Agile Methodology in Online Learning and How It Can Improve
Communication: A Case Study
Manuela Petrescu
and Adrian Sterca
Department of Computer Science, Babes-Bolyai University, Str. M. Kogalniceanu, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Agile Methodologies, Online Learning, Educational Study.
This paper presents a study on using Agile methodologies in the teaching process at the university/college
level during the Covid-19 pandemic, online classes. We detail a list of techniques inspired from software
engineering Agile methodologies that can be used in online teaching. We also show, by analyzing students
grades, that these Agile inspired techniques probably help in the educational process.
Agile is a methodology based on constant improve-
ment that uses a different approach for software de-
velopment than the classical waterfall approach. The
waterfall methodology has a set of advantages such
as using a clear development structure, having a
goal determined in the first phases. However water-
fall methodology has some major disadvantages (e.g.
changes are difficult to implement, the client is ex-
cluded from the development process, so on) and be-
cause of these, it is slowly replaced by other method-
ologies (such as Agile). Agile sticks to some base
principles in order to improve communication, coop-
eration, customer feedback and to ease the implemen-
tation of changes in the developed application. The
main principles are (Manifesto, 2021):
Individuals and interactions over processes and
Working software over comprehensive documen-
Customer collaboration over contract negotiation,
Responding to change over following a plan
For a more complete presentation of Agile method-
ologies, please see (Rubin, 2012).
As higher education enrollment is seeing a de-
cline because of high tuition costs, online education
could help students start and finalize their studies, a
swift change in learning methods seems to be hap-
pening, going to a more ecological and economically
viable environment (Bozkurt and Hilbelink, 2019).
The overall post secondary enrollment rates dropped
and the rates for online enrollment grew year after
year (Lederman, 2018). These directions were ac-
centuated due to the 2019 pandemic, as in fall 2020
the undergraduate enrollment had a 4% decline com-
pared to the previous year, and the postsecondary en-
rollment had a 3% decline compared to the previous
year (Clearinghouse, 2021). A comparison between
2021 and 2020 confirms the trend, spring 2021’s un-
dergraduate enrollment decline was 4.5% compared
to 2020 (Miller, 2021). A market analysis performed
by Market Research, found out that in 2019, the US
Academic E-Learning market size was around US$
1.84 billion, and their prognostic was to reach US$
5.31 billion by the end of 2026.(Research, 2020)
COVID-19 pandemic obliged schools to go on-
line, most colleges and universities moved their
courses online and closed the campuses. Some stu-
dents managed to attend online classes, others had
problems related to internet access, mobile devices
and even with finding quiet learning locations. In
the USA, a survey of college students done after the
Spring 2020 semester indicated that 43% of the stu-
dents that have enrolled in traditional face-to-face
classroom courses did not take an online class before.
21% if the students had only taken one online class
prior to the pandemic, and 35% of them had taken
two or more classes. (Miller, 2021)
Even if the students and the professors seem
confident in achieving the learning goals, the results
point out a different thing: the students and (their
parents) have a lower degree of satisfaction regarding
the online tutoring comparing to traditional face-to-
face learning. In USA, a study done after one online
semester shows that the satisfaction level decreased
Petrescu, M. and Sterca, A.
Agile Methodology in Online Learning and How It Can Improve Communication: A Case Study.
DOI: 10.5220/0011317400003266
In Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Software Technologies (ICSOFT 2022), pages 542-549
ISBN: 978-989-758-588-3; ISSN: 2184-2833
2022 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
from 87% to 59% when the courses were held
online and the high dissatisfaction level grew from
3% to 13% (Miller, 2021). In another study from
Romania, a significant percent of parents (23.03%)
considered that the online courses did not help their
children (middle school, high school, and university
level) to accumulate new knowledge.(Constantin
Aurelian Ionescu, )
Pro and Cons of Online Learning vs Traditional
There are lots of factors that can be considered
as pro arguments for online learning: the cost, the
availability of the course content (24/7), and the
availability as each student can learn at his own
pace. The cons arguments are referring to less
human interaction, the increase of zoom fatigue
due to lack of nonverbal communication, weari-
ness, more distractions and environmental issues
(hardware/software capacity, bandwidth, Internet is-
sues, difficulty of finding a quiet place to learn, so on).
Online Learning Advantages
There are countries where the universities offer
traditionally free degree programs and the students
do not pay for their tuition. However, some tradi-
tional universities have costs with managing property,
buildings, staff, costs that can get up to $30,000 to
$50,000 just in tuition for universities such as Har-
vard, Duke or Yale (Schools, 2021). These costs are
largely not present for the online courses, the average
cost spent for online courses in the USA was between
$100 to $400 (Schools, 2021) per credit hour and
79% of the students that completed an online course
strongly agree that it is worth the cost (Magda et al.,
2020). For corporations, up to 60% of total training
cost is due to traveling expenses according to a
KPMG paper (Wildi-Yune and Cordero, 2015). Other
arguments are referring to the course availability, the
online courses can be accessed when the students
have time.
Online Learning Disadvantages
Taking online courses by necessity as the schools
closed, has a huge impact on the students, as some of
them struggle with hardware constraints (not having
a mobile device to connect), to poor infrastructure,
or finding a quiet space to learn. “The main reason
was the lack of technical resources to access the
platform or Internet connection at home. From the
students’ perspective, 81% of those who declared
that they have not participated in online courses at
all, are from rural areas and do not have an Internet
connection at home. (Constantin Aurelian Ionescu,
). In the USA, most of the students complained about
the home schooling conditions as 20% of college
students who had online classes instead of traditional
classes during the pandemic indicated that it was a
major challenge to find a quiet place for learning
(Miller, 2021). Spending more than 5, 6 hours every
day in meetings has another psychological impact
called “zoom fatigue”, making the students tired
as their brain tries to compensate for the lack of
nonverbal behaviour, effect analysed in different
papers (Ramachandran, 2021; Fosslien and Duffy,
There are many papers in the industry discussing
how to teach the Agile methodology (Deved
c and
Milenkovic, 2011) (Sharp and Lang, 2018; Missiroli
et al., 2016), but the literature is not so abundant in pa-
pers related to how Agile can be used when teaching
a course, especially regarding the online courses.
In this study we intend to answer to the following
research questions:
1. Is the Agile methodology helpful in the online
2. Should Agile methodologies be applied to courses
/seminars or laboratories?
Agile is a software development methodology that
is taught at college level, but the Agile concepts can
be adapted to online teaching. Our proposal is to
adapt the following events:
Sprint planning
Sprint review
Sprint prospective
Agile stand-ups
Use Agile for nonverbal communication.
2.1 Scrum: Sprint Planning Event
When Teaching
Mentioning the requirements, the syllabus on the first
course, mentioning the plan and the structure for each
seminar/course or laboratory in the beginning is simi-
lar to Scrum, Sprint Planning event. In each sprint two
major questions would be answered: Why is the sprint
Agile Methodology in Online Learning and How It Can Improve Communication: A Case Study
valuable? and What can be done in this sprint? Fol-
lowing this approach, each professor can mention and
answer similar questions in the beginning of a course
in order to get the interest of his students:
What it will be discussed in the course/seminar;
the content and the structure.
Why the discussed topics are important
Mentioning the plan, the structure and the relation
between the concepts makes the course easier to fol-
low and to understand. Every course should be well
structured, and it’s important that this information and
the topics that will be discussed are shared with the
students, as it helps students understand and integrate
the presented information into patterns, making the
concepts easier to retrieve and to use. Every course
should be well structured, starting with the plan, then
presenting the information in a logical manner, and fi-
nally exercises and conclusion. Using this approach,
the students will know when it ends, how information
is related and structured and what is expected from
In a study involving students from Babes Bolyai
University, Computer Science that was performed
by us (details of the study will be provided later
on), most of them 97.1% appreciated that it was
useful to find out in the beginning of each semi-
nar/laboratory/course the structure and the main top-
2.2 Scrum: Sprint Review When
The sprint review is a working session that analyses
what was accomplished in the sprint, a session that
should be time-boxed to a maximum of 4 hours for
a four weeks sprint. Related to a course of two or
four hours, it should be time-boxed to 5 to 10 minutes
in which a summary of the major topics, the essen-
tial terminology and concepts are presented. Sum-
marizing at the end of the course helps students re-
member the information presented in the higher per-
centage and it also helps structuring it into patterns.
In our study, most of them appreciated that summa-
rizing the information at the end of a course was
helpful. Summarizing should also include a Q&A
short session. Asking questions, involving the stu-
dents to participate and analyse or debate over the pre-
sented topics not only helps them clear some misun-
derstandings, but also has a beneficial impact on the
students/professor communication. The teacher can
give positive reinforcements to the desired behaviour
and to interesting or challenging questions. The stu-
dents, as all human beings, usually are motivated by
the teacher’s appreciation, thus improving communi-
cation. The following image reflects the percentage of
students in our study that appreciated having a review
after the course.
Figure 1: Student’s feedback regarding Sprint Review.
We made the following observation: the percent-
age of the students that appreciated Sprint Review
was the same with the percentage of the students ap-
preciating Sprint Planning. We also analysed that
there is a possibility that the students just clicked
without reasoning as the questions were displayed one
after another, but we considered that the percentage is
extremely high and is relevant for our study, even if
some students might have been influenced by the or-
der of the questions.
2.3 Scrum: Sprint Retrospective Event
when teaching
The sprint retrospective is a meeting that formally
concludes the sprint, in which the team discusses
what went well in the sprint, what could be improved
and what will be committed to improve. Normally,
a sprint retrospective in Agile software development
lasts anywhere between 30 minutes to 3 hours. In
teaching, the duration of this retrospective/feedback
meeting/discussion should be scaled down propor-
tionally to the duration of the ”teaching sprint” and we
suggest is should not take more than 10 minutes and
should be done after each major topic (that includes
2 - 4 course hours). This feedback discussion should
not be a Q&A session, but rather a session for gath-
ering information about how well the students under-
stood the explained concepts and how well they can
apply them, their impressions and feelings as sugges-
tions for methods to improve the following courses
can also be collected. There are cases when the exam-
ples provided by the professors are not enough or they
are not explained in detail, or there is not enough/too
much theory. Knowing the student’s opinion, the pro-
fessors could improve their teaching methods and the
structure of the course. However, the students’ opin-
ions should not prevail over the overall scope of the
ICSOFT 2022 - 17th International Conference on Software Technologies
Our recommendation is not to use this instrument
too frequently as asking every time for feedback the
students will get bored, disregard the requirement and
provide irrelevant answers or even consider that the
professor is not confident enough on his capabilities
and need constant feedback. However, asking the
feedback only once in a semester, at the end of it,
might prove not enough as the students tend to for-
get the observations they had in the first courses.
2.4 Agile Stand-ups Meeting in
In Agile methodology, a stand up stands for a daily
15 minutes meeting for the team to plan for the next
24 working hours, and is based on three questions:
What did you do yesterday? What will you do today?
Anything blocking your progress?
Agile recommends that a team has a maximum 8
members, so a 15 minute meeting is feasible if the ad-
ditional topics are discussed. However, due to the fact
that the number of students attending a course is much
higher, we recommend the following approach only
for seminars or for laboratories where the student’s
number is smaller. Even though the number of stu-
dents in a seminar group or laboratory group is usu-
ally not as low as 8 (typically it is between 20 and 30
at our university), we consider that 15 minutes stand-
ups is a good compromise between using the semi-
nar/laboratory time for presenting new knowledge to
students and discussing issues related to already ac-
quired knowledge. Our proposal is to have a 10-15
minutes discussion about the problems the students
encountered when doing their homework and about
the solutions they found. Most of the time, during the
laboratories, the professor can help/check homework
only for a student at a specific moment of time. Hav-
ing this session in the beginning of a class has some
major advantages:
All the students find new information and learn
from their colleagues; discussing mistakes and
problems as the solution for those problems is in-
creasing their experience.
The students become confident, opened with their
colleagues and learn to work in a team. They re-
alise that everyone is making mistakes, everyone
encounters issues that have to be solved and the
most important thing is to learn.
The professor can find out where there are the ma-
jor problems and how to improve the course by
providing other examples or details.
This semester, due to the pandemic all courses were
held online. Based on the following arguments, we
tried to make students have their camera turned on.
The arguments were:
They become aware that they can be asked to an-
swer and that they are seen if they do something
else or are not paying attention.
The students have to attend the semi-
nars/laboratories, they are not allowed to
turn off their cameras while they are leaving
the room or they are getting involved in other
The professor can see if the students understand
the explained concepts based on their face mim-
ics and the professor can adjust the course accord-
As in Agile methodology, when the students have the
camera turned on, the “fatigue” signs such as yaw-
ing or texting on the phone, or bending over the desks
are easy to be noticed (for a small number of partici-
pants) and the professor can react and try to animate
the course. There are several methods that can be used
to animate a course, from joking to asking questions
or starting some free discussions.
In the 8th week of study, after applying some
Agile methods in teaching, we decided to see what
was the perception of the students regarding the
new approach. So we create an anonymous quiz
with 10 closed questions (8 with yes/no option and
2 with more than 4 multiple response options) and
one open question to allow them to express other
opinions/ideas related to the course and/or Agile
methods that were used during this semester. In the
next section, we will focus on the perception for
cameras turned on/off and on the methods to animate
the course.
Camera ON/OFF
In the 8th week of study, the students were re-
quired to provide a feedback for this approach. As
expected, most of them mentioned that they would
prefer to have their camera turned off, and in the
same ratio, they wanted the professor to have the
camera turned on. Our expectation was that the
ratio of 61.4% of students that prefer the teacher to
have their camera turned on was even higher, but the
results should take into consideration the fact that
some parts of the laboratories consisted in presenting
Agile Methodology in Online Learning and How It Can Improve Communication: A Case Study
home-works or explaining concepts/ PowerPoint
presentations that imply screen sharing and decrease
the importance of non verbal communication in those
specific time-frames.
Figure 2: Student’s feedback regarding teacher’s camera:
Figure 3: Student’s feedback regarding their own camera:
As a note, even if the responses collected from stu-
dents mentioned that they prefer to have their camera
turned on, when they were allowed to choose to have
their camera turned on/off, most of them turned off
their cameras.
As the results were surprising (38,6% of students
stated that they prefer to have their camera turned on),
we decided to perform some tests as in our observa-
tions in other groups of students the percentage was
much lower. We selected 3 semi-groups of 15 stu-
dents and they were allowed to choose freely to set
their camera on or off. Out of this set of students only
2-3 students turned their camera on. Furthermore, if
the professor would leave his/her camera off, the stu-
dents are not encouraged to turn on their camera; the
best observed ratio of students turning on their cam-
era voluntarily was less than the declared one by 20%
- 25%.
Another question was related to the relation be-
tween the students’ involvement in the course and
their turned on/off camera. Our assumption was that
the students with the camera turned on (due to the
fact that they know that are observed), will be more
involved. However, the percentage of students that
declared that they got more involved is lower than ex-
pected: only 15.7%, and most of them appreciated
they were involved in the same manner.
However, having students with their camera
Figure 4: Student’s feedback regarding their involvement
turned on was a valuable resource as the signs that
showed boredom were easier to spot, so the teacher
was aware and could adapt. Some students that were
texting on cell phones were asked to answer, or to
provide an opinion about the discussed topic.
The results of the quiz were surprising as we expected
to have a higher percentage of students that get more
involved if they have their camera turned on, but we
did not perform additional tests to really measure
their involvement (the metrics could be the number of
times they respond freely without being questioned
by the professor). The observed pattern was that the
students are more aware of the fact that they are in a
class, they try to hide themselves when texting; so in
our perception, their behaviour changed when they
had the cameras turned on.
Methods to Animate the Course
Due to many distractions available at home, the
students are easier to get distracted and to lose their
focus. The professors need to reinvent themselves
and reinvent the teaching methods in order to keep
their students interested. In our study we tried
different approaches: humor (jokes), asking the
students that are distracted to answer, or provoking
those students that have their camera turned off and
free discussions.
Using humor has some advantages: it’s relatively
easy to integrate, it consumes little time, relaxes ev-
eryone and makes the students feel better. How the
students are feeling in a class is quite important as the
information presented can be retrieved from books,
from papers, sometimes having a better structure than
the one presented at course. However, what makes a
course unique, so the students love it and learn from
it is the communication and the connection they are
having with the professor. Humor can create a com-
munication bridge. The downside is that when there
is no connection between the students and the profes-
sor and only the professor finds the jokes amusing, the
humor should not be used. It just makes communica-
tion harder.
Even if humor is one of the best methods to ani-
ICSOFT 2022 - 17th International Conference on Software Technologies
mate a course, it has to be used with caution as no one
wants to transform a course into a stand-up comedy.
The main focus is and should be learning and passing
information and knowledge to students.
Provoke Distracted Students to answers was a
method used in our experiments. Even though the
students were more attentive, they did not like this ap-
proach. They felt uncomfortable as they had to con-
trol their distractions. The seminar request was that
everyone should have the camera turned on. Provok-
ing students that had their camera turned off to an-
swer usually had a positive effect on the other stu-
dents, as the inattentive students stuttering amused
their colleagues. None of these methods can however
be used intensively, as asking and provoking students
that don’t know the subject or that do not pay attention
distract the other students and make them lose their
focus. The logical explanations and flow can also suf-
fer, so the recommendation is to use each method in
an appropriate manner.
Free discussions was in our opinion the most difficult
method to use as it consumes time and it’s not easy to
find an interesting provoking topic from the course
topics. We realize that this may be different for other
learning setups and may be too specific to our own
experience. A downside for using free discussions is
that they can be used only after the theoretical part is
taught and explained, only after the basic knowledge
on a topic is achieved. However, the free discussion
method was the most appreciated method for animat-
ing the course in our study, as the students can express
their ideas and their personality, can argue and debate
over a subject or a topic.
Examples were also appreciated by the students. It
was interesting to find out that our assumption that
the waw examples (“the most”, “the top”) would be
more appreciated proved to be wrong, the students
preferred familiar examples in the same percentage
as waw examples. The percentage was 38.6 familiar
examples to 34.3 waw examples.
Figure 5: Student’s feedback regarding animation elements.
In this section we are trying to evaluate the effect
of applying some of the above Agile techniques to
Web Programming laboratory classes held with uni-
versity students. At the Web Programming laboratory
classes students are assigned tasks from the various
fields taught at the Web Programming course (Html,
CSS, Javascript, Jquery library, Angular framework,
PHP programming, JSP and Java servlets, ASP.Net
Core) and they have specific deadlines for each task.
The grade received by a student for a lab task reflects
the quality of the solution and the fact that the stu-
dent complied with that task’s deadline; the grades
vary from 1 (received for a lab task not delivered) to
10 (received for a good to perfect solution for the lab
We are comparing the lab grades received by stu-
dents in academic year 2019, before the Covid-19
pandemic, when the classes were held with students
being physically present in laboratory rooms, with the
grades received by students in academic year 2020,
during the Covid-19 pandemic, when all classes were
taught online using Microsoft Teams videoconferenc-
ing sessions. In the academic year 2020 we applied at
the Web Programming laboratory classes some of the
Agile techniques mentioned above, as a way to help
students cope with the non-physical presence at the
university induced by the Covid-19 pandemic. Since
we normally expect lab grades to drop during Covid-
19 pandemic with online laboratory classes, we are
trying to measure whether Agile techniques can be
used in order to maintain or improve lab grades for
pandemic online classes with respect to normal, pre-
pandemic, physical classes (i.e. when students were
required to be physically present at the laboratory
We can see in Fig. 6 the average lab grade (com-
puted for all the laboratory tasks, for all students)
computed Before Pandemic (2019) and During Pan-
demic (2020) when we employed Agile techniques.
We can see that the average lab grades are very simi-
lar, the average grade during pandemic being slightly
less than the average grade before pandemic. We con-
clude from this that Agile techniques probably helped
in maintaining student grades during pandemic (i.e.
during online classes) at a level equal to the pre-
pandemic one. These results could also be explained
if the students from the 2020 generation are overall
better than the students from the 2019 generation. But
our analysis of all the grades received at the Web Pro-
gramming course by the past 5 generations of students
did not show significant differences between these 5
generations of students.
Agile Methodology in Online Learning and How It Can Improve Communication: A Case Study
Fig. 7 shows the standard deviation of the lab
grades received by students before pandemic and dur-
ing pandemic. We can see that the two values are sim-
ilar. Also, in Fig. 8 and 9 we can see the grades his-
togram before the pandemic and during the pandemic,
respectively. These plots are very similar, showing
that many lab tasks were solved very well by most
Figure 6: Average lab grade of students Before Pandemic
(2019) vs. During Pandemic (2020).
Figure 7: The standard deviation of lab grades of students
Before Pandemic (2019) vs. During Pandemic (2020).
Figure 8: The histogram of lab grades (academic year
We can now answer our initial research questions.
Is the Agile methodology helpful in the online
One of the principal assets of Agile methodology
is the principle of systematic retrospective (imple-
mented in the retrospective meetings in software de-
Figure 9: The histogram of 4lab grades (academic year
velopment); the retrospective perspective, repeating
ideas and notions is a formidable aid in the learning
process, even if is not sufficiently used by the teach-
ers. In the proposed approach, there is time allocated
for a retrospective part, thus helping the learners to
fix their knowledge. Because if this aspect, using Ag-
ile methodology can improve the effectiveness of the
online courses.
Should Agile methodologies be applied to courses
/seminars or laboratory?
Agile methodology is all about adapting, adapting
to obtain better results, to a specific environment or to
projects. Parts of the Scrum methodology can not be
used for courses if the number of the students exceeds
20-30 people, but the retrospective part can prove it-
self very useful as it helps achieving and better un-
derstand the information presented in the course. For
the seminars (depending again on the number of stu-
dents), time can be allocated in the beginning of the
seminar to check if there are questions, if the students
encountered issues or problems related to the previous
taught topic they could not solve or if they found an
ingenious method to solve the issues. Allocating time
in the end of the seminar for a retrospective helps to
understand better the concepts and to “place” them in
patterns. In the laboratories as the student number is
the smallest, it’s easier to apply the Agile methodol-
ogy and to allocate time for the students to speak their
mind related to the previous taught topic or the exper-
iment/work they had to do. In conclusion, the adapted
Agile methodology are useful in the teaching process,
starting from the courses, continuing with the semi-
nars and laboratories.
The experiment of introducing the Agile inspired
methodologies in teaching courses, seminars and lab-
ICSOFT 2022 - 17th International Conference on Software Technologies
oratories (i.e. practical work classes) had benefits
and most of the students had a positive reaction to
them. However, more than the positive reactions,
the grades should reflect if there is an improvement
in the learning process and a comparison has to be
made with the grades obtained by the students from
the previous year. The future work will consist in fine
tuning the proposed methodologies (stands-up, retro-
spective, spring planning) and elaborating some met-
rics related to these activities (we proposed some time
constraints), but we need more studies before we can
state that the proposed time intervals are the best ones.
We have shown by analyzing the grades obtained by
students before the pandemic classes and during the
pandemic classes that using Agile methodologies in
teaching helps the educational process.
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