ONTOLOGICAL ERRORS - Inconsistency, Incompleteness and Redundancy

Muhammad Fahad, Muhammad Abdul Qadir, Muhammad Wajahat Noshairwan



Mapping and merging of multiple ontologies to produce consistent, coherent and correct merged global ontology is an essential process to enable heterogeneous multi-vendors semantic-based systems to communicate with each other. To generate such a global ontology automatically, the individual ontologies must be free of (all types of) errors. We have observed that the present error classification does not include all the errors. This paper extends the existing error classification (Inconsistency, Incompleteness and Redundancy) and provides a discussion about the consequences of these errors. We highlight the problems that we faced while developing our DKP-OM, ontology merging system and explain how these errors became obstacles in efficient ontology merging process. It integrates the ontological errors and design anomalies for content evaluation of ontologies under one framework. This framework helps ontologists to build semantically correct ontology free from errors that enables effective and automatic ontology mapping and merging with lesser user intervention.


  1. Antoniou, G., and Harmelen, F.V. 2004. A Semantic Web Primer. MIT Press Cambridge,ISBN 0-262-01210-3
  2. Baumeister, J., and Seipel, D.S. 2005. Owls-Design Anomalies in Ontologies”, 18th Intl. Florida Artifiical Intelligence Research Society Conference (FLAIRS), pp 251-220, AAAI Press
  3. Brank J. et al. 2005. A Survey of Ontology Evaluation Techniques. Published in multi-conference IS 2005, Ljubljana, Slovenia SIKDD.
  4. Brewster, C. et al. 2004. Data driven ontology evaluation. Proceedings of Intl. Conf. on Language Resources and Evaluation, Lisbon.
  5. Burton-Jones, A., et al. 2004. A semiotic metrics suite for assessing the quality of ontologies. Data and Knowledge Engineering.
  6. Fahad, M., Qadir, M. A., Noshairwan, M., W., Iftikhar, N. 2007a. DKP-OM: A Semantic Based Ontology Merger. In Proc. 3rd International conference on Semantic Technologies, I-Semantics 5-7 September 2007, Journal of Universal Computer Science (J.UCS).
  7. Fahad, M., Qadir, M.A., Noshairwan, W. 2007b. Semantic Inconsistency Errors in Ontologies. Proc. of GRC 07, Silicon Valley USA. IEEE CS. pp 283-286
  8. Fox, M. S., et al. 1998. An organization ontology for enterprise modelling. In: M. Prietula et al., Simulating organizations, MIT Press.
  9. Gomez-Perez, A. 1994. Some ideas and examples to evaluate ontologies. KSL, Stanford University.
  10. Gomez-Perez, A., Lopez, M.F, and Garcia, O.C. 2001. Ontological Engineering: With Examples from the Areas of Knowledge Management, E-Commerce and the Semantic Web. Springer ISBN:1-85253-55j-3
  11. Gomez-Perez, A., et al. 1999. Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge on Ontologies and Knowledge-Based Systems. Intl. Workshop on Knowledge Acquisition, Modeling and Management.
  12. Jelmini, C., and M-Maillet S. 2004. OWL-based reasoning with retractable inference”, In RIAO Conference Proceedings 2004.
  13. Maedche, A., Staab, S. 2002. Measuring similarity between ontologies. Proc. CIKM 2002. LNAI vol. 2473.
  14. Nardi, D. et al. 2000. The Description Logic Handbook: Theory, Implementation, and Applications. Noshairwan, W., Qadir, M.A., Fahad, M. 2007a. Sufficient Knowledge Omission error and Redundant Disjoint Relation in Ontology. InProc. 5th Atlantic Web Intelligence Conference June 25-27, 2007 - Fontainebleau, France
  15. Noshairwan, W., and Qadir M.A. 2007b. Algorithms to Warn Against Incompleteness Errors in Ontology Evaluation. 1st AISPC Jan 2007.
  16. Ontology Definition Metamodel 2005. Second Revised Submission to OMG/RDF ad/2003-03-40
  17. Porzel, R., Malaka, R., 2004. A task-based approach for ontology evaluation. ECAI 2004 Workshop Ont. Learning and Population.
  18. Qadir, M.A., Noshairwan, W. 2007a. Warnings for Disjoint Knowledge Omission in Ontologies. Second International Conference on internet and Web Applications and Services (ICIW07). IEEE, p. 45
  19. Qadir, M.A., Fahad, M., Shah, S.A.H., 2007b. Incompleteness Errors in Ontologies. Proc. of Intl GRC 07, USA. IEEE Computer Society. pp 279-282
  20. Qadir, M.A., Fahad, M., Noshairwan, W. 2007c. On Conceptualization Mismatches in Ontologies. Proc. of GRC 07, USA. IEEE CS. pp 275-279
  21. Supekar, K. 2005. A peer-review approach for ontology evaluation. Proc. 8th Intl. Protégé Conference, Madrid, Spain, July 18-21, 2005.

Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

Fahad M., Abdul Qadir M. and Wajahat Noshairwan M. (2008). ONTOLOGICAL ERRORS - Inconsistency, Incompleteness and Redundancy . In Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems - Volume 6: ICEIS, ISBN 978-989-8111-38-8, pages 253-258. DOI: 10.5220/0001696502530258

in Bibtex Style

author={Muhammad Fahad and Muhammad Abdul Qadir and Muhammad Wajahat Noshairwan},
title={ONTOLOGICAL ERRORS - Inconsistency, Incompleteness and Redundancy},
booktitle={Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems - Volume 6: ICEIS,},

in EndNote Style

JO - Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems - Volume 6: ICEIS,
TI - ONTOLOGICAL ERRORS - Inconsistency, Incompleteness and Redundancy
SN - 978-989-8111-38-8
AU - Fahad M.
AU - Abdul Qadir M.
AU - Wajahat Noshairwan M.
PY - 2008
SP - 253
EP - 258
DO - 10.5220/0001696502530258