An Application of a Gamification to Knowledge Management
Teaching: A Qualitative Evaluation
Antonilson da Silva Alcantara
and Sandro Ronaldo Bezerra Oliveira
Graduate Program in Computer Science, Institute of Exact and Natural Sciences,
Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil
Keywords: Gamification, Qualitative Analysis, Affective Computing, Information Technology.
Abstract: The education area has been encouraging the adoption of innovative practices and methodologies for the
teaching and learning process. Teaching in Information Technology (IT) courses brings several challenges.
Thus, the objective of this work is to present a qualitative analysis of the application of a gamification,
adapted for the remote modality, applied in the context of a software quality laboratory about knowledge
management. A brief description of the gamified approach is made, followed by the application plan of this
proposal. Then, a brief report about the analyzed case study is presented. Soon after, the qualitative evalua-
tion is detailed as well as its results. Finally, conclusions and future work are presented.
The education area has been encouraging the use of
new practices and methods that contribute to the
teaching-learning process. There is a need to innovate
teaching processes, aiming to encourage students to
participate more actively (Cardoso et al., 2018).
In this way, it is necessary to identify strategies
and methodologies to support the student motivation
process in a simple and effective way (Lopes et al.,
2021). The use of gamification technique
demonstrates a potential to stimulate people's
commitment and motivation (Lopes et al., 2021).
Gonçalves et al. (2015) state that it is extremely
important to plan the gamification process, in the
educational context, that considers the objectives to
be achieved, the contents that will be taught and the
evaluation strategies with the expected results.
Thus, the need to innovate teaching processes is
evident, with the use of new practices and methods,
in order to encourage the student to participate more
directly (Goulart, 2019).
Recent studies reveal the need for research on
collaborative learning involving affective computing
(Reis et al., 2018).
According to Oliveira et al. (2019),
understanding affective computing and its
application in academic contexts is a challenge.
There are several ways to extract affective
information from: vision-based information, brain
signals, physiological measurements, and others
(Batista, 2019). Another way of capturing is the
collection of affective information based on
discourse analysis, enabling analysis through both
speech and writing (Batista, 2019).
Based on this, this work aims to present a
qualitative analysis of the application of a
gamification, adapted to the remote modality,
applied in the context of a software quality
laboratory about knowledge management.
In addition to this introductory section, this paper
is structured as follows: Section 2 presents the
research methodology, Section 3 presents the
gamification for knowledge management teaching,
Section 4 presents the application plan of this
gamification, Section 5 presents the case study report,
Section 6 presents the qualitative evaluation, and
Section 7 presents the conclusions and future work.
This work was developed from the following steps:
(i) definition of research objectives and their
Alcantara, A. and Oliveira, S.
An Application of a Gamification to Knowledge Management Teaching: A Qualitative Evaluation.
DOI: 10.5220/0011058000003182
In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Supported Education (CSEDU 2022) - Volume 2, pages 489-497
ISBN: 978-989-758-562-3; ISSN: 2184-5026
2022 by SCITEPRESS – Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
respective indicators, (ii) definition of the target
audience, where the context of application of this
proposal was selected, (iii) definition of the
application model, where the periodicity and
meeting models were defined, (iv) adequacy of the
environment and instruments used for the virtual
model and (v) analysis of the profile of the
participants of the dynamics. These steps are
detailed in Section 5.
According to the Silva and Menezes (2001), there
are different ways of classifying a research. Thus, the
scientific method applied is the inductive method, as
it is characterized as a particular case study with the
objective of elaborating a generalization.
From the Point of View of Nature it is classified
as a Applied research, involving concepts and facts
already explored, in addition to having as objective
the advancement of science in the knowledge
management of the Information Technology area.
From the Point of View of the Problem
Approach, the research is classified as Qualitative,
as it deals with data that change according to the
context and, thus, creates a dynamism, requiring an
inductive analysis to better understand its meanings.
The research is also classified as Exploratory,
since it is intended to understand its origins and
characteristics, generating mastery over the problem,
making it possible to elaborate a possible solution.
Finally, from the point of view of Technical
Procedures, this research is classified as
Bibliographic, as it is based on articles published in
conferences and journals, as well as books by
reference authors in the researched area, and Case
Study, because it performs the application of a
gamification in a context to evaluate its results
The gamification to support the teaching and
learning of Knowledge Management assets and
process, described by Alcantara and Oliveira (2021),
is composed of a workflow, consisting of seven
steps. Figure 1 presents the flow of gamification.
The dynamic starts with the Beginning step,
which is the initial phase of the game. Here the
objective is to make the participants have an
overview of the dynamics. Thus, a simulated round
is carried out at this step, through the presentation of
activities, work products, scores, and rules for
participants to get used to the gamification.
The next step is called Knowledge Factory (KF),
which is composed of the sub-steps: (i) Generate
Knowledge and / or Comment Cards (GC), (ii)
Evaluate Cards (EC) and (iii) Identify the Target
Audience (IT). In this step, the objective is to lead
participants to have their own experiences in relation
to the process of creating knowledge items. Thus,
participants are encouraged to participate in the
process of creating knowledge, evaluating
knowledge and identifying the target audience.
Figure 1: Knowledge Management Gamification Flow.
The next step is called Duel and aims to
stimulate the student through competition so that he
dedicates himself and develops in the knowledge
creation steps. To this end, a comparison is made of
the scores given by the participants and the expert
for the same knowledge item, with the participant
who replicated the score given by the expert being
considered the winner.
The expert is one of the existing profiles in the
dynamics, being responsible for evaluating all the
knowledge generated. To act in this profile it is
necessary that the participant has a strong
knowledge of the subject adopted to generate
knowledge during the dynamics.
The next step is called Pack Card and
Communicate Target Audience, and aims to select the
knowledge items approved in the expert's evaluation.
Thus, in addition to rewarding the respective authors,
this approved knowledge is organized so that it is
accessible to the public of interest.
The Knowledge Repository step aims to provide
participants with conditions for socialization, as a
way of disseminating knowledge. Participants have
the opportunity to consult the approved knowledge
and request information from their respective
authors about the knowledge items.
CSEDU 2022 - 14th International Conference on Computer Supported Education
The next step is called Ranking, whose objective
is to present the performance of the participants,
being, therefore, considered a feedback step.
Finally, the last step is called Self-Evaluation.
The objective is to direct the participant to carry out
an evaluation of their performance at the end of each
round and, based on that, set personal goals for the
next round.
The application of this gamified proposal was
planned with the objective of supporting a dynamic
whose objective was to implement the Customer and
Market (CM) dimension of the MOSE (Guiding
Model for Business Success) model, in the context
of a software quality laboratory. The planning of this
gamification is presented in the next subsections.
4.1 The Participants
The participants in the knowledge management
gamification were the students/researchers of the
software quality laboratory, who also participated in
the dynamics that aimed to implement the Customer
and Market (CM) dimension of the MOSE model, in
the context of that laboratory.
The objective of applying knowledge
management gamification with this target audience
was to stimulate socialization and knowledge
management at the end of the implementation of the
CM dimension of the MOSE model.
The participants were master's and doctoral
students, whose research lines were in the Software
Engineering (SE), with professional experience in
the Information Technology. In total there were nine
(9) participants, being: one female and eight males.
Table 1 presents the profile of each participant.
Table 1: Participants Profile.
P1 Doctorate SE Researche
P2 Doctorate Education
in SE
Researcher 6
P3 Doctorate SE Researche
P4 Doctorate SE Analist of
P5 Maste
SE Researche
P6 Maste
SE Researche
P7 Doctorate SE Professor 10
P8 Maste
SE Technician 2
P9 Maste
SE Researche
There are four profiles in the dynamics: (i)
Master, responsible for timing each activity and
signaling when to proceed to the next step in the
flow, where one (1) participant acted in this profile,
(ii) Judge, responsible for the Gamification
Worksheet, recording the scores obtained by each
Player throughout the steps and, at the end,
presenting the Ranking of the participants, where
one (1) participant acted in this profile, (iii)
Specialist, expert in the knowledge area being
studied, its function is to help solve doubts, evaluate
and score Cards created by Players, suggest
challenges, and indicate Cards that will be stored in
the knowledge bank and disseminated in the group,
where one (1) participant acted in this profile, and
(iv) Player, participant in gamification and main
actors in the knowledge creation process, where six
(6) participants acted in this profile.
4.2 Application Period
The period of application of the dynamics occurred
in the interval between 09/09/2021 to 10/07/2021,
on Thursdays, from 16:00h to 18:00h. Table 2
presents the schedule with dates and iterations that
took place for the conclusion of the Journey.
Table 2: Application Schedule.
Date Activities Duration
4:00 pm to 5:20 pm
Simulated Roun
m to 6:00
09/16/21 Iteration 1 4:00
m to 6:00
09/23/21 Iteration 2 4:00 pm to 6:00 pm
09/30/21 Iteration 3 4:00 pm to 6:00 pm
Rating and
4:00 pm to 6:00 pm
4.3 Gamification Instruments and
Support Tools
The case study took place remotely in line with the
health restrictions imposed due to the covid-19
pandemic. Thus, all the instruments of this gamified
proposal, originally planned for physical use, were
adapted for use in the virtual modality.
Different tools were used to apply this case study
remotely, they were: Google Meet to hold the
necessary meetings to carry out the activities
proposed in the gamification scenario, Google
Calendar to manage the dates and times of meetings
necessary to carry out activities during the
Gamification journey, Google Drive to make work
products available collaboratively, Google
An Application of a Gamification to Knowledge Management Teaching: A Qualitative Evaluation
Documents used in the adaptation of the individual
monitoring form and the self-evaluation form, both
for remote use, Google Sheets used in adapting the
gamification spreadsheet for remote use, Google
Drawings used in adapting Knowledge Cards for
remote use, Google Jamboard used in adapting the
Knowledge Framework for remote use and E-mail to
send information to those involved.
These tools were chosen because they are: free,
generating no burden for participants, for being
known by the participants and, as most of them are
available in the Google Drive environment, facili-
tating navigation between the different instruments.
4.4 Adopted Evaluation Criteria
The purpose of applying this case study is to
evaluate how the methodology adapted by Alcantara
and Oliveira (2021) is aligned with training in the
Information Technology, in the remote modality.
To this end, some Research Questions (RQ) were
defined, with their respective indicators that serve as
a guide in the process of evaluating the results, as
shown below.
RQ1 says Do the instruments and activities
developed fulfill the purpose of stimulating the
knowledge management process? The objective of
this question is to evaluate the suitability of
gamification as a tool to support the teaching and
learning process of knowledge management.
QP2 says about Did the participants show
satisfaction during the application of gamified
dynamics? With this question, the objective is to
evaluate the satisfaction of the participants at the end
of the application of gamification.
The collection of qualitative data to evaluate the
dynamics occurred: during the application of the
case study, through the field Iteration Evaluative
Report. These data will be evaluated through
Affective Analysis through the text, with the
objective of identifying the emotions aroused in the
Players during the experience of the application of
gamification; and, through a SWOT (strenghts,
weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis
performed during the final iteration of Evaluation
and Feedback.
This work aimed to support a dynamic, which took
place remotely, which aimed to implement the
Customer and Market (CM) dimension of the MOSE
model in the context of a Software Quality
Laboratory at a Brazilian federal public University.
As it is a laboratory with a diversity of
researchers in different areas of Software
Engineering, it was identified the need to apply
knowledge management at the end of the case study,
so that all cataloged and learned information was
directed and made available to its referred target
The labor market has undergone major
transformations that drive companies to adapt their
organizational structures and production processes
(SOFTEX, 2016). Thus, it is necessary to evaluate,
over time, the knowledge items in order to evaluate
their application, usefulness and compliance with
what was initially proposed.
Based on this, it was necessary to apply
knowledge management (through this gamified
proposal), in order to catalog, identify, reevaluate
and make the knowledge items available to their
respective target audiences and, later, enable their
management in terms of application, validity and
meeting the objectives in the context of the software
quality laboratory.
In addition, another characteristic that
corroborated the application of this case study was
the fact that in the research group there was a
rotation of members, at different levels of research
(undergraduate, master's, doctoral students, and
professors), being, therefore, it is necessary to
maintain a repository of knowledge with the
solutions developed and the lessons learned by the
Another factor that corroborated the need to use
knowledge management gamification was the need
to classify the solutions and knowledge produced, in
order to maintain a database, sorted by type of
knowledge and classified by target audience. This
facilitates both consultation and assignment of tasks
and responsibilities.
Finally, the Software Quality Laboratory is made
up of participants with different profiles and levels
of responsibilities, thus making it necessary to
identify knowledge based on the responsibilities and
attributions of each member.
Based on the above, and knowing the
effectiveness of this proposal in similar contexts (as
presented in (Alcantara et al., 2019; Alcantara and
Oliveira, 2019), we identified the opportunity to
evaluate how the methodology adapted by Alcantara
and Oliveira (2021) is aligned with training in the
Information Technology area, in the remote
CSEDU 2022 - 14th International Conference on Computer Supported Education
Qualitative data were collected in two ways: during
the application of the knowledge management
gamification dynamics, through the participants'
evaluative reports, in the self-evaluation step, where
these data were analyzed through the application of
Affective Text Analysis, and, at the end of the
dynamic, in a participatory evaluation and feedback
meeting, focus group, where the SWOT matrix was
6.1 SWOT Analysis
Qualitative results were collected from interviews in
the Feedback meeting with all Gamification
participants. We analyzed, through the SWOT
matrix, the proposal of Gamification to support the
teaching and learning process of knowledge
management, the instruments adopted, the self-
evaluation process, and the adequacy of this
gamified proposal for the remote modality.
According to Santos et al. (2010), the SWOT
tool is used in the analysis of scenario or
environment to define the strategic positioning of an
Regarding the Gamification proposal, the
following were presented as Strengths: (i)
competitiveness in the dynamics, generating a
healthy dispute between the participants, (ii)
possibility of self-analysis, where the participant
can perceive their performance and evolution within
the dynamics, (iii) definition of times to manage
activities, which helps members to participate in all
activities in an orderly manner, (iv) possibility of
debates, which is perceived in the knowledge
repository step, where participants can present their
produced knowledge and interact with other
participants about the knowledge item, and (v)
participation of a specialist in the evaluation
process, which allows a more reliable evaluative
As Opportunities, the possibility of developing a
system to automate several tasks present in the
gamification proposal was highlighted.
Then, in the Instruments adopted criterion, the
following were highlighted as Strengths: (i) the fact
that the gamification worksheet encourages the
student to develop, since it makes it possible to
follow the scores as the worksheet is filled and (ii)
use of the ranking, for monitoring by the student.
Still in this criterion, Weaknesses were
highlighted: (i) the gamification worksheet needs
to be better organized, so that the fields are easier
to read, (ii) many instruments, which end up
hampering the participant's performance, and (iii)
detailed description of the gamification
worksheet, since current descriptions are confusing.
As opportunities, still in this criterion, it was
highlighted: developing a system to handle the
different instruments and centralize the many work
products in a single file.
As for the criterion of the Self-Evaluation
process, the following were highlighted as Strenghts:
(i) it contributes positively to the objective of the
dynamics, generating a perception of the importance
of the evaluation, (ii) it enables the collection of
important performance data, which can be
measured throughout the steps, and (iii) it is
important for all participants, as they directly
impact the participants' performance.
As Weaknesses, even in this criterion, were
highlighted: (i) the self-evaluation task is
confusing, generating many doubts during its
execution, (ii) need for detailing the scores, to
guide the mapping in the self-evaluation form, (iii) it
needs traceability and automation, to fill in the
points in the respective fields automatically at each
step, impacting the evaluation process, and (iv) the
adoption of scores in a cumulative way, causes
difficulty in filling in scores in each iteration.
As an Opportunity, it was suggested to automate
the recording of scores, speeding up the completion
of the worksheet, leaving the participant only
designated to develop their opinions and goals in the
self-evaluation worksheet.
Finally, in the Adequacy criterion for the remote
modality, the adaptation of the gamification
worksheet for remote use was highlighted as a
strength, helping participants to monitor the
evolution of performance.
As for Weaknesses in this criterion, the
following were highlighted: (i) the alternation
between several files and spreadsheets, since the
instruments were adapted for use in different tools,
(ii) absence of a single document, which
encompassed all instruments in the same tool, and
(iii) late feedback, caused by the need to enter
scores manually.
As an Opportunity, the need to create a system
for automating activities and controlling dynamics
was identified.
6.2 Affective Computing
Affective computing is defined as computing that
relates to, arises from or is influenced by emotions
and other affective phenomena (Pudane et al. 2018).
An Application of a Gamification to Knowledge Management Teaching: A Qualitative Evaluation
Emotions, according to Damásio (2006), are a set of
bodily manifestations aroused after receiving a
certain stimulus.
Thus, emotions are perceived by the words used
in a given context, or even through the variations of
the frequencies felt in certain parts of the speech
(Batista, 2019).
In order to carry out the affective analysis
through text, the text pre-processing steps were
followed, an after that by a summary of the results.
In the text pre-processing step, the following
activities were carried out: reading and text
processing, class assignment, pre-processing and
Thus, in the reading and text processing activity,
the reading and analysis of the texts informed by the
participants in the self-evaluation steps was carried
out. A pre-formatting was carried out to organize the
texts and classify the answers, removing non-
essential characters or words, valuing the content
informed by them.
Then, the weights corresponding to each emotion
were defined. This definition is necessary so that the
different feelings can be cataloged and logically
organized so that a general report of the predominant
feelings aroused in the dynamics can be generated.
Thus, the weights defined were: 3 for positive
feelings, 2 for neutral feelings and 1 for negative
In the pre-processing step, answers were
analyzed and feelings were identified, where the
respective weights were assigned.
Then, in the transformation step the data were
organized by weights in a spreadsheet to be worked
on in the analysis process. Table 3 presents a sample
of these data.
Table 3: Sample of feelings identified in the text with their
respective weights.
Feelings Weights
Goals were not achieved 1
My performance was reasonable 2
My performance was a little slow 2
I see it was quite beneficial 3
I managed to assimilate some knowledge 3
It made possible to achieve the defined goals 3
The dynamics became more intuitive 3
I didn't reach any of my goals 1
I only produced two cards 1
Finally, the results were summarized through the
described analyses. Thus, in total, 50 feelings were
identified, which correspond to the three iterations
where the self-evaluation step took place, to which
they received their respective weights.
The data collected in the first iteration resulted in
17 feelings which were categorized according to
their respective weights. Figure 2 presents the result
of this summary.
Figure 2: Summarization of feelings from the first itera-
The first iteration took place at the meeting
following the presentation of the dynamics and the
simulated round. It is worth noting that in the self-
evaluation step of this iteration, there was still no
stipulated target. The evaluation was conditioned to
the participant's own perception of their performance
and, based on this, they could set a personal goal for
the next iteration.
Thus, 47% of the feelings identified fit into the
positive emotion, demonstrating user satisfaction,
both in terms of dynamics and their performance.
The neutral emotion represented, in this iteration,
41% of the identified feelings. In this first iteration,
doubts were still frequent, which showed a little
insecurity on the part of those involved regarding
their performance in the dynamics.
Finally, 12% of the feelings identified fell within
the negative emotion. Here participants mainly
reported cognitive difficulties (difficulties
concentrating, slow thinking, and lack of creativity).
Figure 3: Summarization of feelings from the second
CSEDU 2022 - 14th International Conference on Computer Supported Education
The goals defined by the participants in this
iteration served as indicators in the self-evaluation
step in the second iteration. Figure 3 presents a
summary of this evaluation.
In the second iteration, 18 feelings were
identified in the participants' evaluative reports.
Unlike the previous evaluation, this time it was
possible to evaluate the achievement of the
previously stipulated personal goals.
Thus, in this iteration, 6% of the identified
feelings fit the positive emotion and were related to
satisfaction with the fluidity of the dynamics.
In the neutral emotion, 5% of the feelings
identified in the participants' evaluative texts were
framed. These reports of feelings alluded to the
awareness that the stipulated goals were tangible.
Finally, 89% of the feelings identified in the
participants' evaluative texts fit into the negative
emotion. Mainly, difficulties in achieving the
stipulated goals were reported. Dissatisfaction was
also mentioned with the times of the dynamics, both
the feedback and the ones destined to carry out the
At the end of the Self-Evaluation step, in this
second iteration, the participants defined personal
goals for the next iteration. Figure 4 presents the
result of this summary.
Figure 4: Summarization of feelings from the third itera-
In the third iteration, 15 reports of feelings were
identified in the evaluative texts informed by the
participants. For this iteration, participants had the
opportunity to define personal goals using the results
of the second iteration as a parameter.
In this way, 73% of the feelings identified in the
participants' evaluative reports fit into the positive
emotion. The main reports of feelings alluded to the
achievement of the stipulated goals. The perception
of gamified dynamics as intuitive, easy and simple
to understand was also mentioned in the reports.
The feelings identified in the evaluative texts of
the participants who fit the neutral emotion
correspond to 7%. Mainly, the proximity of reaching
the stipulated goals were reported.
Finally, 20% of the feelings identified in the
evaluative reports fell within the negative emotion.
The reports of feelings classified in this emotion
alluded to the failure to reach some of the defined
goals. Cognitive difficulties (lack of creativity) were
also reported.
Overall, the sentiments identified were
homogeneous over the iterations. Figure 5 presents a
summary of feelings throughout the application of
Figure 5: Summarizing feelings in gamification.
Thus, 40% of the feelings identified throughout
the evaluative reports fit into the positive emotion,
peaking in the third iteration with the achievement
of goals, which were readjusted by the participants
in the previous iteration.
The feelings that fit the neutral emotion
correspond to 18% throughout the application of
gamification, having its apex in the first iteration
where, in the evaluation of the evaluative reports, a
small insecurity in the participants was perceived.
Finally, the feelings that fall under the negative
emotion, throughout the application of the case
study, correspond to 42%, having their apex in the
second iteration with the non-achievement of the
goals, given that they were initially defined without
the existence of a previous parameter.
Figure 6: Word cloud chart.
An Application of a Gamification to Knowledge Management Teaching: A Qualitative Evaluation
Thus, Figure 6 presents the word cloud chart that
aims to present the terms according to their degree
of occurrence in the participants' evaluative reports,
evidencing the feelings most cited by the
This paper presented the results of a qualitative
analysis of a case study that aimed to analyze the
suitability of a gamification to support the teaching
and learning of the knowledge management assets
and process, aligned with training in the Information
Technology area, in remote mode.
The results obtained from the SWOT analysis
with the participants make it possible to answer the
RQ1: Do the instruments and activities developed
fulfill the purpose of stimulating the knowledge
management process? We conclude that yes, since
the use of this gamification proposal allowed
participants to produce and socialize different
knowledge, positively impacting this process, as
could be seen by the SWOT analysis. However, it is
necessary to readjust several points regarding the
adaptation of the instruments to the remote modality.
In addition, for greater efficiency, it is necessary to
implement a collaborative tool to automate the
administrative routines of the dynamics.
In the same way, the results obtained with the
affective analysis made possible the answer of RQ2:
Did the participants show satisfaction during the
application of the gamified dynamics? We conclude
that yes, since the analysis pointed to an evolution of
the feelings reported during the gamification
iterations, corroborating the achievement of a better
performance in the dynamics. In addition,
participants could perceive the need to readjust
personal goals so that they become tangible and
As future works, the authors suggest: the
implementation of a serious game based on this
gamified proposal and the application in a group of
the Information Technology course, in the remote
modality, to verify its adequacy and efficiency in the
knowledge management process.
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