MINING ASSOCIATION - Correlations Among Demographic Health Indicators

Subhagata Chattopadhyay, Pradeep Ray, Lesley Land



Demographic health indicators such as crude birth rate, crude death rate, maternal mortality rate, infant mortality rate (IMR), Adult literacy rate and many others are usually considered measures of a country’s health status. These health indicators are often seen in an isolated manner rather than as a group of associated events. Conventional statistical techniques often fail to mine inter-relations among these indicators. This paper focuses on mining association-correlations among various demographic health indicators under child immunization program, skilled obstetric practice, and IMR using both statistical and Quantitative Association Rule (QAR) mining techniques. Relevant archived data from 10 countries located in the Asia-Pacific region are used for this study. Finally the paper concludes that association mining with QAR is more informative than that of statistical techniques. The reason may lie in its capability to generate the association rules using a 2-D grid-based flexible approach. Finally it is concluded that such an approach could be pioneering for engineering the hidden knowledge among various other health indicators.


  1. El-Ghannam A. R., 2003. The global problems of child malnutrition and mortality in different world regions, J Health Soc Policy 16(4), 1-26.
  2. D'souza R. M., Bryant J. H., 1999. Determinants of childhood mortality in slums of Karachi, Pakistan, J Health Popul Dev Ctries 2(1), 33-44.
  3. Byass P., 2003. FilaBavi Study Group, Patterns of mortality in Bavi, Vietnam, 1999-2001, Scand J Public Health Suppl. 62, 8-11.
  4. Hynes M., Sheik M., Wilson H. G., Spiegel P., 2002. Reproductive health indicators and outcomes among refugee and internally displaced persons in post emergency phase camps, JAMA, 288(5), 595-603.
  5. Bhatia S., Dranyi T., Rowley D., 2002. A social and demographic study of Tibetan refugees in India, Soc Sci Med. 54(3), 411-22.
  6. Hossain M. B., Phillips J. F., Pence B., 2007. The effect of women's status on infant and child mortality in four rural areas of Bangladesh, J Biosoc Sci. 39(3), 355-66.
  7. Lindström C., Lindström M., 2006. Social capital," GNP per capita, relative income, and health: an ecological study of 23 countries, Int J Health Serv. 36(4), 679-96.
  8. Hales S., Howden-Chapman P., Salmond C., Woodward A., Mackenbach J., 1999. National infant mortality rates in relation to gross national product and distribution of income, Lancet, 354(9195), 2047.
  9. Wu J. C., Chiang T. L., 2007. Comparing child mortality in Taiwan and selected industrialized countries, J Formos Med Assoc., 106(2), 177-180.
  11. King G., Zeng L., 2001. Improving forecasts of state failure, World Politics 53(4), 623-658.
  12. International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 1993. 10th Revision. Vol 2. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 129.
  14. MacDorman M. .F., Callaghan W. M., Mathews T. J., Hoyert D. L., Kochanek K. D., 2007. Trends in preterm-related infant mortality by race and ethnicity, United States, 1999-2004, Int J Health Serv 37(4), 635-41.
  15. Huy T. Q., Johansson A., Long N. H., 2007. Reasons for not reporting deaths: a qualitative study in rural Vietnam, World Health Population 9(1), 14-23.
  16. Rastogi V. B., 2006. Fundamental of Biostatistics, Rashtriya Printers, New Delhi, India, 77-196.
  17. Han J., Kamber M., 2006. Data Mining Concepts and Techniques, 2nd Edition, Morgan Kauffmann Publishers, An imprint of Elsevier, San Francisco, CA, USA, 259-261.

Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

Chattopadhyay S., Ray P. and Land L. (2008). MINING ASSOCIATION - Correlations Among Demographic Health Indicators . In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Software and Data Technologies - Volume 1: ICSOFT, ISBN 978-989-8111-51-7, pages 315-320. DOI: 10.5220/0001880203150320

in Bibtex Style

author={Subhagata Chattopadhyay and Pradeep Ray and Lesley Land},
title={MINING ASSOCIATION - Correlations Among Demographic Health Indicators},
booktitle={Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Software and Data Technologies - Volume 1: ICSOFT,},

in EndNote Style

JO - Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Software and Data Technologies - Volume 1: ICSOFT,
TI - MINING ASSOCIATION - Correlations Among Demographic Health Indicators
SN - 978-989-8111-51-7
AU - Chattopadhyay S.
AU - Ray P.
AU - Land L.
PY - 2008
SP - 315
EP - 320
DO - 10.5220/0001880203150320