REHEARSING FOR THE FUTURE - Scenarios as an Enabler and a Product of Organizational Knowledge Creation

Hannu Kivijärvi, Kalle Piirainen, Markku Tuominen



This paper discusses conceptual basis for facilitating knowledge creation through the rehearsal of plausible futures in the scenario process. We discuss the foundations for creating knowledge in an organizational context and propose a concrete context that supports and stimulates the conversion of personal knowledge organizational knowledge and decisions. Based on the discussion and our experiences with the scenario process, we argue that the scenario process facilitates creation of organizational knowledge. We propose that the scenario process acts as a vehicle for exploring and creating organizational knowledge.


  1. Amin, A., Roberts, J., 2008. Knowing in action, beyond communities of practice. Research Policy, 37, 353- 369.
  2. Bergman, J-P., 2005. Supporting Knowledge Creation and Sharing in the Early Phases of the Strategic Innovation Process. Acta Universitatis Lappeenrantaesis 212. Lappeenranta University of Technology. Lappeenranta FI.
  3. Blanning R. W., Reinig, B. A., 2005. A Framework for Conducting Political Event Analysis Using Group Support Systems. Decision Support Systems, 38, 511- 527.
  4. Brown, J.S., Duguid, P., 1996. Organizational Learning and Communities-of-Practice: Toward a Unified View of Working, Learning, and Innovation. In Cohen, M. D., Sproull, L. S. eds. Organizational Learning, 58-82, Sage Publications. Thousand Oaks, CA.
  5. Brown J. S., Duguid, P., 2001a. Knowledge and organization: A social-practice perspective. Organization science, 12(2), 198-213.
  6. Brown, J. S., Duguid, P., 2001b. Structure and Spontaneity: Knowledge and Organization. In: Nonaka I. Teece, D. eds. Managing Industrial Knowledge, 44-67, Sage. London.
  7. Carlile P., Rebentisch, E. S. 2003. Into the Black Box: The Knowledge Transformation Cycle. Management Science, 49(9), 1180-1195.
  8. Chermack, T. J., 2004. Improving Decision-Making with Scenario Planning. Futures, 36, 295-309
  9. Chermack, T. J., van der Merwe, L., 2003. The role of constructivist learning in scenario planning. Futures, 35, 445-460.
  10. Cook, S. D. N., Brown, J. S., 1999. Bridging Epistemologies: The Generative Dance Between Organizational Knowledge and Organizational Knowing. Organization Science, 10(4), 381-400.
  11. Emery, J. C. 1969. Organizational Planning and Control Systems, Theory and Technology, Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc. New York, NY.
  12. Fjermestad, J., Hiltz, S. R., 2001. Group Support Systems: A Descriptive Evaluation of Case and Field Studies. Journal of Management Information Systems, 17(3), 115-159.
  13. Gammelgaard, J., Ritter, T., 2008. Virtual Communities of Practice: A Mechanism for Efficient Knowledge Retrieval in MNCs. International Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(2), 46-51.
  14. Jennex, M. E., Olfman, L., 2006. A Model of Knowledge Management Success. International Journal of Knowledge Management, 2(3), 51-68.
  15. Kahn H., Wiener, A. J., 1967. The Year 2000: A Framework for Speculation on the Next Thirty-Three Years, Collier-Macmillan Ltd. London, UK.
  16. Kimble, C., Hildred, P., Wright, P., 2001. Communities of Practice: Going Virtual. In Malhotra, Y. Knowledge Management and Business Model Innovation, 220- 234, Idea Group Inc. Hershey, PA.
  17. Kivijärvi, H. 2008. Aligning Knowledge and Business Strategies within an Artificial Ba. In El-Sayed AbouZeid ed. Knowledge Management and Business Strategies: Theoretical Frameworks and Empirical Research, Idea Group Inc. Hershey, PA.
  18. Kivijärvi, H., Piirainen, K., Tuominen, M.,. Elfvengren, K., Kortelainen, S., 2008. A Support System for the Strategic Scenario Process. In Adam, F., Humphreys, P. eds. Encyclopedia of Decision Making and Decision Support Technologies, Idea Group Inc. Hershey, PA.
  19. Lave, J., Wenger, E., 1991. Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge University Press. New York, NY.
  20. Lesser, E., Everest, K., 2001. Using Communities of Practice to manage Intellectual Capital. Ivey Business Journal, March/April.
  21. Leonard, D., Sensiper, S., 1998. The Role of Tacit Knowledge in Group Innovation. California Management Review, 40(3), 112-132.
  22. Lindqvist, A., Piirainen, K.., Tuominen, M., 2008. Utilising group innovation to enhance business foresight for capital-intensive manufacturing industries. In the Proceedings of the 1st ISPIM Innovation Symposium, Singapore.
  23. Nunamaker, J. F. Jr., Briggs, R. O., Mittleman D. D., Vogel, D. R., Balthazard, P. A., 1997. Lessons from a Dozen Years of Group Support Systems Research: A Discussion of Lab and Field Findings. Journal of Management Information Systems, 13(3), 163-207.
  24. Piirainen, K., Tuominen, M., Elfvengren, K., Kortelainen, S., Niemistö, V.-P., 2007. Developing Support for Scenario Process: A Scenario Study on Lappeenranta University of Technology from 2006 to 2016, Research report, no. 182, Lappeenranta University of Technology. Lappeenranta, FI. Available at:
  25. Piirainen K., Kortelainen S., Elfvengren K., Tuominen M., 2010. A scenario approach for assessing new business concepts. Management Research News, 32(7) - in press
  26. Polanyi, M., 1962. Personal Knowledge, University of the Chicago Press. Chicago, IL.
  27. Polanyi, M., 1966. The Tacit Dimension, Doubleday & Company Inc., Reprinted Peter Smith. Gloucester, MA.
  28. Schwartz, P., 1996. The Art of the Long View: Planning for the Future in an Uncertain World, Doubleday Dell Publishing Inc. New York, NY.
  29. Simon, H. A., 1960. The New Science of Management Decisions, Harper Brothers. New York, NY.
  30. Swan, J., Scarborough, H., Robertson, M., 2002. The Construction of Communities of Practice' in the Management of Innovation. Management Learning, 33(4), 477-496.
  31. Tsoukas, H., Vladimirou, E., 2001. What is Organizational Knowledge? Journal of Management Studies, 38(7), 973-993.
  32. Zeleny, M., 2005. Human Systems Management: Integrating Knowledge, Management and Systems, World Scientific Publishing.

Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

Kivijärvi H., Piirainen K. and Tuominen M. (2009). REHEARSING FOR THE FUTURE - Scenarios as an Enabler and a Product of Organizational Knowledge Creation . In Proceedings of the International Conference on Knowledge Management and Information Sharing - Volume 1: KMIS, (IC3K 2009) ISBN 978-989-674-013-9, pages 46-54. DOI: 10.5220/0002297700460054

in Bibtex Style

author={Hannu Kivijärvi and Kalle Piirainen and Markku Tuominen},
title={REHEARSING FOR THE FUTURE - Scenarios as an Enabler and a Product of Organizational Knowledge Creation},
booktitle={Proceedings of the International Conference on Knowledge Management and Information Sharing - Volume 1: KMIS, (IC3K 2009)},

in EndNote Style

JO - Proceedings of the International Conference on Knowledge Management and Information Sharing - Volume 1: KMIS, (IC3K 2009)
TI - REHEARSING FOR THE FUTURE - Scenarios as an Enabler and a Product of Organizational Knowledge Creation
SN - 978-989-674-013-9
AU - Kivijärvi H.
AU - Piirainen K.
AU - Tuominen M.
PY - 2009
SP - 46
EP - 54
DO - 10.5220/0002297700460054