Using Inclusive Design for People with Cognitive Limitations to
Develop Online Training in the Workplace
Louise Sauvé
, Patrick Plante
, Gustavo Adolfo Angulo Mendoza
, Caroline Brassard
and Guillaume Desjardins
Education Department, Université TÉLUQ, 455, rue du Parvis, GIK 9H6, Québec (QC), Canada
Industrial Relations Department, Université du Québec en Outaouais, 283, boul. Alexandre-Taché, J8X 3X7,
Gatineau (QC), Canada,
Keywords: Inclusive Design, Online Learning Environment, Cognitive Limitations, Literacy.
Abstract: Whether it's downloading applications, doing research, using communication tools, shopping online, filling
out a form or finding directions, having good digital competencies is essential in our contemporary society.
But what about people with cognitive limitations (PCLs)? It appears that more than 31% of PCLs do not have
the basic competencies to face this new digital reality and thus function harmoniously in society. To enable
them to become autonomous in activities requiring the use of the Internet via a tablet, a research and
development project is underway to create TAQ-TIC, an online digital literacy learning environment adapted
to their needs. Using an inclusive design approach that puts the learner at the heart of the creation process, we
validated the design, usability, and pedagogical readability of TAQ-TIC with PCLs. Findings emerged that
allowed us to make recommendations for online training intended for PCLs, notably the addition of navigation
indicators and contextual aids, the cleaning up of screen pages both graphically and textually, and the
predominant use of video-based content.
Digital competencies are increasingly sought after by
employers around the world. This workplace trend to
increasingly use digital tools can, at first glance, pose
challenges for those who have not been able to
develop their competencies in this area, either due to
lack of interest or limiting factors. Yet "these skills
are paramount in the current context, marked by
technological innovations that are transforming the
job market and influencing the skills sought by
employers" (MESS, 2019).
In this context, questions emerge. What about the
competencies of workers living with cognitive
limitations? Are these people excluded, for the most
part, from the opportunities offered by the digital
world? How can the development of digital
competencies be made accessible to this part of the
population? According to the few firms in Quebec
that hire the majority of people with cognitive
limitations (PCLs) who are in the workforce, it
appears that they do need particular assistance to
face this new digital reality, which is now an
inescapable part of functioning harmoniously at
work and in society (Bourget, Boucher, & Couturier,
Moreover, it seems obvious to us that society has
a civic responsibility to ensure the social inclusion of
those with cognitive limitations, in the face of the
transformations brought about by digital technology,
by offering them tools and resources to manage as
independently as possible.
With these larger goals in mind, we are
undertaking research and development that aims to
Sauvé, L., Plante, P., Mendoza, G., Brassard, C. and Desjardins, G.
Using Inclusive Design for People with Cognitive Limitations to Develop Online Training in the Workplace.
DOI: 10.5220/0010977900003182
In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Supported Education (CSEDU 2022) - Volume 1, pages 49-57
ISBN: 978-989-758-562-3; ISSN: 2184-5026
2022 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
create an engaging, incremental learning
environment for people living with cognitive
limitations who want to be integrated into the labour
market and society. The environment, called TAQ-
TIC, includes mini-training modules (short video
vignettes), grouped into lessons, that promote
specific learning achievements related to the use of
technology in daily life. These are supported by a
game to encourage learners to playfully review and
consolidate their learning.
This learning environment is to be used to develop
digital skills that PCLs need to function normally as
independent individuals in society, on par with
everyone else (Ruel et al., 2019). Using
communication tools; buying entertainment online;
finding a bus route; creating, storing and filing
documents; downloading applications; doing online
research; and other digital competencies are essential
to integration into society. Consequently, the
development of digital literacy competencies should
increase PCLs’ level of employability and integration
in the workplace, making them more autonomous as
In this paper, we first describe the inclusive design
approach used in our research and development to
ensure that the online learning environment meets
design, usability, pedagogical, and readability criteria
specifically for PCLs. According to Tanis et al.,
(2012) and Lussier-Desrochers et al. (2016), it is
necessary to constantly revaluate these aspects when
introducing new devices to PCLs. We then describe
how we adapted our data collection practices with this
clientele to ensure that they were comfortable with
the process and were able to provide us with useful
feedback on the environment’s initial design. Finally,
we present the results obtained during validation of
animated mock-ups that were used to design the
training vignettes and review game, followed by
recommendations for inclusive design for the PCL
According to Bourget et al. (2020), 42% of Quebec
adults with learning disabilities want more accessible
websites, and these concerns go beyond web
accessibility guidelines. To ensure effective
accessibility and the appropriateness of our design for
PCLs’ learning needs, our methodology relies on an
inclusive design approach commonly used in the
context of digital design. This is a continuous process
of pedagogical and multimedia creation that
considers PCLs’ points of view, experiences, and
situations, realizing that these have often not been
taken into account. The approach, like digital
ergonomics, places the user at the centre of the
creation process and requires a collaborative
approach with practitioner experts in the field
(Hoppestad, 2013; Lallemand & Gronier, 2015) as
well as with the people one wishes to serve. Studies
in the innovation sector show that it is essential to
place the user in the centre of both the design and
development phases for technological solutions
(Boucher, 2015; Quiguer, 2013).
Validation of the animated mock-ups is the first
of three validation steps to be carried out with PCLs.
When the learning environment is programmed, we
plan to test it with a small group in order to confirm
the appropriateness of the ergonomic adaptations
identified during the first validation. Finally we will
carry out real-time testing with a larger group of
Before creating the mock-ups, the project team
met regularly with experts (company personnel and
teachers of PCLs) to identify appropriate digital skills
to be taught, the choice of learning scenarios, and how
best to adapt the learning content for this audience.
After the mock-ups were created, the team met with
PCLs to directly validate the animated mock-ups, as
reported in the rest of this paper.
When validating the TAQ-TIC mock-ups, we focused
on the following dimensions: design adaptability,
usability, and readability (Blanck, 2014; Dagenais,
Poirier, & Quidot, 2012; Langevin et al., 2012;
Williams & Hennig, 2015).
3.1 Design Adaptability
The design of the learning environment’s components
(the user interface, mini-training modules, review
exercises, and review game) must be adapted to the
characteristics of its users (PCLs) (Williams &
Hennig, 2015). Here we are concerned with the type
of screen display, the visual organization of the screen
pages, the choice of colours and contrasts, etc.
(Nogier, Bouillot, & Leclerc, 2013). The role of the
graphical interface is to help PCLs to focus on what
is important. For example, icons should be used
consistently (i.e., a particular icon should be used for
the same function and in the same format throughout
the environment). All pages of a given website must
have the same structure. Consistent formats should be
used for titles, alignment, image layouts, etc. It is
CSEDU 2022 - 14th International Conference on Computer Supported Education
strongly recommended that a web page template be
developed at the start of the process and used for the
design of all pages. Also, an action sequence should
have the same effect throughout the environment. The
terms used in the environment must be consistent: the
same word must always have the same meaning. The
location of menus, buttons, and texts must be the
same for all pages on the site. Finally, the visual
interface must clearly highlight the essential elements
that need the user’s attention (Boucher, 2015;
Kellner, 2008).
3.2 Usability
Usability refers to the quality of navigation in the
learning environment and the degree of its
accessibility (Lussier-Desrochers et al., 2016). In
other words, PCLs using the environment must be
able to perform their actions quickly and intuitively
with as few errors as possible and with easy error
correction. The environment must be clear and
enjoyable to use and understand, even by someone
with little computer knowledge (Fraser, 2018).
Studies find that the problems in technology
reported by PCLs are most commonly associated
with usability and can be solved by appropriate
design of the learning environment (Blanck, 2014;
Chevalier, 2013; Noël, 2017). Wong et al. (2009)
point out that the more steps required to complete an
action with the technology, the greater the
difficulties encountered for PCLs. These issues can
be addressed and by inserting navigation indicators,
contextual aids, etc. and by validating the design
during implementation (Lussier-Desrochers et al.
3.3 Readability
By readability, we refer to how text, illustration, and
video are formatted to make them easier for users to
read and understand. A readable interface is an
indispensable element of any digital product
(Ergolab, 2003), especially for a learning product for
PCLs (Lussier-Desrochers et al., 2016). The learning
environment must meet certain minimum
requirements with respect to text, video, graphics, and
illustrations. Simplifying the interface, avoiding
distracting elements, and reducing the density of text
are all techniques to make content accessible to PCLs.
For example, the length of video vignettes in relation
to the user's ability to retain information, the type of
illustrations (realistic or more or less abstract), the
font, and other elements may need to be adjusted. For
reading, how text is presented on the screen in terms
of brightness, text/background contrast, space
between lines, length of lines, etc. must also be
The TAQ-TIC learning environment, which is
designed to be fun and to be personalized for
individual users, includes five courses. Each course
consists of mini-training modules grouped into
lessons. Each of the modules has a specific learning
As an example, in the "Working with a Tablet"
training course, 18 lessons are offered. In the "Take
the first steps to use a tablet" lesson, eight video
vignettes (the mini-training modules) must be viewed
to complete the lesson, as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: The web page of the lesson "Take the first steps
to use a tablet.
Each lesson provides review exercises and the
option to review using a game once the PCL learner
has completed the lesson (Figure 2).
Using Inclusive Design for People with Cognitive Limitations to Develop Online Training in the Workplace
Figure 2: Reviewing a lesson through play.
Finally, each PCL has a personalized learning
path, showing lessons and their progress, that they
can access at any time. (Figure 3).
Figure 3: An example of a personalized learning path.
Zoom group meetings with expert resource people
allowed us to prioritize five themes for the
development of digital competencies for people with
cognitive limitations:
the effective use of a tablet (a device that is
increasingly used in corporate work);
the financial management of their online bank
getting around town for work and leisure by
bus, paratransit, and taxi;
the use of web communication technologies
(Messenger, Duo, Zoom); and
access to cultural activities such as virtual
libraries and video streaming.
Before PCLs were asked to choose an appealing
game to be integrated into TAQ-TIC for learning
review, the experts recommended that the PCLs be
presented with a limited number of games to avoid
the confusion and stress that can result from too many
choices. The experts then chose an initial set of
possible games, picking six games (two card games,
two action/reaction games, one shooting game, and
one puzzle) from an initial group of 20.
Later, the resource experts commented on the
visual, textual, and audio aspects of the learning
environment mock-ups, suggesting some changes
that we then validated with PCLs.
When we reviewed the research on methods of
collecting data from this clientele, it became clear that
there was little written material on the methodology
to be used, in particular on how to approach these
users to gather as much useful data as possible while
respecting their abilities.
Starting with the expectation that our meetings
should be simple and small, we began with a protocol
of 30-to-45-minute meetings, each with four to six
PCL participants and extra observers. However, we
found that one-on-one, shorter (15 minute) meetings
were more successful due to PCLs’ difficulty
maintaining longer-term concentration. These
individual meetings also avoided the risk of
participants influencing each other. The elements to
be validated were set in advance for each meeting,
and the questions asked of participants were simple
and precise. This approach allowed us to reduce the
PCLs’ anxiety, encourage them to be more talkative,
obtain clear answers to more of our questions, and,
above all, to accurately adjust our design
specifications to the PCLs’ needs.
We conducted five series of individual
interviews, with six participants per series. (Note that
Nielsen (2000) reports that five users typically detect
over 80% of ergonomic errors.) In the interviews we
collected the PCLs’ preferences regarding the choice
and mechanisms of the mini-training modules and the
review game.
CSEDU 2022 - 14th International Conference on Computer Supported Education
In order to better target participants, we asked
teachers about the types of cognitive limitations of
their students. They told us that participants had
significant limitations in intellectual functioning,
including reasoning, planning, problem solving,
abstract thinking, understanding complex ideas,
learning from experiences, memorization, and
attention. They had problems with oral language
(receptive and expressive aspects), written language
(spelling and written production), and reading
(comprehension and word identification). They
showed a general delay in development of fine motor
skills, communication, and comprehension, as well as
a lack of cognitive strategies for problem solving.
They experienced difficulties in perceiving,
discriminating and encoding relevant stimuli, in
quickly understanding numerous or complex
information, and in making connections between
memorized elements.
When recruiting PLCs for our study, the teachers
paid special attention to selecting people with
different limitations in order to obtain the broadest
possible feedback from them.
6.1 Validation of the Game
Participants' comments provided us with valuable
feedback about the game components. PCLs are
looking for both specific benefits and general
entertainment in short, they play games that they
find fun and engaging. PCLs abandon games for a
variety of reasons as, for example, when the games
are boring, require movement that is too fast for them
to remember or react, or leave them confused about
what to do.
To ensure that we chose a game that PCLs find
appealing, we conducted an initial series of
interviews to find out about their preferences. The
card game Solitaire, as well as the animated game
Save the Girl (which invites them to choose between
two actions), were found to be the most popular.
Shooting games such as Angry Bunnies were not
chosen, despite their general popularity, because
destroying living beings was stressful to the PCLs.
We understood from these discussions that the
game PCLs would prefer should be familiar and
playable within five minutes and should have a very
visual and bright interface. The card game Solitaire
was the first choice of all respondents because they
did not have to learn the rules or how the game works,
reducing the frustration and anxiety that they feel
when learning to play a new game. In addition, they
felt that the game should offer contextual aids to
explain each action that they have to do in the game.
These aids must be accessible in real time, at the time
an action is to be performed.
Following this choice, we adapted our tablet-
based Solitaire Quiz game for the new learning
environment by integrating review questions about
the digital skills training topics. When the player
answers a question, they can earn extra points if they
give the right answer, which increases their game
score. The more effective their learning has been in
the mini-training modules, the higher their game
score will be and the higher they will rank among the
We then conducted a second series of individual
interviews with an animated model of the Solitaire
Quiz game. These provided the following findings:
With respect to the balance between answering
questions and moving cards, respondents felt
that displaying a question with each card
movement breaks the rhythm of the game.
Instead, to maintain interest they recommended
posing one question for every three to five card
The review questions offered in each game
should be directly related to the training content.
Respondents felt that questions should be short,
not exceeding 15 words. They suggested using
an illustration with each question to facilitate
understanding. They also recommended
including a digital voice to read each question,
as they read slowly and may lose interest in the
game if questions take too long to read.
There should be no more than three items to
choose from in answering a question. Most
respondents are confused about what to answer
when they have four or more choices. Their
preference would be to choose between two
answers (Yes/No, True/False, or any two
statements). In addition, they preferred to have
visual rather than textual responses (Figure 4).
Figure 4: Answer choices in the game.
Using Inclusive Design for People with Cognitive Limitations to Develop Online Training in the Workplace
They very much appreciated the use of feedback
to comment on their answer, whether right or
wrong. This feedback allows them to understand
their mistakes. Respondents indicated that the
feedback should be short.
Figure 5: Score at the end of the game.
Most respondents were surprised by a display
leading them to a mini-training module to be
reviewed in case of a wrong answer. They
thought that this was a good idea, especially
since they could use their personalized path
screen to click on the training module to be
The display of the game score, their best score,
and the best player score (Figure 5) motivated
respondents to replay to improve their scores.
6.2 Content Validation
The meetings also identified design modifications to
make the content more accessible for PCLs. In the
mini-training modules, the content should be brief
(between two and three minutes), preferably animated
(in the form of a short video), with a few review
questions added to check whether they have
understood it correctly. In addition, it is important to
integrate hyperlinks to quickly find an excerpt from
the module that they wish to review. Finally,
reviewing three types of image organization for the videos,
respondents opted for images that draw their eyes to the
essential elements to be observed in the video; for example,
by focusing the action with a pointer or highlight to help
them concentrate (Figure 6).
For textual content that introduces training modules
and lessons, respondents are most comfortable with short
sentences and simple words. Once the number of characters
exceeds 350, respondents become distracted. They also
appreciate that all texts can be listened to. They find that
action verbs in module and lesson titles motivate them to
use the materials for learning and review.
In terms of graphics, they feel that using different
colours to distinguish the five themes covered in their
digital literacy training make it easier for them to navigate
the learning environment. For each theme, they prefer
illustrations with a consistent graphic style and colour
palette, noting that this treatment prevents them from
getting lost. They also prefer less realistic and less detailed
illustrations: participants indicated that overly realistic
imaging makes them feel less engaged. It is also important
that there are as many men as women in the images.
Figure 6: Use of a pointer.
The use of a digital voice wherever there is textual
content is essential for PCLs and makes it easier for them
to read and understand the content (Figure 1). Similarly,
they find it important to be able to choose whether the voice
will be female or male by opting for a female or male avatar
(Figure 7). When asked about the speed of the digital voice,
they prefer a slow voice.
Figure 7: Example of avatar.
In terms of their learning, they appreciate
graphics that allow them to visualize their progress
through each topic, lesson, and mini- training module;
for example, Figure 1 indicates that the person has
completed three of the four mini-training modules
offered in the lesson "Take the first steps to use a
Regarding the review exercises, PCLs prefer that
when they are not presented within a game, they
CSEDU 2022 - 14th International Conference on Computer Supported Education
should be shown using one question per page rather
than with several questions on one page; they find a
single-question page to be more motivating.
Participants also indicated that showing the
number of questions they would have to answer in
advance allows them to plan their learning time. In
addition, giving real-time feedback on their answers
seems more effective than waiting until the end of the
exercise to do so, when it comes too late to help them
correct their mistake (Figure 8).
Figure 8: Review exercises.
Finally, in terms of navigation, respondents find
it easiest to use the navigation bar that appears on all
pages, along with visual or textual cues showing their
Figure 9: Example of contextual help.
position in the course and on the page. This can be
achieved, for example, by arrows positioned in the
same place on each page. The PCLs find that
contextual aids make it easier for them to understand
how each web page on the site works (Figure 9).
A number of recommendations emerged from these
interviews to support inclusive design with PCLs:
7.1 Adapting the Interview Protocol
To maximize PCLs’ comfort and ability to provide
useful feedback, it is preferable to use short, one-on-
one interviews rather than longer group sessions that
could lead to greater distraction and anxiety for PCLs
who find it difficult to concentrate for longer periods.
Set a detailed list of simple, precise questions for each
interview to maintain focus and help to ensure that
validation questions are answered clearly.
7.2 Adapting Games Used to Validate
When adapting a game for PCL use, it is important
the game is short and easy to play, with few rules
and actions;
to sustain player motivation, a balance is
maintained between time for play and time for
answering questions;
review questions use as few words as possible
and words that are simple to understand;
a digital voice supports the reading of questions;
answers are in pictorial form rather than text;
for each question, short feedback gives the
correct answer and explains why other answers
are not correct;
visual or auditory feedback is used to reinforce
answers to questions. For example, the face
(smiling or sad) that accompanies each piece of
feedback, as well as the sound that highlights a
correct answer, allow players to quickly know
whether their answer is correct.
7.3 Adapting Learning Content and
The treatment of learning content must consider
PCLs’ cognitive limitations. Our research shows that
it is important to:
clean up the interface so that it avoids distracting
Using Inclusive Design for People with Cognitive Limitations to Develop Online Training in the Workplace
use a consistent layout to make the text easier to
read and view;
incorporate a step-by-step learning progression;
break down the content into small learning
reduce text density to less than 350 characters;
use short sentences and simple words;
include narrative text so that PCLs have the
option of listening rather than reading;
present the same content in multiple formats
(audio, visual, and text);
provide different ways for learners to check
their knowledge;
in review exercises, use closed-ended questions
limited to two or three responses (e.g., true/false
or multiple choice with just two or three
use action verbs in the titles of content
7.4 Adapting Online Navigation
Usability criteria remain the same for PCLs as for
other users of online learning environments:
Insert a navigation bar on all pages;
Standardize visual and textual navigation cues
on all pages of the learning environment with
navigation bars, navigation indicators, etc.;
Integrate just-in-time contextual help.
As the first phase of a research and development
project to train PCLs in digital literacy competencies,
we used inclusive design principles to design and
validate animated mock-ups of the proposed learning
environment. Re-evaluating usability criteria with
PCLs allowed us to confirm certain principles
identified by Lussier-Desrochers et al. (2016) in a
digital literacy training context and to reiterate that
learning environments intended for the general public
need to be reviewed and adapted to ensure that PCLs
learn effectively.
In the next step of our validation process, we will
examine with our participants the usefulness of the
Web environment in the sense of measuring its
capacity to meet defined learning objectives, in
specific contexts of use and for specific clientele
Further investigations must be conducted to gain
additional feedback from this population as
development of the learning environment progresses.
This will lead us to adjust and adapt the learning
content and presentation in the best possible way for
the PCL audience. Thus, these initial findings will be
evaluated again with small-group testing of the online
learning environment and through real-time
experimentation with a larger group.
This research study was funded by grants from the
Ministry of Economy and Innovation and Desjardins.
We would like to thank Alice Ireland for editing the
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Using Inclusive Design for People with Cognitive Limitations to Develop Online Training in the Workplace