A Reusable Catalog of Requirements for Gamified Mobile Health
Lamyae Sardi
, Ali Idri
, Leanne M. Redman
, Hassan Alami
and José Luis Fernández-Alemán
Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco
Software Project Management Research Team, ENSIAS, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco
MSDA, Mohammed VI Polytechnic University, Ben Guerir, Morocco
Reproductive Endocrinology and Women’s Health Lab, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, U.S.A.
Faculty of Medicine, Mohammed V University and Maternity Les orangers, University Hospital of Rabat, Rabat, Morocco
Department of Informatics and Systems, Faculty of Computer Science, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain
Keywords: m-Health, Gamification, Requirements, Catalog, ISO/IEC 25010.
Abstract: The new era of mobile technologies has revolutionized all fundamental human pursuits in that many sectors
have been reshaped and tangibly improved, such as education, finance, and healthcare. Referred to as mHealth,
the use of mobile technologies to track and improve health outcomes is a rapidly expanding trend. A plethora
of mobile health applications (mHealth apps) are being constantly developed thanks to the rapid adoption of
mobile devices. From basic exercise trackers to powerful self-management tools, mHealth apps play several
roles towards the provision of better healthcare. To induce playful experiences and boost engagement,
gamification has proven to be extremely effective with mHealth apps. This paper presents a catalog of reusable
requirements for gamified mHealth apps in terms of gamification, functional suitability, usability, and security,
Further improvements are intended to be made continuously to the catalog by adding additional requirements
scattered from other standards and information sources.
As the world becomes gradually digitized, there is a
growing potential for digital technologies to improve
many aspects of health and social care provision
(Bhavnani, Narula, and Sengupta 2016). Referred to
as mHealth, the use of mobile technologies to track
and improve health outcomes is a rapidly expanding
trend. Efforts to adopt digital health apps into medical
and clinical practice have progressed significantly,
leading to a steadily proliferation of the mHealth
industry. There are now over 318,000 mobile health
applications (mHealth apps) available at the top app
stores worldwide, namely, Google Play Store and
Apple App Store, accounting for more than 200 apps
being added each day (INSTITUTE. 2017). This
staggering number is fuelled by a combination of
factors including the increased penetration and
ownership of smartphones, tablets, and other mobile
platforms, the high burden of chronic disease
prevalence, and the shift towards a patient-centric
healthcare delivery (Pankomera and Greunen 2018).
Besides, the rising need for tracking daily activities,
changing lifestyles and behaviours substantially
results in the widespread use of mHealth apps
(Baldwin et al. 2017). In this respect, mHealth apps
promise to empower patients and healthcare
providers at different levels and through a myriad of
ways including ubiquitous access to accurate health
information (Pankomera and Greunen 2018),
consistent remote monitoring and vital signs self-
management along with startling treatment adherence
support (Baldwin et al. 2017; Byambasuren 2018).
Another prevalent benefit of mHealth apps is shifted
towards motivating positive health behaviour change,
which is considered as the most frequently targeted
lever for reducing the burden of preventable disease
and enhancing wellbeing (Carroll et al. 2017; Johnson
et al. 2016). Accordingly, gamification has
persuasively proven to positively impact ingrained
health behaviours. Typically defined as the use of
game design elements in non-game contexts and
settings, gamification is a vastly growing technique
that can be used to motivate participation,
engagement and loyalty (Sardi, Idri, and Fernández-
alemán 2017a). Indeed, gamification can play a
Sardi, L., Idri, A., Redman, L., Alami, H. and Fernández-Alemán, J.
A Reusable Catalog of Requirements for Gamified Mobile Health Applications.
DOI: 10.5220/0011071700003176
In Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering (ENASE 2022), pages 435-442
ISBN: 978-989-758-568-5; ISSN: 2184-4895
2022 by SCITEPRESS – Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
central role in boosting user engagement with apps,
particularly with mHealth apps (Lister et al. 2014).
The use of gamification has already been recognized
in fields such as business, training, and marketing,
and it is increasingly tapping into the healthcare
domain (Johnson et al. 2016). Conforming with a
previous systematic literature review conducted on
papers dealing with gamification in digital healthcare
settings (Sardi et al. 2017a), gamification is largely
leveraged to inspire users to exercise more effectively
and more regularly and to help them manage their
chronic conditions. The underlying idea of
gamification is to harness people’s innate motivation
alongside the natural desire to learn, socialize, master
tasks, compete, record achievements, build status,
participate in self-expression and have fun. Appealing
to these intrinsic motivators, the gamified technology
employs rewards and competitive game features to
induce user immersion in the app environment
(Johnson et al. 2016). These incentives typically
include earning points, achievement badges, and
virtual currency or new levels, challenges and
progress bars. The use of leader boards and making
rewards visible to other users are ways of fostering
user competition Through integrating these
motivating elements, gamified apps are a natural
pairing between psychology and technology, which
adds more complexity to the process of their
conception and development. To fulfil their ultimate
goal, these apps should be developed in a way that
complies with a set of requirements. Nevertheless,
mobile technologies are growing at an ever-faster rate
where user requirements and expectations are
frequently changing. Therefore, software engineers
should perform a series of requirements engineering
steps to build efficient and reliable software products.
Generally, the success of a software product is
often defined as one that is delivered on time, on
budget, and with all the features as originally
specified. In this context, requirements reuse has been
proposed as an advanced requirements elicitation
technique that has a great deal of potential in terms of
achieving maximum productivity, quality, and
consistency throughout the product development
lifecycle (Palomares, Quer, and Franch 2017).
Pacheco et al. have proposed a structuring approach
using software requirements catalogs (SRC) to
support software reuse (Ivan et al. 2016). This
approach structures requirements belonging to the
same domain in sorted lists (i.e., catalogs), in which
each one of the software requirements has to be
described in terms of its functionality and classified
conforming to its importance. Moreover, these
requirements must be identified in a unique way to
facilitate the search within the catalog. A
requirements catalog is versatile as it can be adapted
into different projects. The SRC approach is oriented
to small-sized software enterprises that develop
custom-built software products. Health apps are a
good instance of this specific type of software
To the best of our knowledge, there is no
requirements catalog dealing specifically with the
relevant characteristics of gamified software products
for healthcare. Subsequently, the major contribution
of the present paper is the definition of a conventional
reusable requirements catalog for gamified mHealth
apps, which covers gamification aspects and a few
important quality characteristics. This catalog,
denominated as ‘GHA-CAT’ is chiefly concerned
with the specification of a well-founded set of
gamification aspects that are likely to meet the
desired needs of stakeholders and developers of any
category of mHealth apps. Despite the hype
surrounding gamification, neither an agreed standard
nor a requirements catalog is currently available for
gamification, specifically in health settings. The
quality characteristics addressed in the proposed
catalog are drawn from the ISO/IEC 25010 product
quality model and are limited in Functional
Suitability, usability and security. In fact, the
satisfaction and pleasure induced by gamification, its
effectiveness, and usefulness are closely associated
with the degree of ease of use and of
understandability engendered by gamification while
using the fully fledged health-related gamified
software (Vargas Enríquez 2016). Besides, given the
sensitive nature of the data collected, stored, and
shared among most of the gamified mHealth apps,
security has to be considered throughout the
development cycle of these apps to preserve the
integrity, confidentiality and privacy of users’ data
which will likely enhance user trust and engagement
with the software (Martínez-pérez, Torre-díez, and
López-coronado 2015; Mavroeidi et al. 2019).
The elaboration of the requirements catalog for
gamified mHealth apps ‘GHA-CAT’ builds on a
requirements engineering approach called SIREN
(SImple REuse of software requiremeNts). Proposed
and developed by a research group from the
University of Murcia (Toval et al. 2002), this
ENASE 2022 - 17th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering
practical approach aims at reducing the total effort
and cost of software development along with
increasing the overall software productivity and
quality (Ivan et al. 2016), through the creation,
selection and elicitation of reusable requirements.
Several studies in the health area have used SIREN
methodology for the development of reusable
requirements catalogs (Ouhbi, Fernández-alemán, et
al. 2017; Zapata et al. 2018). The GHA-CAT was
developed following the process depicted in Figure 1.
First, the main information sources were identified.
Literature and formal documents such as standards
and guidelines were considered. Next, relevant
requirements for the development of gamified
mHealth apps were extracted from the sources
previously selected. Then, the catalog GHA-CAT
was generated from these requirements following the
IEEE standards’ structure. Finally, the generated
catalog is maintained and updated regularly upon
changes and/or modifications in standards, policies,
and legislations. This last phase is paramount as it
facilitates the requirements’ adaptation into new
projects. Furthermore, it addresses catalogs’
incompleteness and performs a change control
strategy for establishing a baseline for each developed
catalog before potential modifications (Ivan et al.
Figure 1: Catalog generation process.
2.1 Information Sources
Requirements for the GHA-CAT have been derived
from the literature on gamified solutions (e.g.
(Darejeh, Darejeh, and Salim 2016; Johnson et al.
2016; Morschheuser et al. 2017; Sardi et al. 2017a)
and from a number of studies dealing with software
quality particularly with regard Usability, Operability
and Security, including requirements catalogs (
Jensen et al. 2009; Toval et al. 2002; Zapata et al.
2018), evaluation studies (Moumane, Idri, and Abran
2016; Ouhbi et al. 2015; Rodríguez, Oviedo, and
Piattini 2016) and reviews (Martínez-pérez et al.
2015; Salinesi and Comyn-wattiau 2015). In addition,
the following international standards and technical
reports have been used to specify these requirements.
ISO/IEC 25010 standard for software product
evaluation, which defines a quality in-use model
and a product quality model that are relevant for
all software products and computer systems
(ISO/IEC-25010 2011).
ISO/IEC 25023 standard provides quality
measures for quantitatively evaluating system
and software product quality in terms of
characteristics and sub-characteristics defined in
ISO/IEC 25010 (ISO/IEC-25023 2016).
ISO/IEC 25040 standard provides a process
description for evaluating software product
quality and clarifies the general concepts
(25040:2011 2011).
ISO/IEC 27799 standard for information
security management in health ( ISO/IEC 27799
CEN/TR 15640 standard provides measures
with which to ensure the safety of patients using
health software (CEN/TR 15640.).
ISO 9241-210 standard for ergonomics of
human-system interaction (9241-210 2019).
The W3C standards for web and mobile devices
(W3C n.d.).
2.2 Requirements’ Specification
Following the identification of relevant standards and
information sources, requirements related to the focal
areas of the present study were analysed and
specified. The requirements specification process was
conducted based on the recommendations and
guidelines provided by the IEEE 29148 standard
(IEEE 29148) which not only describes in a
comprehensive manner the processes related to
requirements engineering activities but also defines a
complete and normative guide for the proper
preparation of Software Requirements Specification
(SRS). A thoughtful and well-organized SRS
document reduces significantly the development cost
and is a prerequisite to high-quality software product.
Drawing on this guidance, the general structure of the
catalog was organized in a way that complies with the
contents of an SRS recommended by IEEE 29148 as
shown in Table 1. Accordingly, all requirements of
the GHA-CAT are encompassed in Specific
requirements sections and are organized under their
corresponding subsection. With the recommendation
of the IEEE 29148 standard with regards to additional
requirements, gamification requirements are
organized under a separate section labelled ‘other
requirements’. What follows is the presentation of
each category of these requirements.
A Reusable Catalog of Requirements for Gamified Mobile Health Applications
2.2.1 Gamification Requirements
Perhaps the core pillar delineating the success and
effectiveness of gamified mHealth apps is the
efficient use of appropriate game design elements.
Gamification requirements therefore constitute an
important section in GHA-CAT. Due to the absence
of standardized guidance on building gamified
mHealth apps, some developed gamified apps may
negatively impact the overall user experience,
resulting in unintended or unethical behaviour. An
effective gamified health solution should include a
combination of game design elements that promote
most of the following persuasive strategies:
Relatedness and social influence
Purpose and goal setting
Reinforcement and progress tracking
Fun and playfulness
2.2.2 Functional Suitability Requirements
Functional suitability is one of the most important
quality characteristics, since it entails that a software
product meets the needs and requirements of its users.
Besides functional appropriateness, it covers
functional correctness which alludes to the degree of
the system to generate correct results with the needed
level of precision, and functional completeness that
stands for the system’s capacity to provide all the
functions specified by the user (ISO/IEC-25010
2.2.3 Usability Requirements
Usability has long been recognized as an influential
factor affecting the productivity and success of
interactive systems and products (9241-210 2019;
Rajanen and Rajanen 2017). As a product quality
characteristic, usability is defined in the ISO standard
(ISO/IEC-25010 2011) as “the extent to which a
product, system, or service can be used by specified
users to attain specified goals with effectiveness,
efficiency, freedom of risk and satisfaction in a
specified context of use”. Six attributes are
encountered under the usability characteristic which
are: appropriateness, recognizability, learnability,
operability, user interface aesthetics, user error
protection, and accessibility.
Table 1: Table of contents (IEEE 29148-2011).
1. Introduction
1.1. Purpose
1.2. Product scope
1.3. Product overview
1.3.1. Product perspectives
1.3.2. Product functions
1.3.3. User characteristics
1.3.4. Limitations
1.4. Definitions
2. References
3. S
ecific re
3.1. External interfaces
3.2. Functions
3.3. Usabilit
3.3.1. Learnability
3.3.2. O
3.3.3. User interface aesthetics
3.4. Performance re
3.5. Logical database requirements
3.6. Desi
n constraints
3.7. Software system quality attributes
3.7.1. Functional suitabilit
y Functional appropriateness
3.7.2. Reliabilit
3.7.3. Availabilit
3.7.4. Securit
y Confidentiality and privac
y Inte
y Authenticit
3.7.5. Maintainabilit
3.7.6. Portabilit
3.8. Su
3.9. Other requirements
3.9.1. Gamification requirements
4. Appendices
4.1. Assumptions and dependencies
4.2. Acronyms and abbreviations
2.2.4 Security Requirements
Security and data privacy issues are one of the major
hurdles threatening the effectiveness of mobile health
applications. Being one of the central quality
characteristics, security is defined as the degree of
information and data protection provided by a
software product so that users have a level of data
access appropriate to their types and levels of
authorization (ISO/IEC 27799; ISO/IEC-25010
2011). It covers five sub-characteristics which are
confidentiality, authenticity, integrity, non-
repudiation, accountability.
2.3 Generation of the Catalog
With the purpose of simplifying the search and reuse
of the requirements identified in the GHA-CAT and
ENASE 2022 - 17th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering
in conjunction with their integration with the existing
requirements documents, each category of
requirements investigated in the present study is
incorporated in the corresponding subsection of the
SRS. Due to space constraints, only a few
requirements for each subsection are shown in Table
2. The identification of requirements has been
performed in a way that adheres to ‘loose coupling
and high cohesion’ guideline, in order to ensure a
high degree of flexibility of the whole system. Each
requirement has a unique identifier and a clear
description. Additional attributes may be completed
to capture further information about the requirement
such as source, date, priority, status, rationale and risk
(Wheatcraft, Ryan, and Dick 2016). These attributes
can subsequently be used to manage both the
requirements and the project along with helping to
track the status of the project and its underlying
engineering activities throughout the system
lifecycle. Requirement’s traceability is an
overarching requirements management practice that
not only defines requirements dependencies but also
allows for analysis of how potential changes in
requirements impact other requirements and the
project as a whole. Tracing requirements can take
different forms such as dependency, derivation,
inclusion, exclusion, satisfaction and validation.
Table 2: CAT-GHA Requirements specification.
Gamification re
G1 The a
shall be use
-centered in that it reflects user
G2 The app shall integrate a combination of game mechanics.
G3 Gamification elements shall be well and seamlessl
G4 The a
shall stand u
on a clear set of
rules to avoid rewar
-driven behavior and cheatin
G5 Gamification elements shall not crowd out the intrinsic motivation for
G6 The a
shall enable social discover
between users.
G7 Basic information in user
rofiles shall be
ublic within the a
romote social interaction.
G8 The a
rovide at least one social interaction mechanism
, ta
, instant messa
, etc
G9 The app shall enable users to build and/or join communities of users that truly match their areas of interest and
G10 The a
shall scale the difficult
and hel
users ac
uire new skills.
G11 The a
shall scale the challen
es accordin
to the user’s current ca
Functionality Suitability requirements
FS1 The functional content of the a
shall be useful for users in a wa
that matches their needs and ex
FS2 The features and functionalities of the a
shall be clear and sim
le to access and use.
FS3 The features and functionalities of the a
shall be consistent and well-inte
FS4 Throu
h its different sections, the a
rovide utile and ade
uate content to the users.
Usability requirements
U1 The user shall be able to easil
learn to use the a
and its features.
U2 The desi
n of the a
shall be com
rehensible b
the user.
U3 The interaction desi
n of the a
shall be intuitive, eas
to learn and e
to remember.
U4 The app user interface should be simple with succinct elements and clear features.
The app shall include a help section.
[U6-1] The help section shall be well complete, easy to scan and effortlessly searchable.
[U6-2] The help section shall have all resources and contact information accessible at any given point.
[U6-3] The hel
section shall be context sensitive and shall ex
lain how to achieve common tasks.
S1 The app shall provide a privacy policy.
[S1-1] privacy policy shall be understandable and conspicuously posted.
[S1-2] The privacy policy shall clearly inform users of the information accessed, collected, or transmitted by the
app and how that information is used, secured, and disclosed.
S2 Functionality that may infringe the privacy and security of users shall not be activated before the
user voluntaril
and in the knowled
e of the related ris
ives his/her consent.
S3 The a
data stored in the user device shall be encr
ted to
revent leaka
S4 The personal data shall be adequate, relevant, and limited to what is necessary to the purposes for which they
are processed.
[S4-1] Onl
ersonal data necessar
for the
shall be
A Reusable Catalog of Requirements for Gamified Mobile Health Applications
This section illustrates the applicability of the catalog
GHA-CAT using a gamified mHealth app. The
selected app for evaluation using this catalog is Blood
Donor which is perhaps the most gamified app in
blood donation field. Blood Donor is a free app
developed by the American Red Cross to motivate
people to donate blood through gamification
principles. The app is available in both Google play
and Apple app stores. In this evaluation, the iOS
version of the Blood Donor app has been used. A
checklist has therefore been generated from the
adapted catalog GHA-CAT* which included major
aspects in terms of gamification, functional
suitability, usability and security. The checklist took
the form of a questionnaire regrouping 29 items. The
possible answer to these questions is either ‘Yes’,
‘No, ‘Partially’ or ‘N/A’ which means not applicable.
Table 3 summarizes the results of the evaluation
perform on the Blood Donor app. The answers to the
questionnaire are as follows: Yes: 26, No: 3.
Despite the growing popularity of gamification in
mHealth apps, no specific standard has been found
that clearly defines reusable requirements in terms of
the integration of gamification elements. Thus, the
GHA-CAT is very useful for developers and
designers of gamified mHealth apps. Conjointly with
gamification core pillars, the GHA-CAT also
includes reusable relevant quality requirements of
which developers can elicit and specify their needs
with regards functional suitability, usability and
security as being considered highly effective within
gamified systems (Vargas Enríquez 2016).
Table 3: Checklist to assess the Blood Donor app.
ID Question Result
Does the app integrate a combination of game mechanics?
Are the gamification elements well and seamlessly integrated into the application?
Does the app provide at least one social interaction mechanism (commenting, tagging, instant
messaging, etc.)?
Does the app enable the user to build and/or join communities of users that truly match their
areas of interest and
Does the app scale the challenges according to the user’s current capabilities?
Does the app include small attainable goals to help users begin new behaviors and keep
Does the app provide the user with immediate feedback on their performance?
Does the app enable the user to constantly track their progress?
Does the app reward user progress through extrinsic incentives (e.g., points, badges)?
Does the app grant users with the possibility to redeem their virtual rewards?
Does the app include a sense of game-like playfulness while serving a serious purpose?
Are the features and functionalities of the app clear and simple to access and use?
Are the features and functionalities of the app consistent and well-integrated?
Is the design of the app easily comprehensible by the users?
Is the interaction design of the app intuitive, easy to learn and equally easy to remember?
Does the app include a help section?
Does the app handle errors in a right way?
Are the error messages polite, friendly, and jargon-free?
Is the informational content of the app categorized adequately?
Is the undo function available for most operations?
Does the app enable users to configure language settings to suit their preferences?
Does the app enable users to handle both screen orientations?
Is the content of the app well-presented and well-ordered?
Are the fonts used for text in the app appropriate?
Is the color scheme used on the user interface of the app adequate?
Does the app provide a privacy policy?
Does the app process only relevant personal data?
Does the app allow input validation to check the data supplied?
Does the app provide a strong authentication mechanism?
ENASE 2022 - 17th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering
Considering the fulfilled items among those in the
checklist, the Blood Donor app yielded a coverage
score of 89.7%. In fact, the Blood Donor app has a
few minor flaws with regards usability and security.
Therein, this app lacks the ability of screen
orientation which it is not only helpful for users with
low vision but also provides opportunities to create
better user experience as it offers an additional layout
with a simple turn of the device. Further, the app does
not implement a multi-language support,
undoubtedly, because it is intended for American
residents, however, the United States has always been
a country noted for its linguistic diversity. It goes
without saying that English language apps tend to fare
well in many parts of the world but adopting the
native language of users is paramount as it avoids
miscommunication, widens reachability and builds
loyalty and user trust. Furthermore, the absence of the
privacy policy in this app may lead in violation of user
privacy. Although being included in the website of
the app, it is highly recommended to present an inapp
privacy policy that accessible for the user at any
moment (Martínez-pérez et al. 2015).
In spite of the unquestionable popularity of
gamification in health care area, there is no formal
standard that regulates its implementation. The
present paper therefore proposed a catalog of
requirements for gamified mHealth apps. Originated
from recommended standards and multiple
information sources, the GHA-CAT encompasses the
most relevant requirements in relation to
gamification, functional suitability, usability and
security. This catalog is therefore intended to help
stakeholders and developers in eliciting, specifying
and validating requirements of gamified mHealth
apps. It can be used for audit purposes as well.
For future work, it is intended to prioritize the
catalog items using an appropriate requirements
prioritization technique in order to guarantee the
usefulness of the catalog even in critical
circumstances (i.e., tight deadlines, budgetary
constraints). It is also expected to continuously
improve the content of the catalog using additional
information sources such as new standards or other
stakeholders’ needs.
This work was conducted within the research project
PEER, 7-246 supported by the US Agency for
International Development. The authors would like to
thank the NAS and USAID for their valued support.
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ENASE 2022 - 17th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering