is described below.
Table 1: Summary of the literature review results.
Question Found values
What are the
required by the IT
area in the Service
Brokering model?
Supplier management
Service catalog management
Requirement management
Request fulfillment
Service level management
Offer management
Demand management
Knowledge management
Customer relationship
Service portfolio management
What are the roles
required by IT
experts in the
Service Brokering
Supplier and partner manager
Service manager
Service portfolio manager
IT integration specialist
Enterprise architect
Financial manager/controller
Strategic Advisor
Business relationship manager
Business analyst
Service level manager
Catalog manager
Knowledge manager
What are the skills
needed by IT
experts in the
Service Brokering
Soft skills and customer
Software integration skills
Relationship with suppliers and
Financial skills
Strategic thinking
Service improvement
What are the
resources required
by IT experts in the
Service Brokering
IT strategic plans
Business cases
Service performance reports
Business requirements
Contracts and SLAs
Business objectives
achievement report
Service portfolio and catalog
What are the capabilities required by the IT
function in the Service Brokering model?
To respond to this question, we understand a
Capability as the particular ability that a company
possesses to achieve a specific purpose or result
(Blair and Marshall, 2016). The following
capabilities for the IT department were extracted from
the revision.
(i) Supplier management. This capability involves
searching, contracting, integrating, supervising and
managing a wide variety of external suppliers (Erbes
et al., 2012) (Rackspace, 2014a) (Rackspace, 2014b)
(AXELOS, 2017) (Fitsm, 2017) (ISACA, 2012).
Besides this capability includes to obtain good value
for money from suppliers and ensuring that all
contracts and agreements with them meet business
needs (AXELOS, 2017).
(ii) Service catalog management. This capability
includes providing and maintaining the service
catalog and ensuring its availability to those who are
authorized to access it (Erbes et al., 2012)
(Rackspace, 2014a) (Rackspace, 2014b) (AXELOS,
2017) (TheOpenGroup, 2017).
(iii) Requirement management. It consists in
identifying customer needs, analyzing and
prioritizing them according to the business strategy
and, in conjunction with the catalog management
capability, finding a service that meets such needs
(Erbes et al., 2012) (Rackspace, 2014a) (ISACA,
2012) (TheOpenGroup, 2017).
(iv) Service level management (SLM). It is related
to the negotiation, specification, design, publication,
compliance and monitoring of Service Level
Agreements (SLAs) (Gefen et al., 2011) (Wadhwa et
al., 2013) (Rackspace, 2014a) (Rackspace, 2014b)
(AXELOS, 2017) (Fitsm, 2017) (ISACA, 2012).
(v) Offer management. It is in charge of
publishing the service portal entries and defining with
precision and detail the services, including
dependencies and prices (TheOpenGroup, 2017). It is
also responsible for grouping specific offers for a
specific group of customers (TheOpenGroup, 2017).
(vi) Demand management. It is specifically
responsible for analyzing requirements, creating
service requests, directing them to suppliers in
collaboration with supplying management, as well as
recording service consumption patterns
(TheOpenGroup, 2017).
(vii) Knowledge management. This capability
includes to collect, analyze, store and share
knowledge and information in order to help customer
to meet their needs. The objective is to reduce the
number of requests for information and increase self-
ICE-B 2018 - International Conference on e-Business
(viii) Customer relationship management. It
focuses on the relationship with customers, which
includes to identify potential customers and their
strategic needs, assign a responsible to manage the
relationship to each one of them, establish
communication mechanisms and manage complaints
from them (Fitsm, 2017).
(ix) Service portfolio management. It is
responsible for ensuring that the service provider has
the right mix of services to meet required business
outcomes at an appropriate level of investment.
(Erbes et al., 2012) (Rackspace, 2014a) (Rackspace,
2014b) (TheOpenGroup, 2017) (AXELOS, 2017)
(TheOpenGroup, 2017).
What are the roles required by IT experts in the
Service Brokering model?
The following IT expert roles were identified as
important in this model:
(i) Supplier and partner manager: This role
addresses simultaneously the management of
multiple suppliers. It works in conjunction with the
legal office to conclude contracts and agreements
with suppliers. (Erbes et al., 2012) (Gefen et al.,
2011) (Willcocks et al., 2012) (Rackspace, 2014a)
(Rackspace, 2014b) (HewlettPackard, 2013)
(Stratecast, 2016).
(ii) Service manager: It is in charge of managing
the lifecycle of services including the contracting,
implementation, evaluation and continuous
management of new and existing services (Erbes et
al., 2012) (Rackspace, 2014a) (Rackspace, 2014b)
(Stratecast, 2016) (ISACA, 2012).
(iii) Service Portfolio Manager: It is responsible
for ensuring that the service provider has an adequate
offer of services by analyzing financial, demand and
risk aspects. This role produces analysis documents
to help executive managers to make decisions about
adequate sourcing models (insourcing, outsourcing,
cloud, etc.) and service options to fulfill customer’s
(iv) IT service integration specialist: this role is in
charge of developing integration modules for services
from different suppliers in order to offer a unique
service to the customer (Rackspace, 2014a)
(Rackspace, 2014b) (Ragowsky et al., 2014) (Hoyer
and Stanoevska-Slabeva, 2009).
(v) Enterprise architect: This role has a holistic
view of the company's needs at strategic, tactical and
operational levels. It is in charge of align IT
infrastructure and services with the evolution of such
needs (Rackspace, 2014b) (HewlettPackard, 2013).
(vi) IT Financial manager/controller: Since IT is
one of the biggest expenditure aspects in companies,
it becomes indispensable to have roles in charge of IT
cost accounting, financial forecasting, and decision
making process. Such roles need to work in
collaboration with the portfolio manager (Gefen et al.,
2011) (Ragowsky et al., 2014) (Rohmeyer and Ben-
Zvi, 2012) (HewlettPackard, 2013).
(vii) Strategic Advisor: The strategic objectives of
the company can be leveraged through the adequate
IT strategy and services. Therefore, expert
consultants or auditors are required to advise the
business from technology possibilities (Gefen et al.,
2011) (Ragowsky et al., 2014) (Rohmeyer and Ben-
Zvi, 2012) (HewlettPackard, 2013).
(viii) Business relationship manager (BRM): The
professional in charge of maintaining a positive
relationship with customers (AXELOS, 2017). The
BRM identifies the strategic needs of existing and
potential customers and ensures that appropriate
services are acquired to meet those needs.
(ix) Business analyst: A role that is in contact with
customers and users and is responsible for the
requirements management from tactical and
operational viewpoints (Erbes et al., 2012)
(Rackspace, 2014a) (TheOpenGroup, 2017).
(x) Service level manager: the role responsible for
negotiating and defining service level agreements
(SLA) and ensuring that they are met (AXELOS,
2017) (Fitsm, 2017).
(xi) Catalog manager: it defines and maintains the
service catalog, and ensures that all the information
contained in the catalog is accurate and up-to-date
(AXELOS, 2017) (Fitsm, 2017).
(xii) Knowledge manager: It ensures that the IT
organization is able to collect, analyze, store and
share knowledge and information (AXELOS, 2017).
What are the skills needed by IT experts in the
Service Brokering model?
Skills are grouped by subject and described as
(i) Relationship with suppliers and negotiation: It
include skills to deal with searching, evaluating,
integrating and orchestrating multiple suppliers, and
having the ability to maintain good relations with
them and other external partners (Erbes et al., 2012)
(Gefen et al., 2011) (Willcocks et al., 2012)
(Rackspace, 2014a) (Stratecast, 2016) (AXELOS,
2017). It requires knowledge in market analysis and
how to negotiate and obtain mutually beneficial
contracts. In order to work in collaboration with the
legal office to contract suppliers, IT experts also need
skills in the legal and contractual aspects of IT
outsourcing (Gefen et al., 2011) (Ragowsky et al.,
Towards a Service Brokering Model for IT Departments
(ii) Financial skills: Skills in cost accounting,
financial controlling, budget management, financial
indicators and financial forecasting are necessary in
this new model (Gefen et al., 2011) (Willcocks et al.,
2012) (Ragowsky et al., 2014) (HewlettPackard,
2013) (Stratecast, 2016). Even though these kind of
skills already exist in financial and accounting
departments, professionals of such areas do not know
the specific characteristics of IT service and project
management so that these skills are also necessary in
IT staff.
(iii) Strategic thinking: IT experts need strategic
and critical thinking, analytical skills, capability for
decision making, problem solving skills, creativity
and strategic analysis (Erbes et al., 2012) (Ragowsky
et al., 2014) (Rohmeyer and Ben-Zvi, 2012)
(Willcocks et al., 2012) (Rackspace, 2014b).
(iv) Soft skills and customer orientation: These
skills include communication at the commercial level,
team work, negotiating capacity, conflict resolution,
integrity, interpersonal skills and flexibility. Those
are essential because of the continuous and intensive
relationship with customers, users and other
stakeholder (Erbes et al., 2012).
(v) Software development skills: When services
are contracted from different providers, and
integration is required to solve a business need, IT
experts should have software development skills on
multiple platforms to undertake such integration
(Ragowsky et al., 2014) (Rackspace, 2014a) (Hoyer
and Stanoevska-Slabeva, 2009).
(vi) Service improvement: IT experts should have
the ability to generate clear SLAs, service
performance metrics and continuous monitoring to
take preventive and corrective measures and develop
improvement plans (Hoyer and Stanoevska-Slabeva,
2009) (Rackspace, 2014b) (Stratecast, 2016)
(AXELOS, 2017).
What are the resources required by IT experts in
the Service Brokering model?
(i) IT strategic plans: It makes reference to
strategic goals, objectives, strategies and plans
formulated to lead IT in alignment to business plans
and objectives (Ragowsky et al., 2014) (Rohmeyer
and Ben-Zvi, 2012).
(ii) Business cases: Justification for a significant
item of expenditure. It includes information about
service options, benefits, costs, risks and issues
(AXELOS, 2017).
(iii) Service performance report: report of
achievement and trends against Service Levels
Targets (SLT) agreed in SLAs. The format, content
and frequency of reports should be agreed with
(iv) Business requirements specification:
Document containing needs and restrictions
expressed by business customers about an IT service
(Erbes et al., 2012).
(v) Contracts and SLAs: A contract is a legally
binding agreement between two or more parties. A
SLA describes the IT service, documents SLT, and
specifies the responsibilities of the IT service
provider and the customer (AXELOS, 2017) (Gefen
et al., 2011).
(vi) Business objectives achievement report:
report of achievement made with the help of IT
against pre-established business objectives (ISACA,
(vii) Service portfolio and catalog: The service
portfolio contains the complete set of services
managed by a service provider. It includes three
categories: service proposed or in development,
service catalog (in operation or available for
deployment), and retired services (AXELOS, 2017).
From the literature review, we identified and
synthesized a set of common organizational elements
(see Table 1), that can help IT departments to broker
IT services. However, a conceptual model that links
such elements and states their relationship was not
found. For this reason, we decided to carry out a focus
group in order to identify the relationship between the
elements found in the literature review and validate
the extent to which such findings are being
implemented in the industry. A conceptual model is
then proposed from this activity.
3.1 Focus Group Activity
A focus group is a popular qualitative research
technique, which consists in small groups of people
guided by a moderator through an unstructured and
spontaneous discussion with the aim of obtaining
relevant information about a research problem
(Greenbaum, 1988). For this research work, the
focus group included 8 IT professionals working in
different positions in large international companies
operating in a South-American country. We
conducted the activity through a spontaneous
discussion by asking the percentage of outsourced
services the participants had in their departments and
ICE-B 2018 - International Conference on e-Business
which were the main capabilities, roles, skills and
resources in their IT areas. The main results are
described as follows:
Capabilities: the main capabilities referred by the
participants were requirement, service level and
supplier management. As request fulfillment was
not indicated by any participant, this capability is
not included in the model. Because of the
unstructured and spontaneous nature of the
activity, there was room for participants to talk
about other IT capabilities that are not necessarily
involved in role of IT as a service broker such as
software development and incident management.
They argued that those more “technical”
capabilities are becoming less common in their
Roles: Regarding the roles form the review,
supplier manager and business and requirement
analysts were the most common. Even though
development and operation roles such as software
developer, as well as server, DB and network
administrators, were also referred. However, the
participants argued that those roles are less and
less necessary in their organizations.
Skills: Participants argued that skills such as
supplier management and systems integration
skills are increasingly required. Spontaneously
they said that technical skills in software,
hardware, operating systems and DB are still
required in their departments.
Resources: The participants agreed on the
importance today of the resources identified in the
literature review. However they emphasized that
their IT departments still have infrastructure
resources such as development tools, applications,
servers, networks, etc.
Relationships: The relationships identified
between the elements are described in the next
This activity allowed us to gather new
information that indicates that even though IT areas
have advanced to the implementation of the service
broker role, in most of the cases they continue to
implement the traditional role of IT service developer
and operator. From these findings, we propose a
develop a Service Brokering model in the next
3.2 Towards a Service Brokering
In Figure 1 we propose a conceptual model that
includes the organizational elements and their
relationship found during the literature review and the
focus group activity. This model shows six types of
elements: (i) External role: stakeholders that
participate outside the IT department, i.e., customers,
suppliers and executive board. (ii) Internal role: it
relates groups of people with related responsibilities
that participate within the IT department, e.g.,
supplier and partner manager or business analyst. (iii)
Capability: it concerns a set of activities to obtain a
specific objective. Capabilities are described in bold
font in the figure, e.g., demand management and
catalog management. (iv) Management resource: an
essential element or asset used by the IT function to
broker services, e.g., contracts and SLAs. (vi)
Relationship: it is used to represent the connections
or interactions between capabilities.
Several integration sequences between
capabilities can be identified by navigating the
relationships between them. We describe one of these
sequences in which business requirements are
fulfilled through contracting a new service with an
external supplier (see Figure 1): The customer raises
requirements that are gathered by the requirement
management (functional requirements), business
relationship management (strategic requirements) or
service level management (service level
requirements) capabilities. Then, such requirements
are correlated in order to identify similar existing
demand or create new demand. Such demand is
prioritized and converted in requests for new or
modified services by the demand management
capability according to the strategic business plan.
These requests are then addressed by the portfolio
management capability through the identification of
several service options and sourcing models that
could fulfill them. For each service request, a
business case including financial, risk and functional
aspects is thus built in order to evaluate the different
options and be presented to the company’s Executive
Board that decides for the best option. Then, supplier
management will contact the external supplier
offering the selected service option. Once the SLA
and contract has been agreed and signed by both
parts, the service catalog and portfolio are updated by
the catalog and portfolio management capabilities
respectively. In addition, an entry with the new
service will be added into the service portal by the
offer capability in order to make it accessible by the
customer. In the portal customers can consult detailed
information about the services that are ready to
consume. When a customer is interested in a service,
she makes a request that is managed by the offer
management. Transversely to all the aforementioned
interaction, the knowledge management capability
Towards a Service Brokering Model for IT Departments
Figure 1: Conceptual model for IT service brokering.
gathers and registers knowledge generated by
suppliers and the IT department in order to make it
available to other capabilities and customers.
This article proposes a conceptual model which
synthesizes the main organizational elements that
need to be implemented by the IT area when working
as a service broker. The main conclusions of the work
made are described as follows.
Concerning capabilities, IT departments are
moving from focusing on technical capabilities to
organizational ones. For instance, today IT
departments require a supplier management
capability, similar to the one of the procurement
department, allowing the organization to access to
external IT services. Regarding roles of IT experts,
we identified an increase in new roles in the following
areas: (i) Management, IT experts that coordinate and
manages IT suppliers, contracts, services and
customers; (ii) consultancy, experts who advise to
make sound decisions for the organization; and (iii)
technology: technology experts that integrate and
customize IT services and leverage the business
strategy through technology. In addition, we found
that although technical traditional roles in service
development and operation are still present in
organizations, they are less common and are being
shifted towards supplier companies. Regarding
resources, they follow the same way that capabilities
in the sense that IT departments are moving from
focusing on technical resources (such as applications,
servers or routers) to management resources (such as
contracts and SLAs) allowing them to manage
intermediation between suppliers and customers.
Concerning future work, further research is
needed in order to improve the conceptual model
presented in this work. First, it is necessary to carry
out a complete analysis of all the potential sequences
between capabilities by analyzing the whole set of
relationships between them. Second, research efforts
are necessary in order to understand how is the
interaction between the capabilities of the IT Service
Brokering model and the capabilities of the traditional
IT service development and operation models. Third,
to validate the model, it is necessary to use additional
methodology tools such as case studies or surveys.
This could add more information from more
companies and different sources.
Concerning the IT service brokering as a subject
of study, one of the main findings is the lack of
academic and industrial research works and best
practices in this domain, which has had repercussion
in the ability of companies to migrate to this model.
(Rackspace, 2014b) shows that most IT executives
see the IT Service Brokering model as a priority but
only 25 percent have made a progress in its adoption.
Furthermore, according to (Wadhwa, 2014), there is
a clear gap in academic research in the area. From the
ICE-B 2018 - International Conference on e-Business
literature review presented in this work, we can
observe that the reviewed works are too focused on
presenting the urgency of a change in the IT function.
However, these works fail in proposing a set of good
practices or formal frameworks to carry out such
change. Only IT4IT (The Open Group, 2017) has
specifically proposed the Request to Fulfill (R2F)
workflow that helps IT organizations to move
towards a service intermediary model. As a
consequence, we consider that there is a need for
academics and practitioners to get involved in studies
regarding organizational change and transformation
(Avila and Garces, 2016) as well as tools, models,
best practices and case studies to improve the
contributions in the IT service brokering area. Last
but not least, the link of this research domain with the
decision making domain is necessary in order to
provide a holistic approach to practitioners allowing
them to cover from service and provider selection to
service performance follow-up (Ruiz and Avila,
Avila, O. and Garces, K. (2016) Change Management
Support to Preserve Business–Information Technology
Alignment. Journal of Computer Information Systems,
57(3): 218-228.
AXELOS (2017). ITIL publication reviews. [online] Avail-
able from:
solutions/ itil/itil-publications [12 Nov. 2017].
Blair, A. and Marshall, S. (2016). Open group guide
business capabilities. The Open Group.
Devoteam (2014). IT service excellence. Devoteam,
Erbes, J., Nezhad, H., and Graupner, S. (2012). From IT
providers to IT service brokers: The future of enterprise
it in the cloud world. Computers, 45:66-72.
Fitsm (2017). The fitsm standard. [online] Available from: [12 Nov. 2017].
Gefen, D., Ragowsky, A., Licker, P., and Stern, M. (2011).
The changing role of the CIO in the world of
outsourcing: Lessons learned from a CIO roundtable.
Communications of the Association for Information
Systems, 28:233–242.
Greenbaum, T. (1988). The practical handbook and guide
in focus group research. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.
HewlettPackard (2013). Be an it services broker. HP, pages
Hoyer, V. and Stanoevska-Slabeva, K. (2009). The
changing role of IT departments in enterprise mashup
environments. ICSOC Workshops. Lecture Notes in
Computer Science, 5472.
ISACA (2012). COBIT 5. ISBN 978-1-60420-282-3.
Rackspace (2014a). 7 tips on becoming an IT service
broker. Rackspace, pages 1–11.
Rackspace (2014b). Managing the transition to IT as a
service broker. Rackspace, pages 1–10.
Ragowsky, A., Licker, P., Miller, J., Gefen, D., and Stern,
M. (2011). Do not call me chief information officer, but
chief integration officer. A summary of the 2011
Detroit CIO roundtable. Communications of the
Association for Information Systems, 34:1333–1346.
Rohmeyer, P. and Ben-Zvi, T. (2012). Emerging trends in
decision making of IT leaders. Proceedings of the
PICMET ’12: Technology Management for Emerging
Technologies, pages 667–671.
Ruiz, J.J. and Avila O. (2017) Identifying criteria for
evaluating Cloud Services in the Colombian public
sector. Americas Conference on Information systems,
Boston, MA, USA
Stratecast (2016). Thinking of adopting an IT service
brokermodel? these four reasons will convince you the
time is right. Stratecast.
The Open Group (2017). The open group it4it reference
architecture. The Open Group.
Wadhwa, B., Jaitly, A., and Suri, B. (2013). Cloud service
brokers: An emerging trend in cloud adoption and
migration. Asia-Pacific Software Engineering
Conference, APSEC, 2:140–145.
Wadhwa, B., Jaitly, A., and Suri, B. (2014). Making sense
of academia-industry gap in the evolving cloud service
brokerage. 1st International Workshop on Software
Engineering Research and Industrial Practices, pages
Willcocks, L., Venters, W., and Whitley, E. (2012). Cloud
sourcing: Implications for managing the IT function.
The Dynamics of Global Sourcing. Perspectives and
Practices. Global Sourcing 2012. Lecture Notes in
Business Information Processing, 130:142–163.
Zimmermann, S. and Rentrop, C. (2014). On the emergence
of shadow IT - a transaction cost-based approach. 22
European Conference on Information Systems, CIS.
Towards a Service Brokering Model for IT Departments