Computing Implicit Entities and Events with Getaruns

Rodolfo Delmonte



In this paper we will focus on the notion of “implicit” or lexically unexpressed linguistic elements that are nonetheless necessary for a complete semantic interpretation of a text. We referred to “entities” and “events” because the recovery of the implicit material may affect all the modules of a system for semantic processing, from the grammatically guided components to the inferential and reasoning ones. Reference to the system GETARUNS offers one possible implementation of the algorithms and procedures needed to cope with the problem and allows to deal with all the spectrum of phenomena. The paper will address at first the following three types of “implicit” entities and events: - the grammatical ones, as suggested by a linguistic theories like LFG or similar generative theories; - the semantic ones suggested in the FrameNet project, i.e. CNI, DNI, INI; - the pragmatic ones: here we will present a theory and an implementation for the recovery of implicit entities and events of (non-) standard implicatures. In particular we will show how the use of commonsense knowledge may fruitfully contribute in finding relevant implied meanings. Last Implicit Entity only touched on, though for lack of space, by the paper is the Subject of Point of View which is computed by Semantic Informational Structure and contributes the intended entity from whose point of view is expressed a given subjective statement.


  1. Bresnan, J., 2000. Lexical-Functional Syntax, Blackwell.
  2. ComLex:-
  3. Collin F. Baker, Charles J. Fillmore, and John B. Lowe. 1998. The Berkeley FrameNet project. In Proceedings of COLING-ACL-98, Montreal, Canada.
  4. Delmonte R., (2007), Computational Linguistic Text Processing, Nova Science Publishers, New York.
  5. Fellbaum, Christiane, (ed.)(1998), WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database. MIT Press, Cambridge MA.
  6. Levinson, Stephen C. 1983. Pragmatics. Cambridge, Cambridge University.
  7. Grice, H. P., 1975. Logic and Conversation. in P. Cole & J. L. Morgan, Syntax and Semantics, Vol. 3: Speech Acts. New York : Academic Press, 41-58.
  8. Grosz, B. 1981 Focusing and description in natural language dialogues. In Joshi, A., B. Webber & I. Sag (eds) Elements of discourse understanding. Cambridge UP.
  9. Grosz, B. & Sidner, C. 1986 Attention, intentions and the structure of discourse. Computational Linguistics 12: 175-204.
  10. Lenat, D.B. (1995). CYC: A large-scale investment in knowledge infrastructure. Communications of the ACM, 38(11).
  11. Liu, H., Singh, P. (2004). ConceptNet: A Practical Commonsense Reasoning Toolkit. At:
  12. Sanford, A.J., & Garrod, S. (1998). The role of scenario mapping in text comprehension, Discourse Processes, 26, 159 - 190.
  13. Anderson, A., S. C. Garrod, A. J. Sanford, The accessibility of pronominal antecedents as a function of episode shifts in narrative text, 1983.
  14. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A, Volume 35, Issue 3 May 1983, pp. 427-440.
  15. Sanford, A.J. and Garrod, S.C., Thematic subjecthood and cognitive constraints on discourse structure, 1988. Journal of Pragmatics, Volume 12, Issues 5-6, December 1988, pp. 519-534.
  16. Sanford, A.J. and Garrod, S.C., 1981. Understanding written language: Exploration in comprehension beyond the sentence, Wiley, Chichester.
  17. Schank R C & Abelson R P. 1977. Scripts, plans, goals and understanding: an inquiry into human knowledge structures. Hilsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  18. Sidner, C. 1983. Focusing in the comprehension of definite anaphora. In M. Brady & R. Berwick (eds) Computational models of discourse. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA: 267-330.
  19. Erik T. Mueller, 2007. Modelling Space and Time in Narratives about Restaurants, Literary and Linguistic Computing, Vol. 22, No. 1, 67-84.

Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

Delmonte R. (2009). Computing Implicit Entities and Events with Getaruns . In Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Natural Language Processing and Cognitive Science - Volume 1: NLPCS, (ICEIS 2009) ISBN 978-989-8111-92-0, pages 23-35. DOI: 10.5220/0002171600230035

in Bibtex Style

author={Rodolfo Delmonte},
title={Computing Implicit Entities and Events with Getaruns},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Natural Language Processing and Cognitive Science - Volume 1: NLPCS, (ICEIS 2009)},

in EndNote Style

JO - Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Natural Language Processing and Cognitive Science - Volume 1: NLPCS, (ICEIS 2009)
TI - Computing Implicit Entities and Events with Getaruns
SN - 978-989-8111-92-0
AU - Delmonte R.
PY - 2009
SP - 23
EP - 35
DO - 10.5220/0002171600230035