Transposition Based Blendshape Direct Manipulation

Ozan Cetinaslan, John Lewis, Verónica Orvalho


The blendshape approach is a predominant technique for creating high quality facial animation. Facial poses are generated by altering the corresponding weight parameters manually for each key-frame by using traditional slider interfaces. However, authoring a production quality facial animation with this process requires time-consuming, labor intensive and iterative work the artists. Direct manipulation interfaces address this problem with a “pin-and-drag” operation inspired by the inverse kinematics approaches. The mathematical frameworks of the direct manipulation techniques are mostly based on pseudo-inverse of the blendshape matrices which include all target shape’s vertex positions. However, the pseudo-inverse approaches often give unexpected results during the facial pose editing process because of its unstable behavior. To this end, we propose the transposition approach to enhance the direct manipulation by reducing unexpected movements during weight editing. Our approach extracts the deformation directions from the blendshape matrix, and directly maps the sparse constrained point movements to the extracted directions. Our experiments show that, instead of psuedo-inverse based formulations, transposition based framework gives more smooth and reliable facial poses during the weight editing process. The proposed approach improves the fidelity of the generated facial expressions by keeping the hazardous movements in a minimum level. It is robust, efficient, easy to implement and operate on any blendshape model.


  1. Anjyo, K., Todo, H., and Lewis, J. P. (2012). A practical approach to direct manipulation blendshapes. Journal of Graphics Tools, 16(3):160-176.
  2. Cetinaslan, O., Orvalho, V., and Lewis, J. (2015). Sketchbased controllers for blendshape facial animation. In Eurographics 2015 - Short Papers.
  3. Chan, S. K. and Lawrence, P. D. (1988). General inverse kinematics with the error damped pseudoinverse. In Robotics and Automation, 1988. Proceedings., IEEE International Conference on, pages 834-839 vol.2.
  4. Cheney, W. and Kincaid, D. (2009). Linear algebra: Theory and applications. Jones and Barlett Publishers, Sudbury, Massachusetts.
  5. Deng, Z., Chiang, P.-Y., Fox, P., and Neumann, U. (2006). Animating blendshape faces by cross-mapping motion capture data. In Proceedings of the 2006 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, I3D 7806, pages 43-48, New York, NY, USA. ACM.
  6. González Castro, G., Athanasopoulos, M., and Ugail, H. (2010). Cyclic animation using partial differential equations. The Visual Computer, 26(5):325-338.
  7. Grochow, K., Martin, S. L., Hertzmann, A., and Popovic, Z. (2004). Style-based inverse kinematics. ACM Trans. Graph., 23(3):522-531.
  8. Lewis, J. P., Anjyo, K., Rhee, T., Zhang, M., Pighin, F., and Deng, Z. (2014). Practice and theory of blendshape facial models. In Eurographics STAR, pages 199-218.
  9. Lewis, J. P., Cordner, M., and Fong, N. (2000). Pose space deformation: A unified approach to shape interpolation and skeleton-driven deformation. In Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, SIGGRAPH 7800, pages 165-172, New York, NY, USA. ACM Press/AddisonWesley Publishing Co.
  10. Lewis, J. P. and Dragosavac, N. (2010). Stable and efficient differential inverse kinematics. In ACM SIGGRAPH ASIA 2010 Sketches, SA 7810, pages 1-2.
  11. Li, H., Weise, T., and Pauly, M. (2010). Example-based facial rigging. ACM Trans. Graph., 29(4):1-6.
  12. Nakamura, Y. and Hanafusa, H. (1986). Inverse kinematic solutions with singularity robustness for robot manipulator control. Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, 108:163-171.
  13. Nakamura, Y., Hanafusa, H., and Yoshikawa, T. (1987). Task-priority based redundancy control of robot manipulators. Int. J. Rob. Res., 6(2):3-15.
  14. Neumann, T., Varanasi, K., Wenger, S., Wacker, M., Magnor, M., and Theobalt, C. (2013). Sparse localized deformation components. ACM Trans. Graph., 32(6):179:1-179:10.
  15. Orvalho, V., Bastos, P., Parke, F., Oliveira, B., and X., A. (2012). A facial rigging survey. In in Proc. of the 33rd Annual Conference of the European Association for Computer Graphics - Eurographics, pages 10-32.
  16. Pighin, F., Hecker, J., Lischinski, D., Szeliski, R., and Salesin, D. H. (1998). Synthesizing realistic facial expressions from photographs. In Proc. 25th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, SIGGRAPH 7898, pages 75-84.
  17. Seo, J., Irving, G., Lewis, J. P., and Noh, J. (2011). Compression and direct manipulation of complex blendshape models. In Proceedings of the 2011 SIGGRAPH Asia Conference, SA 7811, pages 164:1-164:10.
  18. Sloan, P.-P. J., Rose, III, C. F., and Cohen, M. F. (2001). Shape by example. In Proceedings of the 2001 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, I3D 7801, pages 135-143, New York, NY, USA. ACM.
  19. Sumner, R. W., Zwicker, M., Gotsman, C., and Popovic, J. (2005). Mesh-based inverse kinematics. ACM Trans. Graph., 24(3):488-495.
  20. Tena, J. R., De la Torre, F., and Matthews, I. (2011). Interactive region-based linear 3d face models. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2011 Papers, pages 76:1-76:10.
  21. Tikhonov, A. and Arsenin, V. (1977). Solutions of ill-posed problems. Wiley, New York.
  22. Tolani, D. and Badler, N. (1996). Real-time inverse kinematics of the human arm. Presence, 5(4):393-401.
  23. Welman, C. (1993). Inverse kinematics and geometric constraints for articulated figure animation. Master Thesis, Simon Fraser University.
  24. Yu, H. and Liu, H. (2014). Regression-based facial expression optimization. IEEE Transactions on HumanMachine Systems, 44(3):386-394.
  25. Zhang, L., Snavely, N., Curless, B., and Seitz, S. M. (2004). Spacetime faces: High resolution capture for modeling and animation. ACM Trans. Graph., 23(3):548- 558.
  26. Zhao, J. and Badler, N. I. (1994). Inverse kinematics positioning using nonlinear programming for highly articulated figures. ACM Trans. Graph., 13(4):313-336.

Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

Cetinaslan O., Lewis J. and Orvalho V. (2017). Transposition Based Blendshape Direct Manipulation . In Proceedings of the 12th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 1: GRAPP, (VISIGRAPP 2017) ISBN 978-989-758-224-0, pages 105-115. DOI: 10.5220/0006131901050115

in Bibtex Style

author={Ozan Cetinaslan and John Lewis and Verónica Orvalho},
title={Transposition Based Blendshape Direct Manipulation},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 12th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 1: GRAPP, (VISIGRAPP 2017)},

in EndNote Style

JO - Proceedings of the 12th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 1: GRAPP, (VISIGRAPP 2017)
TI - Transposition Based Blendshape Direct Manipulation
SN - 978-989-758-224-0
AU - Cetinaslan O.
AU - Lewis J.
AU - Orvalho V.
PY - 2017
SP - 105
EP - 115
DO - 10.5220/0006131901050115