# ROBUST AND REVERSIBLE NUMERICAL SET WATERMARKING

### Gaurav Gupta, Josef Pieprzyk, Mohan Kankanhalli

#### 2009

#### Abstract

Numeric sets can be used to store and distribute important information such as currency exchange rates and stock forecasts. It is useful to watermark such data for proving ownership in case of illegal distribution by someone. This paper analyzes the numerical set watermarking model presented by Sion et. al in “On watermarking numeric sets”, identifies it’s weaknesses, and proposes a novel scheme that overcomes these problems. One of the weaknesses of Sion’s watermarking scheme is the requirement to have a normally-distributed set, which is not true for many numeric sets such as forecast figures. Experiments indicate that the scheme is also susceptible to subset addition and secondary watermarking attacks. The watermarking model we propose can be used for numeric sets with arbitrary distribution. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the scheme is strongly resilient against sorting, subset selection, subset addition, distortion, and secondary watermarking attacks.

#### References

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#### Paper Citation

#### in Harvard Style

Gupta G., Pieprzyk J. and Kankanhalli M. (2009). **ROBUST AND REVERSIBLE NUMERICAL SET WATERMARKING** . In *Proceedings of the International Conference on Signal Processing and Multimedia Applications - Volume 1: SIGMAP, (ICETE 2009)* ISBN 978-989-674-007-8, pages 141-148. DOI: 10.5220/0002186901410148

#### in Bibtex Style

@conference{sigmap09,

author={Gaurav Gupta and Josef Pieprzyk and Mohan Kankanhalli},

title={ROBUST AND REVERSIBLE NUMERICAL SET WATERMARKING},

booktitle={Proceedings of the International Conference on Signal Processing and Multimedia Applications - Volume 1: SIGMAP, (ICETE 2009)},

year={2009},

pages={141-148},

publisher={SciTePress},

organization={INSTICC},

doi={10.5220/0002186901410148},

isbn={978-989-674-007-8},

}

#### in EndNote Style

TY - CONF

JO - Proceedings of the International Conference on Signal Processing and Multimedia Applications - Volume 1: SIGMAP, (ICETE 2009)

TI - ROBUST AND REVERSIBLE NUMERICAL SET WATERMARKING

SN - 978-989-674-007-8

AU - Gupta G.

AU - Pieprzyk J.

AU - Kankanhalli M.

PY - 2009

SP - 141

EP - 148

DO - 10.5220/0002186901410148