Metadata for Intangible Cultural Heritage
The Case of Folk Dances
Stamatios Giannoulakis
, Nicolas Tsapatsoulis
and Nikos Grammalidis
Department of Communication and Internet Studies, Cyprus University of Technology,
30, Arch. Kyprianos str., Limassol, Cyprus
Information Technologies Institute, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Thessaloniki, Greece
Keywords: Intangible Cultural Heritage, Metadata, Folk Dances, Digitization, FRBR.
Abstract: It is a fact that states and international organizations are trying to protect and promote intangible cultural
heritage. According to UNESCO intangible cultural heritage includes traditions or living expressions
inherited from our ancestors and passed on to our descendants. Folk dances are an important part of our
intangible cultural heritage, so there is a need to promote and protect them to inherit to the next generations.
Beyond digitization of various elements of the dance, proper documentation requires to analyse them (either
manually or automatically) and describe all important elements using appropriate metadata. However,
although different metadata schemas have been defined in the area of cultural heritage, most are suitable only
for tangible heritage, and cannot properly describe elements of intangible cultural heritage. The present study
proposes a new metadata schema for describing different elements of folk dance.
In the area of cultural heritage, a number of metadata
standards have been defined allowing the
documentation and indexing of cultural information,
thus facilitating search and providing access to the
information for researchers, experts and/or the
general public.
Metadata information can either be generated
either manually by expert annotation or by automated
multimedia analysis. In the cultural heritage domain,
automated extraction of metadata has been
extensively used in the past decades as a means of
automatic indexing the multimedia cultural content.
This necessity, grows even, more these days
considering the popularity of digitizing cultural
content for purposes such as safeguarding, capturing,
visualizing and presenting both tangible and
intangible resources that broadly define that heritage.
Especially for Intangible Cultural Heritage, the task
of metadata extraction becomes even more
challenging, since the significance of heritage
artefacts extends also to the preservation of the
background knowledge that puts these artefacts in
proper perspective.
Terpsichore is a European Research Project that
focuses on the analysis of Intangible Cultural
Heritage. The main purpose of Terpsichore project
(A. Doulamis et al., 2017) is to digitize, model,
archive, e-preserve and present Intangible Cultural
Heritage content related to folk dances. The project
aims to develop Web-based cultural server/viewer
with the purpose to allow user’s interaction,
visualization, interface with existing cultural
libraries. Moreover, the proposed framework should
address many different needs of the potential users,
i.e. dance professionals, dance teachers, creative
industries, general public, researchers and media
producers. For instance, we should consider the needs
of these different users e.g. to search for information
on a particular dance, learn how to dance, have the
possibility to view the technical details of the
digitization process. In addition, users want to
retrieve dances with specific criteria such as steps,
lyrics, rhythm, region. Metadata play a vital role in
achieving all these goals because they encode the
aforementioned data and allow the user to retrieve
and view structured information from the cultural
The Terpsichore project is about Intangible
Cultural Heritage. Organizations such as UNESCO
and the European Union try to preserve and
disseminate Intangible Cultural Heritage. UNESCO
adopted in 2003 the Convention for the Safeguarding
Giannoulakis S., Tsapatsoulis N. and Grammalidis N.
Metadata for Intangible Cultural Heritage - The Case of Folk Dances.
DOI: 10.5220/0006760906340645
In Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications (VISAPP 2018), pages 634-645
ISBN: 978-989-758-290-5
2018 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
of the Intangible Cultural Heritage to protect and
promote intangible cultural heritage. Among the
cultural items included in the UNESCO lists of
Intangible Cultural Heritage are traditional dances.
To maintain the choreography of the traditional
dances, especially in the era of the Internet, it is
necessary for transmitting these dances in the next
The paper describes the meaning of metadata and
Intangible Cultural Heritage focusing on folk dances.
Then we review the corresponding state-of-the-art in
metadata schemes for Intangible Cultural Heritage,
especially in folk dance case. We conclude with the
proposed metadata schema, properly adapted to the
Terpsichore’s data and to the user’s needs.
Analysing the word metadata, meta and data, we can
conclude that metadata is data about data. In other
words, metadata is documentation that describes data
(Research Data Management Service Group, no
date). According to Merriam-Webster online
dictionary metadata are data that provides
information about other data (metadata, 2017).
Greenberg (Greenberg, 2003) gives a functional
definition of metadata and describe as structured data
about an object that supports functions associated
with the designated object. The definition mentioned
above about metadata includes the aspect of structure,
with a meaning of information organized
systematically, usually with the use of metadata
schemas (Sicilia, 2014). As a metadata schema,
according to ISO 23081, we can define a logical plan
showing the relationships between metadata
elements. The schemes are the basis for metadata
standard because we are based on metadata scheme to
develop to a metadata standard.
Libraries first used metadata to retrieve and locate
the material in their collection. So, metadata main
purpose is to assist users to locate information and
discover resources. Moreover, metadata are vital in
electronic resource organization and digital
preservation of resources and information.
In addition to these, metadata play an important
role in the cultural heritage world. Libraries, archives
and museums create and use structured metadata.
Archives use metadata in order to describe their
collections and document with historical information.
Libraries focus on bibliographic metadata and
museums use them to interpret collections and
explain the relation between the objects (Riley, 2017).
Furthermore, information professionals, creators and
users of digital content recognize that metadata can
ensure accessibility, interoperability and
preservability of cultural heritage information and
record-keeping systems. Cultural heritage
information professionals use metadata to enhance
access to information objects (Baca, 2016).
According to Library of Congress, we can
distinguish three types of metadata: descriptive,
structural, and administrative. Descriptive metadata
have as a purpose to help users to identify, search and
locate information and objects like title, author.
Structural metadata are used to describe the
relationship between the part of a resource.
Administrative metadata provides information to help
manage a resource, such as when and how it was
created, file type and other technical information, and
who can access it (Library of Congress, no date).
Moreover, metadata may include another two types
that contain information about access rights and
restrictions that ensure the long-term preservation and
access to the information resources. The preservation
metadata can include details about format migration
and data refreshment (Hillmann, Marker and Brady,
The Convention for Safeguarding the Intangible
Cultural Heritage defines it as the practices,
representations, expressions, knowledge, skills as
well as the instruments, objects, artefacts and cultural
spaces associated therewith that communities,
groups and, in some cases, individuals recognize as
part of their cultural heritage. This intangible cultural
heritage, transmitted from generation to generation, is
constantly recreated by communities and groups in
response to their environment, their interaction with
nature and their history, and provides them with a
sense of identity and continuity (Stefano and Davis,
Moreover, intangible cultural heritage covers the
domains of:
Oral traditions
Performing arts
Social practices
Festive events
Knowledge and practices concerning nature and
the universe or the knowledge and skills to produce
traditional crafts (UNESCO, no date).
UNESCO give attention to dance as a part of
Intangible Cultural Heritage, so dances are included
either in the Representative List or the Urgent
Safeguarding List. The UNESCO lists include dances
like Argentinean tango, Spanish flamenco, Chhau
dance from India, Bigwala music and dance from
Uganda, Huaconada from Peru (Iacono and Brown,
2016). From the above, we can conclude the
importance of protecting and transmit to other
generations the intangible cultural and especially the
dance. The World Intellectual Property Organization
(World Intellectual Property Organization, 2017)
point the importance of promoting and respecting
traditional cultures and expressions will benefit
people, local communities and nations. The
protection of cultural expressions could contribute
toward the promotion of innovation.
Digitization with the help of new technology
offers the possibility to document, record the
intangible cultural heritage, due to the fact that
heritage elements that are not so visible and disappear
we can preserve in a visual and digital format (Yang,
2015). However, digital documentation of intangible
heritage, data formats and standards, metadata and
semantics, linked data, crowdsourcing and cloud, the
use and reuse of data and copyright issues are the
rising challenges (Doulamis et al., 2017).
Taking forward this idea, i-Treasures project
(Dimitropoulos et al., 2014) explored the challenges
and opportunities that emerge when considering the
safeguarding of intangible heritage from a
technological perspective. I-Treasures developed an
open and extendable platform to provide access to
intangible cultural heritage resources for research and
education. The system is based on the identification
of specific features or patterns (e.g. postures, audio
patterns, etc.) using multi-sensor technology (e.g.
cameras, microphones, EEG etc.) from different ICH
forms. Subsequently, data fusion analysis is applied
to exploit information across different modalities,
while context and content are integrated for mapping
the set of low or medium-level multimedia features to
high-level concepts using probabilistic inference, i.e.
transforming the extracted data into a level of
interpretation that is understandable by humans. This
information, coupled with other cultural resources, is
accessible via the i-Treasures platform (an open-
source CMS), in order to enable the widest possible
participation of communities, groups and individuals
in the safeguarding of ICH. The platform gives access
to different types of content (e.g. text, audio, images,
video, 3D graphics) from different types of heritage
or educational institutions. Furthermore, using the
latest advances in web-based game engines, a
learning environment is developed to enhance
training and evaluation of the learner’s performance
by means of sensorimotor learning.
In addition to these, safeguarding intangible
heritage should include locating the heritage and pay
attention to heritage elements that are in a danger of
disappearing. Another step is to catalogue and deposit
in a local or national digital platform in order to
spread the knowledge to the internet, also to preserve
and conserve for the society (Artese and Gagliardi,
no date)
As mentioned before, folk dance is an essential
part of Intangible Cultural Heritage. It is important to
define dance and especially folk dance more
definitively. According to Merriam-Webster a folk
dance is a dance that originates as a ritual among and
is characteristic of the common people of a country
and that is transmitted from generation to generation
(‘folk dance’, no date). In addition, we can define
dance (as cited in Wong, 2013) as rhythmic or
patterned movement. Royce expands the
aforementioned definition and describes dance as
patterned movement performed as an end in itself
(Royce, 1977). From the above we can conclude that
dance movements or choreography is the basis for a
It is a fact that it is not easy to define the meaning
of folk dance. Folk dance was part of a community
life and had an important function. According to
Hoerburger (Hoerburger, 1968), folk dance had as a
purpose the pleasure or the recreation. In addition to
these, we can broaden the definition of folk dance and
include a variety of dance forms which survive as, or
are based on, local or national tradition. These dances
with their music, which may be sung or played upon
'folk' instruments, have been passed from generation
to generation and have acquired through tradition the
stable and identifiable forms that we know today
(Hoerburger, 1968).
Furthermore, Encyclopaedia Britannica
(Kealiinohomoku, 2017) defines the term folk dance
and analyse examples of folk dances from European
countries, also Hawaiian dance and Korean dance
focusing on the movements of the dance, the rhythm
of the music and the clothes the dancers wear. In an
extended analysis of Snodgrass (Snodgrass, 2016)
about the folk dances across the world, the author
describes the history and origin of each and
summarize the same features of each dance as the
Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Various research efforts are focusing on digitization,
archiving and preservation of intangible cultural
heritage and performing-art content. I-Treasures was
a European project that had as a purpose to develop
an open and extendable platform to provide access to
ICH resources. On that framework, the project had as
a purpose to propose novel methodologies and new
technological paradigms for the analysis and
modelling of ICH. The project focused on four
different cases of ICH a) Rare Traditional Songs, b)
Rare Dance Interactions, c) Traditional
Craftsmanship and d) Contemporary Music
Composition (Adistambha et al., 2012). In the i-
Treasures project, the metadata schema for their
platform used a combination of Dublin Core
Metadata Element Set, i-Treasures Model, ESE
Europeana Semantic Elements (Manitsaris, 2015).
Another European research project related to ICH
and especially to dance is Wholodance. Wholodance
has a purpose to develop and apply breakthrough
technologies to Dance Learning. The result of the
project will benefit dance practitioners ranging from
Researchers and Professionals to Dance Students and
the Interested Public. In the project, they will
investigate bodily knowledge by applying techniques
for the automated analysis of dance movements.
Moreover, they will capture the dance motion in order
to create virtual bodies that will enhance the teaching
of a dance and give the choreographers the
opportunity to create new choreographies
(Wholodance website Official, no date). To achieve
the aforementioned goals in their research about
ontological representation of dance movement El
Raheb (Raheb et al., 2016) (Raheb et al., 2017)
use OWL to assign annotations representing
movement sequences of a dance-recording video.
In an extended research about metadata in digital
folklore collections, Lourdi (Lourdi, 2010)
concluded that main metadata standards used for
cultural heritage collections are Dublin Core
Metadata Element Set (DC), Dublin Core Collections
Application Profile (DCCAP), Metadata Encoding
and Transmission Standard (METS), Categories for
the Description of Works of Art (CDWA), VRA Core
Record (VRA Core Record), Machine Readable
Cataloguing (MARC), Text Encoding Initiative
(TEI), Encoded Archival Description (EAD),
Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS),
RSLP Collection Description (RSLP), CIDOC/CRM.
Dublin Core Metadata Element Set has the
purpose to exchange and retrieve information for the
digital objects in the web. The Dublin Core consists
of 15 metadata elements and with the help of Dublin
Core Qualifiers we can extend the prototype to adjust
the needs of the collection it is necessary to describe
(Dublin Core Metadata Initiative, 2000). In a research
(Ye and Zhou, 2013) to suggest a metadata standard
for Chinese Intangible Cultural Heritage, the
scientists analysed the mainstream metadata
standards systems such as ISAD (G), Encoded
Archival Description, International Standard
Archival Authority Record, Encoded Archival
Description, Text Encoding Initiative and Dublin
Core. Furthermore, they examined the parameter that
metadata standard should reflect the cultural value of
intangible cultural heritage and the UNESCO
guidelines for the world heritages convention they
suggested a scheme based on Dublin Core with 14
metadata elements and 67 filed names.
Kettula and Hyvönen (Kettula and Hyvönen,
2012) in their study to describe with metadata a video
that contains a craft process of shoemaking, moved
from an object-oriented approach to an event-centric
approach. The crafting process was presented in six
main sequences which were annotated with a
keyword at the start and at the end of the film. The
metadata schema that they used to describe the
shoemaking process is based on an RDF ontology.
The RDF graph gives the possibility to link to other
digital objects such as nails and leather objects.
Kannan et al. (Kannan, Andres and Guetl, 2010)
(Kannan et al., 2011) in their research they developed
a dance information system, called DanVideo, that
gives users the opportunity to retrieve dance videos
from semantic metadata. In order to build the
architecture of the system, the researchers used the
MPEG-7 metadata standard to annotate dance videos.
Moreover, they examined what users wish to search
for in the system and they concluded that dance
learners and viewers would like to have the
possibility to search for emotions expressed by the
dancers, the history of the dance, recording location,
the origin country of the dance, the song that
accompanies the dance and the costumes of the
Mallik et al. (Mallik et al., 2013) (Mallik,
Chaudhury and Ghosh, 2011) in their research
focused on annotation in MPEG video on Indian
dances. In their approach, they created an ontology
that correlates heritage resources and multimedia
data. In order to construct the ontology, they used the
Multimedia Web Ontology Language (MOWL) to
annotate new multimedia objects.
Stavrakis et al. (Stavrakis et al., 2012) (Aristidou,
Stavrakis and Chrysanthou, 2014) in their effort to
digitize Cypriot folk dances so local community and
especially young people to learn folk dances created
a dance database schema and for each dance entry the
metadata they used was the name of the dance, the
type of the dance, the region the dance originates and
a description.
Kim (Kim, 2011) developed ChoreoSave, a
prototype online system by analysing a dance work
into components that are then represented using the
EPrints software ( In
order to define the metadata standard for the
ChoreoSave online system, Kim conducted a research
in 14 digital library programs and concluded that the
most common metadata standards mentioned were
METS, Dublin Core and combinations of metadata
standards. The metadata fields for the ChoreoSave
included the name of the choreographer, the title of
the dance, a set of performers, musical or sound
accompaniment and a movement vocabulary.
The PREMIS Data Dictionary for Preservation
Metadata (The Library of Congress, 2016c) is an
international standard for metadata that was
developed to support the preservation of digital
objects/assets and ensure their long-term usability.
PREMIS metadata standard has been adopted
globally in various projects related to digital
preservation. It supports numerous digital
preservation software tools and systems. The CIDOC
Conceptual Reference Model (CRM) (International
Organization for Standardization, 2014a), an official
standard since 9/12/2006, provides the ability to
describe the implicit and explicit relationships of
cultural heritage concepts in a formalized manner.
Thus, CIDOC CRM is intended to promote a common
understanding of cultural heritage information by
providing a common and extensible semantic
framework that can represent any cultural heritage
information. It is designed to be a common language
for cultural knowledge domain experts to formulate
user requirements for information systems, and thus,
facilitating in this way the interoperability between
different sources of cultural heritage information in a
semantic level.
Tan et al. (Tan, Sun and Zhong, 2009) in an effort
to represent the knowledge comes from the dance
called “Funeral Dance” they created an ontology
based on CIDOC CRM. Moreover, according to the
system the designed, the concepts and properties of
this filed can be selected from CRM. In addition to
these, to construct their domain ontology, all
concepts, properties and instances are designed by
using Web Ontology Language (owl).
From the metadata definition, we can conclude that it
is important to define the data accurately in order to
construct the metadata schema. The main goal of the
Terpsichore project is the digitization and 3D
representation of traditional dances performances.
These performances include elements such as the
dancer and the dance it is performed (music, lyrics,
choreography, etc.). A proposed categorization of the
data elements that are essential for the project are
illustrated in Fig. 1. From the figure, we can observe
that it is necessary to deal with complex and a variety
of data including both descriptive data about the
traditional dance being performed, as well as data
from recording and 3D representation. Specifically, if
we examine Figure 1, as seen above onwards, the
dance include data about the country/region of origin
and its history, the music, including the rhythm, the
score, as well as the lyrics, and the choreography
described by the Labanotation (Hatol, 2006). In
addition to these for recording, it is important to
collect data such as the number and the kind of
sensors, the calibration parameters, the recording
software and the data from recording. The next
category includes the 3D environment of the digital
representation and the data from that category are the
description of the scene, the lighting, as well as
objects (e.g. stick, sickle) that may be present or used
during the performance of the dance. Finally, the data
for the dancer digital representation, include the
gender, the costume of the dancer, the body shape,
body motion features and the face expressions.
After the analysis of the data, it is important to define
the metadata elements that will describe this data. The
Table 1 is an initial attempt to determine the metadata
in the metadata scheme.
Specifically, it is important to mention that dance
can be performed in different places, for example, we
may have a performance of the traditional Greek
dance Kalamatianos in a theatre or in a festival. In
both circumstances, the dance is the same, but the
recording and the 3D representation is totally
different. From the above, we can conclude that
for the proposed metadata schema we can follow the
Figure 1: Dance data description scheme.
logic of the FRBR schema. FRBR is a conceptual
entity-relationship model that is oriented to achieve a
more holistic approach to retrieval and access from a
user’s perspective. The main group entities are work,
expression, manifestation, and item. Work is a
distinct intellectual or artistic creation. Expression is
the specific intellectual or artistic form that a work
takes each time it is realized. Manifestation is the
physical embodiment of an expression of a work.
Item is a single exemplar of a manifestation (IFLA
Study Group on the Functional Requirements for
Bibliographic Records, 1998). In our case the work is
the dance, the expression is the varieties of the dance
and the manifestation is the recording of a venue a
dance is performed. Moreover, we use the FRBR
logic because we can create a record three levels
work, expression, manifestation. The logic of three
levels gives the possibility to create a record that
describes the metadata of the dance and in that record
to embody all the records referring to that dance.
From our previous example we can create a record
that describes the traditional Greek dance
Kalamtianos and in that record the user can find all
the recordings of the project Terpsichore.
From the previous analysis we have the structure
of the proposed metadata schema. Moreover, it is
important to define the encoding of the metadata.
Here we should examine the metadata schemas that
can be used in ICH. We can conclude that METS is
focused on encoding descriptive, administrative, and
Table 1: The proposed metadata for the metadata scheme.
3D Environment
Venue description
Objects and their
Face Expression
Country/Region of
Location in GPS format
and human readable
Description of the
Traditional costume
Time of origin
Number of sensors
Dance variations
Sensor type and
Music motif
Dance annotation
structural metadata usually in a digital library, so it is
not oriented to describe intangible cultural Heritage
(Library of Congress, 2016). From the examples
(The Library of Congress, 2016b) of the
implementation of METS by the Library of Congress,
we can clearly understand that METS orientation is
on tangible items than intangible, so it is not an
appropriate metadata schema to encode our metadata
elements. MODS and MARC are schemes that are
widely used by libraries and have as a purpose to
describe bibliographic elements. According to the
guidance of the Library of Congress (The Library of
Congress, 2016a) we can easily understand that
MODS is not suitable for encode metadata elements
for the case of traditional dances. EAD is focused on
describing archival collections. From the best practice
guideline of EAD (Research Libraries Group, 2002)
we can easily conclude that EAD is referring to
archive description and not to describe intangible
cultural heritage. RSLP is a metadata model for the
description of collections and is a prototype that can
replace EAD based on DC (Lourdi, 2010). CDWA is
a metadata set that contains guidelines for the
description of art, architecture, and other cultural
works. CIDOC/CRM is a metadata for the exchange
of information between cultural heritage institutions
(International Organization for Standardization,
Hence, it is necessary to define a new metadata
standard to that will encode all the metadata elements
previously referred to the table 1. Since we have a
variety of metadata elements it is not easy to cover the
encoding of all these elements with a single metadata
schema. The Dublin Core is a metadata schema that
can be used as interoperable metadata standard and
structural framework. Dublin Core is widely used in
digital libraries and used by the OAI-PMH standard
as a protocol (Kennedy, 2008). The OAI-PMH is a
protocol that used by many digital libraries and the
Europeana (Europeana, no date) to harvest metadata
from other digital libraries. With the help of Dublin
Core, we can encode elements of the dance such as
title, history, country/region of origin, time of origin.
Moreover, we can use MusciXML (Makemusic,
2017) to describe and encode musical motifs. Text
Encoding Initiative (TEI) (TEI: Text Encoding
Initiative, no date)is a metadata standard we can use
to encode the lyrics of the traditional dance song. TEI
is a standard for the representation of texts in digital
MovementXML (Hatol, 2006) is based on
LabanXML (Nakamura and Hachimura, 2006) and
has as a purpose to represent in XML-based the
semantics of Labanotation. MovementXML is the
ideal xml schema to encode the dance annotation.
With the help of MovementXML and especially with
the element define-movement we can put smaller
movements together to form a higher-level
movement. Furthermore, it is important to consider
one of the goals of the Terpsichore project is the
extraction of semantic signatures and ontologies.
Ontologies will be created by folk dance experts to
model the domain knowledge. The domain
knowledge is, in essence, the elementary and high-
level concept properties and relationships definition
and it will be defined in a structured and principled
manner using an ontology. Domain experts (e.g. folk
dance experts/teachers) will provide the necessary
domain knowledge, which in turn will be translated
to formalized knowledge in the form of an ontology.
These ontologies will be very useful for knowledge-
assisted of the recorded dance performance. The
Ontology Web Language (OWL) can be used to this
end with input taken from the use case experts (OWL
2 Web Ontology Language Document Overview
(Second Edition), no date).
In addition to these, the description of the
traditional costume of the dancer we propose to use
the VRA standard. VRA (The Library of Congress,
2014) is data standard suitable to describe and encode
metadata for paintings, drawings, sculpture,
architecture, photographs, as well as book,
decorative, and performance art. Furthermore, in a
project (Zeng, 1999) about cataloguing 42 fashion
objects the researchers compared three metadata
schemas USMARC, Dublin Core and VRA and
concluded that VRA is the suitable metadata schema
for the description of the fashion objects.
Finally, in order to encode the metadata of the
recording and the 3D environment, it is necessary to
create new metadata fields to encode these metadata
elements. Also, gender and face expression of the
dancer, are important to encode with some new and
appropriate metadata elements. It is vital to develop
our metadata fields for the aforementioned cases due
to the fact that the existing metadata schema does not
cover those cases.
In order to fully understand the proposed metadata
schema, we give an example of the folk dance
Kalamatianos in XMl format. Kalamatianos is a
popular folk dance in Greece, Cyprus and
internationally, often performed at many social
gatherings worldwide. It is a circle dance performed
in a counterclockwise rotation with the dancers
holding hands. It’s a twelve steps dance and the
musical beat is 7/8.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-
xmlns: MusicXML=
<!-- frbr Work -->
<dc:title>Kalamatianos </dc:title>
<dc:subject> Folk dancing, Greek
<dc:description> The Kalamatianós is
one of the best known dances of Greece.
It is a popular Greek folkdance
throughout Greece, Cyprus and
internationally and is often performed
at many social gatherings worldwide. As
is the case with most Greek folk
dances, it is danced in circle with a
counterclockwise rotation, the dancers
holding hands. The roots of
Kalamatianos can be found in antiquity.
Homer, in the Iliad, describes three
performances made around the spear of
Achilles that depict a dance in an open
circle. The ancient Spartans had a
dance called ὅρμος hormos, which was a
syrto style dance described in detail
by Xenophon where a woman led a male
into dance using a handkerchief. Lucian
states that the ormos dance was
performed in an open circle and was
done by young men and women. The men
would dance vigorously while the women
danced with modest movements. In the
19th century, this dance was called
Syrtos O Peloponisios. It is believed
to have acquired the name kalamatianos
from the town of Kalamata in southern
Greece; most Greek dances are commonly
named after the villages or areas from
which they are considered to have
originated. </dc:description>
<movement-title>Milo mou
<creator type="lyricist">Tous aux
Balkans !</creator>
<encoder>abc2xml version
<credit page="1">
<credit page="1">
<score-part id="P1">
<part id="P1">
<measure number="1">
<beam number="1">begin</beam>
<slur type="start" number="1"/>
<lg type="poem">
<lg type="stanza">
<l>My red apple, my scarlet
<l>why have you made me wilted and
<lg type="stanza">
<l>I come and go, but cannot find
<l>I try your door, and it's always
<lg type="stanza">
<l>Your windows are always
<l>I ask your door, "Where is your
<lg type="stanza">
<l>"My lady is not here, she is at
the wellspring</l>
<l>She's gone to bring water".</l>
<repeat count="1" repeat-
type="exact" exclude-path="true'>
<measure beats="7" beat-type="note"
<move start="0" duration="1">
<part><foot side="right" /></part>
<description><right /></description>
<move start="1" duration="1">
<part><foot side="left" /></part>
<move start="3" duration="1">
<part><foot side-"right" /></part>
<move start="2" duration="1">
<part><foot side="left" /></part>
<set-path start""0" duration="4"
Strict=”true" direction""clockwise">
<vra:description> The women's
costume presents a very wide variety
with bright colors, embroidery and
ornaments </vra:description>
<vra:title>Men dressing</vra:title>
<vra:description> The male costume
is lighter than the female one, and the
main types of it are bruce and
<!-- frbr Expression -->
<dance.variance> Kalamatianos in
Macedonia </dance.variance>
<!-- frbr Manifestation -->
<recording.title> Kalamatianos
performance in the wine festival
<recording.description> 50 dancers
danced Kalamatiano on September 5, 2015
in Veroia at wine festival which took
place in the square in the
<> Βέροια
<title>Kinect depth camera</title>
<resolution> 300x300 </resolution>
<calibration> 1.2, 2.3, 3.5, 4.3,
8.9 </calibration>
<software> Kinect software v1.7
<title>GoPro camera</title>
<resolution> 2000x2000
<calibration> 1.2, 2.3, 3.5, 4.3,
8.9 </calibration>
<software> GoPro software
In that paper, we have presented our recommendation
for a metadata schema for description of folklore
dance. From the analysis of the metadata necessary to
describe folklore dances we can conclude that
encoding ICH is complicated because we have to
consider factors such as the environment and the
emotions. The next step is the creation of the cultural
server/viewer to implement the proposed metadata
and investigate the problems and configurations
necessary for the metadata schema.
This work was supported by the EU H2020
TERPSICHORE project “Transforming Intangible
Folkloric Performing Arts into Tangible
Choreographic Digital Objects” under the grant
agreement 691218.
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