Some Recommendations for Improving Educational Environment:
A Case of Vietnam Context
Nguyen Thi Thoi
FPT University, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam
Keywords: Consequences, Family, School, Students, Violence.
Abstract: The rapid increase in school violence partly reflects the serious deterioration of social ethical values. It's time
to pay more attention to this issue and enhance positive values in the pedagogical environment. School
bullying is the use of physical and mental violence in a school environment from individuals to collectives
caused by students as well as the teachers. This problem is a worry for many countries and Vietnam is not an
exception. Bullying at school is a difficult problem for the education sector in particular and the whole society
in general. This problem leads many bad influences to students, family, school and society. The causes of
school bullying incidents often occur from many sides; from the students themselves, from the irresponsibility
of the school and even their families. This paper study found out causes of this problem and mentioned e few
solutions, thereby limiting as much as possible the consequences of the school violence. The paper was written
with the support of 50 respondents who are secondary school students and some are university students who
have experienced school violence. The article uses direct interviews and surveys; the results reflect that school
violence has a number of causes and requires special cares from school, family and society.
According to Phuong Thao (2018), school bullying is
defined by the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention as “aggressive, unwanted behavior of
school-age children related to an imbalance of
strength. That behavior is repeated or likely to be
repeated over time”. Sometimes bullying crosses the
boundaries of harassment, which is based on racism,
ethnicity, sex, disability, sexual orientation, national
origin or other background (Phuong, 2018).
According to Tran Duc et al. (2018), violence is
defined as the behavior of a person or group of people
intentionally inflicting injury on those who cannot
protect themselves. This behavior is repeated many
times, possibly in the form of: physical violence
(punching, kicking, taking items from the victim);
verbal violence (ridicule, insult); social violence
(discrimination, isolation, boycotts) and indirect
violence (spreading rumors) (Tran and Shukri, 2018).
Therefore, bullying at school becomes one of the
serious problems and is the prerequisite in the current
youth education, especially for adolescents.
Moreover, this problem is becoming more and more
sophisticated and it not only occurs in school
environment but also on social media. It is becoming
a rather common phenomenon in Vietnam.
According to Van Cong et al (2018), the rate of
cyberbullying in Vietnam has been reported in a
number of studies in recent years. Results of a study
of 736 middle and high school students in Hanoi, Ha
Nam and Hai Duong province showed that 24% of
participants were victims of at least one form of
cyberbullying. Another study performed on 493
students in 3 high schools in Hanoi, Ha Nam and Hai
Duong showed that 35.7% were victims of
cyberbullying (Van Cong et al., 2018). Its causes
include both objective and subjective causes, then
clearly analyze the details of each cause and then give
subtle and suitable measures to solve this problem in
a moderating way so that we can minimize negative
It should be confirmed that school violence
existed many years ago, but over time there has been
a negative change in severity. Some of us might have
witnessed a friend being abused by other students and
that made the victim feel frightened and the results
dropped dramatically.
Nguyen, T.
Some Recommendations for Improving Educational Environment: A Case of Vietnam Context.
DOI: 10.5220/0010595006260632
In Proceedings of the International Scientific and Practical Conference on Sustainable Development of Regional Infrastructure (ISSDRI 2021), pages 626-632
ISBN: 978-989-758-519-7
2021 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
2.1 The Concept of Bullying at School
According to Machová et al. (2014), bullying is an
extremely dangerous form of violence that threatens
the implementation of the principles and goals of
school education. It leads to a loss of aversion to
student safety and negatively affects the harmonious
development of a student's personality and academic
performance. Bullying is dangerous, especially
because it is often hidden, and even low intensity can
lead to severe psychological trauma with long-term
consequences in a student being bullied (Machová
and Boledovičová, 2014). In the simplest sense,
school bullying is physical and health-damaging
behaviors such as the use of force, and acts that are
offensive to the spirit, honor and dignity such as
cursing and insults.
2.2 Research History
School bullying in the world in general and in
Vietnam, in particular is always being noticed and
discussed. The problem is so widespread that experts
assume that most students experience bullying at
school for a period of time, be it bullies, victims, or
witnesses. Many children show fear of going to
school due to bullying or witnessing things. Many
parents today are very concerned about the recent
increase in school violence. Verbal insults are the
most common, but “cyber threats” (which often
happen outside of school) are becoming more
common (Tran and Shukri, 2018). With the growth of
social media, school bullying is moving to a new
form, although it is not happening on campus, maybe
when students are home. Bullying happens not only
between students, but also between teachers and
students and vice versa. Many children feel scared, or
ashamed, when teachers use violence or humiliation.
Many victims of this problem dare not report them to
teachers. That reinforces the bullying behavior of
students who frequently make trouble with others. At
the same time, many children are bullied but cannot
confide in adults, leading to fear, depression, and
declining academic performance. More dangerous is
that when students are bullied, students witness a
tendency to follow and bully other victims, making
the problem even more common (Nguyen et al.,
The study relating to school bullying in Hanoi
city, Vietnam was carried out using a survey method
on 392 students. The study results showed that, within
6 months prior to the study time, the proportion of
students who had ever participated in acts of bullying
/ physical violence was 17.1%. Boys are more likely
to engage in this behavior than girls. Factors related
to bullying / physical violence are not living with or
lacking parental support, poor family relationships,
no friends, close friends involved in bullying /
physical violence substances, having risky behaviors
such as smoking, drinking alcohol, carrying weapons.
The advice in the study is that we should pay more
attention about family-school coordination in school
(Nguyen et al., 2020).
2.3 The Current Situation of School
Bullying in Vietnam
According to the most recent data released by the
Ministry of Education and Training (Education and
Training), in one school year, there were nearly 1,600
cases of student fighting inside and outside of school
(about 5 cases / day). ). For about 5,200 students
(students), there is a fight; one out of 11,000 students
was forced out of school because of a fight; one out
of every nine schools has students fighting.
More worrying, according to statistics from the
Ministry of Public Security, more than 1,000
teenagers commit crimes each month. Previously,
crimes between the ages of 30 and under 45
accounted for the highest number. Now, it is about
34% when comparing with 41% of the age group 18
to under 30 (the age from 14 to under 18 accounts for
17%). These figures really become alarm bells for
families, schools and society, and we need to pay
attention and take appropriate measures to reverse
this problem. Therefore, the propaganda about the
alarming situation of school violence is very
necessary and practical (Phuong, 2018).
2.4 The Causes of School Bullying
Students who are bullied are usually those who are
psychologically weak, have limited social skills, have
a self-protective ability, and have a different
appearance from others in the class. They might have
a good academic record or have a rich or well-off
family background (Linh et al., 2020).
Students who bully others tend to be
psychologically aggressive and violent, have poor
anger control, lack of sympathy for others, are
intolerant or unacceptable (Le et al., 2017). Parents
commit violent acts in the family that cause
psychological impact on their children. The family
lacks interest or creates a relationship with their
children; Non-homogeneous family education
measures such as extreme relaxation or violence.
Some Recommendations for Improving Educational Environment: A Case of Vietnam Context
Students are abused, mistreated, intimidated, or
humiliated by teachers or school staff; spurned or
bullied by friends; the teacher does not care about the
psychological and emotional life of the students;
Strict managements by teachers and schools are
inconsistent, too permissive, or harsh (Linh et al.,
Lack of attention by schools and teachers to
student’s leads to students being bored and unwilling
to learn. One more reason is that schools have no
positive contacts with students' families. The issue of
ethical education for students has not been given
adequate attention, and there is a lack of close
coordination between family and school (Seda Donat
Bacıoğlu and Oya Onat Kocabıyık. 2019).
2.4.1 Causes from the Students Themselves
The first reason can be said is the psychological
change of the students from 12-17 years old, this is
the stage of character formation in human, along with
the unstable psychology. During this period, only the
bad stimuli from the outside world will cause the
children to follow. Due to the incomplete
development, lack of personality, lack of self-ability
and immaturity in life skills, wrong attitude in life
leads to wrong attitudes in perception and action.
They have not yet formed an ideal for themselves, so
they are easily depressed (Le et al., 2019).
2.4.2 Causes from the Home Environment
Humans are born, but their personalities, qualities,
and religions are formed by education. The first
setting each child comes into contact with is the
family. Grandparents and parents are the first and
most important influences on the formation of
children's character, personality and direction.
Therefore, the way of education and living
environment in each family plays a decisive role,
affecting how the child grows up and how to live
(Levent Var and Bekir Barış Cihan. 2019). Therefore,
shortcomings in the home environment are
considered to be a part affecting modern retail.
Students witnessing fathers being alcohol or drunk
and yelling at others in the family for "domestic
violence", physical abuse of children, and child
sexual abuse teaches children that acts of violence is
acceptable, here domestic violence is almost a bridge
for violence.
From the ways of teaching a child through harsh
parental discipline, the child's character becomes
more aggressive. Children's exposure to a violent
cultural environment such as movies, books and
violent games has a negative impact on many
students, fosters an increase in their aggressiveness
and student (Machová and Boledovičová, 2014).
Parental imposition and children's adverse reactions
to coercive behaviors also affect the development of
aggressive behavior in young children such as
shouting, fighting, starving, confinement, the family
has limitations, lack of social cognitive skills that
affect how to teach children.
2.4.3 Causes from the School Environment
Educational content must ensure basic,
comprehensive, practical, modern and systematic;
attach importance to education ideological and civic
consciousness; inherit and promote good traditions,
national cultural identity, absorb the cultural essence
of humanity; consistent with the development of
learners' psycho-physiology and age. Thus, for all
teachers, who are in charge of educational
management, their responsibility not only impart
professional knowledge but also educate ethics,
lifestyles, formation and development of learners'
personality qualities, and literacy must go hand in
hand with teach people. As for the class leader, they
must grasp the comprehensive quality on all aspects,
not only learning but also the cultivation and training
of the students.
2.4.4 Causes from the Social Environment
The social environment or the neighboring
environment and the residential community where the
families of the teenagers live are also many causes of
modern retail. Most modern retail cases usually
happen to young people living in residential
communities with poor living environment, low
literacy, poverty, and shabby houses, etc. Many
students who dropped out of school early wandered
around and played; where there are many social evils,
the crime rate is high, there are many drug addicts,
football betting, gambling, violent games on the
Internet”. When exposed to those bad objects. many
times had a negative impact on them, gradually
introduced into the school environment and interacted
with other students in the school.
Through the above analysis, it shows that modern
retail space occurs with many different reasons. Due
to the age-prone psychological physical development
of students and students; moral degradation; not
equipped and trained in life skills; the indifference,
indifference and irresponsibility of many parents
towards their children; family's false education
methods; educational methods, management, school
education environment; weaknesses in the economic,
cultural and social development process; the legal
ISSDRI 2021 - International Scientific and Practical Conference on Sustainable Development of Regional Infrastructure
system of modern retail in our country is still
incomplete; the negative effects of modern media
such as violent games, websites with violent content,
and the media; Negative influence from the reverse
side of international integration all the problems that
have been posed to the whole society must have
effective measures to promptly prevent and prevent
this situation.
2.5 The Consequences of Bullying in
Bullying at school has many serious consequences.
This problem has negative effects on the person being
bullied, the person bullied, the family, the school and
Negative effects on psychology: School bullying
negatively affects relationships of victimized
students. The psychology of fear, anxiety, insecurity,
resentment and obsession are common conditions that
most of the students experienced. Students who are
victims often show behavior disturbances, loss of
confidence, fear of going to school leading to being
taciturn, quiet, always in a state of anxiety, fear of
contact with people, reluctance to go to school, even
developing neurological problems. In some cases,
students become depressed, have low self-esteem,
fear, and lead to students committing suicide to free
themselves (Van Cong et al., 2018).
Bullying students themselves also suffer the
negative health, psychological, personality
development, and academic consequences of their
work. Students who commit violence will also
become objects of hatred and hate by the victims and
their classmates. Besides, there is also the worry of
retaliation from the victim, the victim's family and
friends (Le et al., 2017).
Negative effects on learning: Students who are
victims of school bullying often tend to neglect their
studies and cannot attend class.
2.6 Research Method
The method used in in the research is survey method
in which some questions were designed so that some
respondent (teachers) can complete via internet. The
scope of the survey is in some primary and secondary
schools in Vietnam with the support of 50 students.
Most of the students answered the questions which
were designed with the paper forms.
2.7 Results and Discussion
School violence directly threatens the safety of young
people in very familiar settings. The current situation
of school violence tends to increase and it is very
complicated. The problem of school violence has
become a pain in the education sector and the whole
society (Phuong, 2018). Current school violence is
becoming a hot spot that deserves attention of many
parents, teachers and schools, the concern of the
whole society.
Figure 1: Bullying behavior in school when witnessed by
survey participants.
The phenomenon of violence is not a new
phenomenon, but recently it occurs more
continuously in schools that show a more dangerous
and serious nature (Van Cong et al., 2018). It is
worrisome that the reasons for violence are
sometimes as simple as collisions while playing, on
the way to school, contradictions on each other on
forums, social networks. From the figure, we can see
that the opinions of respondents when they witnessed
bullying at school, the behaviors are rather minor and
unimportant (Figure 1).
Figure 2: Victims’ frequency of being bullied at school.
Some Recommendations for Improving Educational Environment: A Case of Vietnam Context
The chart shows that bullying is a common
phenomenon among students. Two-thirds of the
students surveyed experienced this act of violence in
the position of being bullied. Bullying at school takes
many different forms: from emotional violence such
as insults to physical violence such as beating and
sexual harassment. There was also the case of being
robbed of money by a classmate (Figure 2).
Figure 3: Respondent's opinion on form of bullying.
The above chart shows the survey respondents'
opinions about the form of bullying, most of which is
abusive and at least sexual harassment. Violence in
schools has been and is happening often around the
world at all different levels of education and
classrooms. School violence not only occurs among
boys but also among girls; not only student-student
violence, but also student-teacher violence, and
teacher-student violence. The consequences (in any
forms) cause both physically or mentally, directly
affect students' work and future if there is no timely
intervention. (Figure 3).
Figure 4: Respondent's mood about being bullied.
The moods of the surveyed students included
feelings of anger, fear, grief, and shame. In which the
feeling of anger and anger is most experienced by
students (chart 4). As a result, students are unable to
study with the best possible results. Then, excessive
psychological stress can force a student to end his or
her studies and their future will not be positive.
Figure 5: Respondents' responses to being victims of school
In the survey about the actions of students who are
victims of this problem, most of them choose to
retaliate and then report to the teacher or the school,
quietly accepting bullying and dropping out of school
(figure 5). School must be a safe place but in the eyes
of many students, this is still far away. When being
abused, students often endured silently because they
thought that if they told the teacher they would be
beaten more. They thought they weren't strong
enough to say that, therefore they endured it silently.
Firstly, for pupils and students, it is necessary to raise
awareness, awareness of actions and consequences of
such violent impact. In the classroom, it is necessary
to organize companionship groups such as
configuring mutual improvement partners to raise
awareness, increase understanding, and increase
regular communication and study together, if there
are bad students, it is necessary to create a playground
for children to gently, comfortably analyze and find
suitable solutions. We need to organize lots of useful
playgrounds to create intimacy among children
(Nguyen et al., 2010).
Second, we need to take a look at how some
families educate their children. For a long time, we
have only focused on children's academic results, but
overlooked what they think they need to deal with
their friends. Instead of children having material life,
being companions in the whole human working path,
we should not give children a too rigid cover that will
make the mind depend on and enjoy. We need to take
ISSDRI 2021 - International Scientific and Practical Conference on Sustainable Development of Regional Infrastructure
the right responses to set an example for others (Hoi,
Thirdly, the school needs to actively exchange
information with students' families and local
authorities in order to promptly take measures to
manage and educate students. The homeroom teacher
needs to actively grasp the situation of students'
ideological developments, not let negative or violent
behaviors occur (Hoi, 2020).. With the motto of
precautionary operation, along with teaching, the
school should pay attention to teaching public
education subjects, moral education, life skills, and
building a friendly pedagogical environment, page is
got out the true life for learning for you have an action
beautiful and love each other (Berna Özkut and Saibe
Özlem Kaya, 2019).
Schools work with relevant forces to mobilize the
masses to directly combat active school violence, and
whenever, wherever there is school violence, we need
to promptly stop and notify them go to school, family
to take measures to help limit harmful consequences.
Fourth, local authorities, mass organizations and
local police forces, Youth Union groups, Women's
Union, etc. It is necessary to ensure top leadership,
raise responsible opinions, and promote all their roles
in the school violence room. We need to make good
use of communication methods to prevent school
violence from occurring.
We need to have the right awareness of school
violence, a high determination of the entire education
sector, of the related sectors, and more effective
family-school coordination.
School bullying is quickly becoming one of the most
painful problems in the education industry today and
tends to become more serious. On the side of teachers
and schools, the lack of responsibility for such serious
incidents makes this situation even more widespread,
in addition, the lack of attention in the family and
proper education of their children makes children
become be negative and mentally and physically
damaged. However, the greatest responsibility must
be with the families of the students, the indifference,
lack of interest and understanding of the changes in
psychology and physiology of the children, leaving
the teaching of children to the school and as a result,
they are lack of family love fostering. Once there is a
problem with the link between family - school -
society, it is the students who are most affected.
Family education should be seen as the foundation.
Parents must pay more attention to their children;
equip them with full knowledge, ethics, and bravery
to integrate in the community environment, school.
Besides, the education sector needs a real reform,
reducing the lack of theoretical subjects and focusing
on fostering more ethics and life skills. Not only that,
students also need to improve their self-esteem, have
a sense of protecting themselves and those around
them as well as equip themselves with positive life
skills to have the courage to say no to violence.
To implement and complete this scientific research
project, I have received support and assistance from
lecturers and students of FPT University.
Hopefully in the future, the future studies will be done
on a wider scale and richer subjects of research.
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