IT Governance, Culture, and Individual Behavior
Pedro Fernandes
, Rúben Pereira
and Guilherme Wiedenhoft
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Portugal
Institute of Economics, Administration and Accounting Sciences at Federal University of Rio Grande, Brazil
Keywords: It Governance, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Organizational Culture, Systematic Literature Review.
Abstract: Information technology (IT) has become vital to organizations' success. For this reason, IT Governance (ITG)
is necessary to control better solutions, sustainable development, and better decision-making. Since an
organization's advantage lies in its employees' behavior, this study analyses the impact of ITG
institutionalization on the key dimensions of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB). OCB describes
individuals' voluntary commitment to an organization. Plus, to moderate this relationship, Organizational
Culture (OC) is recognized as an essential asset that affects OCB behaviors and attitudes and ITG performance.
In summary, the findings of this study contribute to the development of a conceptual model that considers
different OC types to explain how the institutionalization of ITG affects individuals' behavior.
Information technology (IT) has become essential to
sustainable business growth, and organizations must
govern it effectively (De Haes et al., 2020). IT
Governance (ITG) is how organizations strategically
align IT with business, including leadership,
organizational arrangements, patterns, and processes
(Hardy, 2006; Jacobson, 2009).
Organizations can pragmatically deploy ITG
using a mixture of structure, process, and relational
mechanisms (Smits & Van Hillegersberg, 2015).
These mechanisms can be adopted by following two
principles (Wiedenhöft et al., 2017, 2019). Firstly, the
regulatory aspects of ITG, which pertain to the
processes and legal aspects of ITG. Second, the
normative side of ITG focuses on individuals dealing
with IT-related decisions and activities (Fernandes,
Pereira, & Wiedenhöft, 2021). It is known as the
behavioral side of ITG and is the focus of this study.
Depending on the individual behavior dealing
with IT, the success of an ITG implementation
depends heavily on the prevailing organizational
culture (OC) (Aasi et al., 2014). The implementation
process can generate noise without considering it,
causing employees not to adopt the desired IT usage
practices and behaviors (Sousa et al., 2019). For
example, an OC that enhances communication,
innovation, and creativity positively influences ITG
performance and outcomes (Aasi et al., 2016).
A clear incentive for desirable behavior is
essential for effective governance. A good business-
IT relationship is enabled by good behavior. In
contrast, inappropriate behaviors undermine it (Juiz
& Toomey, 2015). The concept used to understand
individuals' behavior is Organizational Citizenship
Behavior (OCB). OCB is defined as individuals'
behavior that benefits the organization voluntarily
without being rewarded (Organ, 1988, 2015).
Many authors tried to redefine OCB's ideas and
outcomes (Dekas et al., 2013; Organ, 2018). In 2013,
Dekas et al. acknowledged the importance of IT and
suggested that it may predict future trends in the
broader workforce and OCB. The study between
OCB and ITG was pioneered years later, with authors
arguing that ITG promotes OCB by encouraging
desired behavior in using IT (Fernandes, Pereira, &
Wiedenhöft, 2021; Wiedenhöft et al., 2017, 2019).
This study works with Dekas et al.'s (2013)
motivation but with OC as a primary vector, which
we assume influences both ITG and OCB concepts as
a relationship and individually. The institutional
theory also supports this study based on how
individuals perceive ITG implementation in their
organizations (Scott, 2008). Thus, Figure 1
synthesizes this study's problem: Does the perception
of ITG institutionalization positively affect
individuals' behavior over the lens of the OCB
concept, and how do the organizational cultures
influence it?
Fernandes, P., Pereira, R. and Wiedenhoft, G.
IT Governance, Culture, and Individual Behavior.
DOI: 10.5220/0010945700003179
In Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS 2022) - Volume 2, pages 465-472
ISBN: 978-989-758-569-2; ISSN: 2184-4992
2022 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
Figure 1: Research problem.
As exposed in figure 1, there is a need for in-depth
research to answer this question. As a result, this
study aims to synthesize and clarify the literature
related to ITG, OCB, and OC and understand their
relationships. The literature review was conducted
using a systematic literature review (SLR). Fifty-
three articles from respected journals, conferences,
and books were analyzed.
Following the standard guidelines, an SLR was
carried out to find the works related to this one
(Kitchenham, 2007). Our search included all English
language articles available online that relate at least
two of the study's three main concepts. After that, the
filtration process comprises four filters: 1 – Article
title, abstract, or keywords; 2 – Duplicates; 3 –
Unranked or lower-ranking articles (Scimago and
conference ranks); 4 – irrelevant articles.
The search strategy also included electronic
databases in the IT area (AIS eLibrary, EBSCO,
SpringerLink, Scopus, Taylor & Francis Online, Web
of Science, Wiley Online Library). Plus, a search
string was defined to search across all repositories.
Search String: (("Information Technology
Governance" OR "IT Governance" OR "ITG" OR
"ITG formalization" OR "ITG mechanisms") AND
("Organizational Citizenship Behavior" OR "OCB"))
OR (("Information Technology Governance" OR "IT
Governance" OR "ITG" OR "ITG formalization" OR
"ITG mechanisms") AND ("Organizational culture"))
OR (("Organizational culture") AND
("Organizational Citizenship Behavior" OR "OCB"))
Initially, fifty articles were found. Then, two
literature reviews on OC and ITG were found (Aasi
et al., 2014; Sousa et al., 2019). Thus, the snowballing
process was carried out (Wohlin, 2014). Fifty-three
articles compose our final selection.
The predominance is on the relation between OC
and OCB with thirty-two articles. In second with
eighteen articles, the relation between ITG and OC.
Also, three articles on OCB and ITG. Finally, the
three concepts have never been studied, opening a
wide door for hypotheses.
3.1 IT Governance
For a long time, ITG was linked with the individuals'
behavior in using IT. Nowadays, researchers define it
more broadly, relating ITG to corporate governance
and business (De Haes et al., 2020; Weill & Ross,
2004). ITG is an integrative and essential asset of
more comprehensive corporate governance that
focuses on IT's role in the organization (Rowlands et
al., 2014). As a result, it applies corporate governance
concepts to create and protect IT value and defines IT
roles and responsibilities to minimize risks related to
IT (Hardy, 2006).
3.2 Organizational Citizenship
OCB is defined as individuals' behavior that benefits
the organization voluntarily without being rewarded
(Organ, 1988). These behaviors are characterized by
spontaneous and innovative actions essential for
effective organizations, sustainable business growth,
and better job performance (Organ, 2015). This study
uses OCB with the premise that ITG acts on its
antecedents, considering that by institutionalizing
ITG, organizations are encouraging the desired
behavior in the use of IT, which will enhance these
behaviors in individuals (Fernandes, Pereira, &
Wiedenhöft, 2021; Wiedenhöft et al., 2017, 2019).
3.3 Organizational Culture
OC is composed of values, norms, objectives, and
expectations commonly shared by the organization's
members (Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1983). Personifying
the concept, OC is the organization's personality
(Rowlands et al., 2014). A well-defined OC plays a
vital role in the organization, improving its members'
commitment and enhancing performance (Sharoni et
al., 2012). OC can have many types of profiles,
diverging in their combination of values (Cameron &
Quinn, 2011). Despite having a prevailing culture
type, no organization matches perfectly into a single
one, reflecting their emphasis on various values
(Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1983; Wijesinghe et al., 2019).
ICEIS 2022 - 24th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems
4.1 ITG and OC
It is commonly referred to in the ITG literature that
OC is important for smooth implementation and that
it can be a primary concern when issues arise (McCoy
et al., 2009; Wiedenhöft et al., 2015). Satidularn et al.
(2011) argue that OC leads to a better understanding
of ITG implementation among employees. Yet, it is
difficult for organizations to make these changes, and
there is a lack of clear understanding of "how,"
"what," and "why" culture influences ITG (McCoy et
al., 2009). It is only known that when managing ITG
mechanisms, a culture around ITG is critical to
creating alignment between business and IT, resulting
in more IT-enabled value creation (ISACA, 2012).
According to these findings, it is verifiable that
OC can influence the implementation of an ITG
model differently and, therefore, affect its
performance. Therefore, this section's general
hypothesis is H1: The predominant organizational
culture affects how individuals perceive the
institutionalization of ITG in the organization. As
shown in figure 2, three hypotheses were created that
will allow us to validate how different types of OC
influence the Wiedenhöft et al. (2017, 2019) ITG's
institutionalization dimensions and validate the
central hypothesis of this section.
Figure 2: OC & ITG research model.
H1a: Organizations with a dominant hierarchy
culture higher tend to have a more robust perception
by the individuals of its ITG structure formalization.
An ITG's structure represents the organization's
formal position toward technology, is part of ITG's
normative institutionalization, and emphasizes social
action empowerment (Davison & Ou, 2017; Scott,
2008). In addition, employees' perception of formal
ITG structure can encourage them to share a goal,
respect and appreciate organizational processes, and
communicate with each other (Wiedenhöft et al.,
2019). To avoid a formal unperceived ITG structure,
the IT must be aligned with their business needs and
guarantee stakeholders' interests (Chin et al., 2004;
Sousa et al., 2019). According to El-Mekawy et al.
(2014), an organization that potentiates a hierarchy
culture will enhance the individual's perception of
formalized structures and processes, increasing
efficiency, consistency, and effectiveness.
H1b: Organizations with a dominant hierarchical
culture tend to have a more robust perception of
individuals adopting ITG mechanisms. From Scott's
(2008) model perspective, the ITG regulatory's
institutionalization results from its adopted
mechanisms, reflecting organizational compliance
with rules and laws. Understanding the importance of
adopting the mechanisms can help IT employees
accept their roles and responsibilities, leading ITG to
run smoothly (Aasi et al., 2014; Arikan & Borgman,
2020). Thus, OC can determine how top management
can structure and use the ITG mechanisms to achieve
a higher performance of ITG (Wijesinghe et al., 2019;
Willson & Pollard, 2009). A culture focused on
patterns, policies, and procedures enables an
organization to easily adapt to and legitimize ITG
mechanisms to avoid unplanned events that violate
policies. Hierarchical organizations may benefit from
the ITG mechanism with its formal rules and policies
as it requires structured processes and organizational
processes (Janssen et al., 2013).
H1c: Organizations with an adhocracy-oriented
or a clan-oriented culture tend to have a more robust
individual perception of ITG's institutionalization
effectiveness. ITG's legitimacy arises from the
perception of its effectiveness, which, by meeting a
standard definition, a clear role, or a recognizable
model, creates a model that is inspiring and copied by
other organizations (Scott, 2008; Wiedenhöft et al.,
2019). By interacting with ITG mechanisms,
individuals can perceive the effectiveness of ITG,
thereby respecting the principles and objectives of
ITG (Satidularn et al., 2011). Thus, organizations
with a culture that improves communication styles
and enhances attitudes towards innovation and
creativity positively influence the performance and
outcomes of ITG (Aasi et al., 2016; Aasi & Rusu,
2017). Since adhocracy-oriented cultures are very
innovative, they provide higher IT effectiveness (Aasi
et al., 2016). The clan-oriented culture also works
well in this context since communication dominates
its values (Cameron & Quinn, 2011).
4.2 OC and the OCB
Researchers have interpreted how OC affects OCBs
in diverse ways. There are references to OC as an
antecedent (Biswas & Varma, 2012; Park et al., 2013;
Tagliabue et al., 2020), a potential moderator
(Erkutlu, 2011; Marcos et al., 2020; Sharoni et al.,
2012), a predictor (Teh et al., 2012), an effective tool
IT Governance, Culture, and Individual Behavior
for performing it (Alsheikh & Sobihah, 2019; Jeong
et al., 2019; Susita et al., 2020), and with OCB as part
of and one of the many OC's measures (Desselle et
al., 2017, 2018; Desselle & Semsick, 2016;
Jafarpanah & Rezaei, 2020; Setyaningrum, 2017;
Yuliusdharma et al., 2019). Nevertheless, there is a
consensus that OC impacts how employees perform
citizenship behaviors (Jo & Joo, 2011; Todd et al.,
2009). Organizations state how things are done
through their culture, which influences their
employees' behavior, resulting in how they manifest
different OCBs, which can be beneficial or
detrimental to the organization (Setyaningrum, 2017;
Susita et al., 2020). According to Song et al. (2009),
different OC types can cause different reactions based
on the relationships perceived by employees. The
literature reports that in cultures where people are
more identified with their profession and
organization, they feel more satisfied and perform
more OCBs oriented towards their organization
(Conscientiousness, sportsmanship, Civic Virtue)
(Lopez-Martin & Topa, 2019; Tagliabue et al., 2020).
In contrast, in team-oriented cultures where
employees identify more with the workgroup,
increasing employees' beliefs that they have a trust-
based bond with all employees, they are more likely
to perform individual OCBs (Altruism, Courtesy)
(Limpanitgul et al., 2013; Yin Yin Lau et al., 2020).
Organizations always try to adjust their own
culture to enhance the OCBs that best fit their
employees, consequently impacting their and the
organizations' performance (Appelbaum et al., 2004;
Huang et al., 2020). Thus, this section's general
hypothesis is H2: The predominant organizational
culture affects the level and kind of OCBs individuals
demonstrate. Figure 3 shows the five hypotheses
created to validate the influence of different OC types
on the five most-used OCB dimensions (Fernandes,
Pereira, Wiedenhöft, et al., 2021) created by Organ
(1988) and validate this section's central hypothesis.
Figure 3: OC & OCB research model.
H2a: Individuals in an organization with a
dominant adhocracy-oriented or a clan-oriented
culture demonstrate higher altruism levels. Altruistic
behaviors represent an employee's philosophy about
helping others (Goodman & Svyantek, 1999; Liu &
Fellows, 2008). Thus, the perceptions of what
happens in the organization may have less impact on
this variable's performance than on a group and team-
based culture (Goodman & Svyantek, 1999). The
orientation towards innovation also favors these
attitudes and behaviors (Lopez-Martin & Topa,
2019). A clan culture emphasizes the importance of
human resource development by rewarding
teamwork, participation, and consensus. In an
adhocracy culture, the organization encourages
innovation, individual initiative, and freedom
(Cameron & Quinn, 2011).
H2b: Individuals in an organization with a
dominant market-oriented or a hierarchy-oriented
culture demonstrate higher conscientiousness levels.
Conscientiousness is characterized as citizenship
behavior toward the organization (Organ, 1988).
Represents employee actions that goes beyond the
organization's minimum requirements (i.e.,.
attendance, punctuality) (Liu & Fellows, 2008).
Conscientiousness is more likely to be demonstrated
in an organization with well-defined norms and
processes (Jeong et al., 2019; Lopez-Martin & Topa,
2019; Park et al., 2013). Thus, the market or
hierarchical cultures show how organizations use
formal rules and policies to remain united, care for the
safety of their employees, and highlight external
relations that drive competitiveness to achieve results
(Cameron & Quinn, 2011).
H2c: Individuals in an organization with a
dominant clan-oriented culture demonstrate higher
sportsmanship levels. Organ (1988) defined
sportsmanship as the free will to accept and tolerate
work's inevitable inconveniences. Employees with
solid sportsmanship will not complain when others
bother them, maintain a positive attitude despite
adversity, and avoid offending others when their
suggestions and ideas are ignored. (Liu & Fellows,
2008; Podsakoff et al., 2000). Thus, clan cultures will
affect sportsmanship, where the task interdependence
of the teams is high (Ehrhart et al., 2015;
Yuliusdharma et al., 2019).
H2d: Individuals in an organization with a
dominant market-oriented culture demonstrate
higher civic virtues levels. Civic virtue is a
willingness to participate in the organization's
governance and pursue its best interests, regardless of
personal costs (Liu & Fellows, 2008; Organ, 1988;
Podsakoff et al., 2000). Market cultures often foster
this kind of behavior and attitude to achieve high
levels of efficiency and productivity in the long run
(Jeong et al., 2019; Park et al., 2013). As a result, the
market culture encourages individual participation,
develops commitment, and emphasizes winning
(Cameron & Quinn, 2011).
ICEIS 2022 - 24th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems
H2e: Individuals in an organization with a
dominant clan-oriented or a hierarchy-oriented
culture demonstrate higher courtesy levels.
Courteous behaviors present a kind of gesture toward
others, helping them prevent work-related problems,
for example, notifying them before acting in a way
that may affect them (Liu & Fellows, 2008). Some
points favor this type of behavior (Park et al., 2013).
First, team interdependence creates a proper
environment for providing extra help to co-workers in
a clan-based culture. In a hierarchical culture, the
emphasis on rules and regulations will enhance the
demand and help create control and stability
(Cameron & Quinn, 2011).
4.3 ITG and the OCB
ITG is the decision-making structure that determines
each individual's IT responsibilities and defines the
necessary mechanisms to stimulate the desired
behaviors concerning IT resources, aiming to meet its
objectives and respect its principles (Weill and Ross,
2004). The relationship between OCB and ITG
started being studied with the premise that ITG acts
in OCB's antecedents, considering that some
behaviors improve due to the perception of ITG
institutionalization, mainly by encouraging desired
behavior on IT use (Fernandes, Pereira and
Wiedenhöft, 2021; Wiedenhöft et al., 2017, 2019).
OCB is essential for enhancing organizational
effectiveness, and its absence may lead to adverse
outcomes. We believe that perception of ITG
adoption is one of the many factors that influence
OCB, as it can affect employees' ability to share a
purpose, goodwill about organizational processes,
and the ability to communicate, which helps the
organization to be more efficient (Teh et al., 2012;
Wiedenhöft et al., 2019). Therefore, this section's
general hypothesis is H3: ITG institutionalization
positively affects individuals' behavior over the OCB
concept lens. Figure 4 shows five hypotheses that will
allow us to validate the influence of the individuals'
perception of ITG's adoption on the five most-used
OCB dimensions created by Organ (1988) and then
validate the central hypothesis in this section.
Figure 4: ITG & OCB research model.
H3a: The ITG institutionalization positively
affects altruism behavior. Altruism can be positively
affected by promoting knowledge exchange
practices, such as fostering collaborative networks
and knowledge sharing, enhancing employees' ability
to help others (Wiedenhöft et al., 2017).
H3b: The ITG institutionalization positively
affects conscientiousness behavior. Conscientious
behaviors can be enhanced by promoting greater
compliance with the organizations' rules, making
individuals aware of the importance of effective and
optimized use of the organization's resources (Janssen
et al., 2013; Scott, 2008; Weill & Ross, 2004).
H3c: The ITG institutionalization positively
affects sportsmanship behavior. Sportsmanship can
be positively affected by the involvement of
individuals who understand their roles in the ITG
process as an organizational phenomenon, which can
enhance the perception of organizational support and
help employees deal with work displeasures without
complaining (Wiedenhöft et al., 2019).
H3d: The ITG institutionalization positively
affects civic virtue behavior. Civic virtue can be
enhanced if individuals perceive getting feedback and
organizational reciprocity, contributing to employees
adopting pro-organizational behaviors and attitudes,
such as constructive suggestions for improvement,
even at a high personal cost (Wiedenhöft et al., 2019).
H3e: The ITG institutionalization positively
affects courtesy behavior. Courtesy can be affected
by promoting greater compliance with the
organizations' rules and, second, by providing
collaborative and communication tools. This way, the
individuals can help their colleagues prevent work-
related problems, such as notifying them before
taking inappropriate actions (Liu & Fellows, 2008).
4.4 Conceptual Model
As presented in Figure 5, this conceptual model aims
to validate the influence of ITG institutionalization on
OCB and OC's role as a potential moderator of this
relationship. Believing that OC can impact the
relationship of these elements by the way it affects
them individually. First, by understanding that,
together with managing the ITG mechanisms and
managing culture around ITG, it is possible to achieve
alignment between business and IT and enable more
IT value creation (ISACA, 2012). Secondly, by
performing its culture, organizations state the 'way
things are done here,' influencing their employees'
behavior, and consequently, how they manifest
different OCBs (Sharoni et al., 2012; Stamper and
IT Governance, Culture, and Individual Behavior
Dyne, 2001). Finally, the last hypothesis of this study
H4: The organizational culture will moderate the
relationship between ITG and OCB.
Figure 5: Conceptual model.
In this study, a conceptual model previously
presented provides an understanding of how ITG
institutionalization affects individuals' behavior
under the lens of different organizational cultures.
The resolution of its hypothesis will allow
organizations to see the role ITG plays in OCB,
checking if, by implementing their ITG Mechanisms,
they are increasing their employees' OCBs and,
consequently, organizational effectiveness (Rego &
Pina e Cunha, 2008). Additionally, organizations will
identify their employees' existing and desired OC
(Cameron & Quinn, 2011). They will learn how
culture affects ITG institutionalization and
employees' OCBs, individually and with one another,
and compare results with other cultures.
Overall, this study will be completed in a
descriptive-confirmative ex post facto, materialized
in a survey to be answered by workers from a vast
number of organizations worldwide. As a test of the
overall model and hypotheses, we will use validated
instruments from previous research studies, followed
by a factor analysis using Partial Least Square (PLS)-
Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) (PLS-SEM).
This work is partially funded by national funds
through FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia,
I.P., under the project FCT UIDB/04466/2020.
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