System-logistic Approach in the Field of Recycling of Municipal Solid
Waste in the Chuvash Republic
Guzel Taisheva
and Elsa Ismagilova
Kazan Innovative University named after V. G. Timiryasov (IEML), 42 Moskovskaya st Kazan, Russian Federation
Keywords: Solid Municipal Waste, Separate Waste Collection, Processing of Solid Municipal Waste, Logistics
Principles, Placement of Waste Processing Enterprises.
Abstract: Obsolete approach to solid municipal waste management (SMW) prevails in the regions of the Russian
Federation, among others including the Chuvash Republic. The existing way of SMW disposal at landfills
virtually with no preliminary waste classification and sorting results in a plethora of environmental and
economic costs, thus demonstrating gross inefficiency. The goal of the article is the scientific substantiation
for the ideal placement of waste recycling plants in the regions of the Chuvash Republic using the method of
multi-criteria optimization. Fundamental and applied works of Russian and foreign experts in the field of
arrangement of social and economic systems of solid municipal waste management, system-oriented analysis,
empirical observation, description and generalization, ranking method made up the methodological basis of
the study. To resolve the issue of ideal placement of waste recycling plants in the regions of the Chuvash
Republic, multi-objective optimization problem was estimated. As a result of the estimate, five districts were
identified for the placement of waste recycling plants - Cheboksary, Kanash, Alatyr, Yadrinsk, and Kozlovsk.
The bottom line is that for purposes of optimization of transportation costs, it is advisable to place would-be
waste recycling plants in the Cheboksary, Kanash, Alatyr, Yadrinsk and Kozlovsk Districts of the Chuvash
Republic. The suggested method of multi-objective optimization to determine the placement of waste
recycling plants can be used to plan the placement of waste recycling plants in other regions or Federal
In the regional economic activity, the solid municipal
waste (SMW) disposal presents a serious problem,
calling for urgent solutions.
The regional, municipal authorities and public
service providers, as well as researchers, must ensure
possible harmless emission processes and more
complete use of all waste. The problems of SMW
disposal are difficult to solve, as there is no a system
for the rational separation of various types of waste
into useful components and an insufficient amount of
waste processing enterprises in the regions. The
purpose of this article is to substantiate the optimal
placement of (future) waste processing enterprises in
the Chuvash Republic districts using the multi-
objective optimization method, when the center of
gravity between the population, the generated waste
a 0000-0002-1879-5222
b 0000-0002-2740-2443
volume and the distance to neighboring large
settlements is determined to locate the optimal centers
for processing enterprises. At the same time, this
method can be used to solve the problem of the
optimal distance of waste removal from its generation
site to its processing site. Waste processing
enterprises will make it possible to provide permanent
jobs for the population in the region. Recyclable
materials contribute to resource saving, solutions to
environmental and safety issues to a certain extent.
This article can be of practical significance to
entrepreneurs to provide a place and optimal location
for an enterprise and its infrastructure.
The current situation in our country in the SMW
collection and disposal management causes
dangerous environmental pollution, irrational use of
natural resources, and serious economic damage; it
presents a real threat to the health of modern and
Taisheva, G. and Ismagilova, E.
System-logistic Approach in the Field of Recycling of Municipal Solid Waste in the Chuvash Republic.
DOI: 10.5220/0010589803050311
In Proceedings of the International Scientific and Practical Conference on Sustainable Development of Regional Infrastructure (ISSDRI 2021), pages 305-311
ISBN: 978-989-758-519-7
2021 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
future generations of Russians. Balanced ecological
and economic regional development is analyzed in
many works of Russian scientists.
О.P. Litovka and M.M. Fedorov emphasize the
need to form environmental and economic relations
in the region. This system of interrelations can act as
the initial stage of a biosphere-compatible process
within the framework of global regional development
(Litovka and Fedorov, 2007).
Scientists register an increase in natural disasters
from 2000 to the present, resulting in significant costs
of material and human resources to eliminate the
consequences of environmental disasters (Minakova
and Kovarda, 2012).
One of the recognized indicators of sustainable
development is ecologically adjusted GDP. Experts
also propose to switch to ecologically adjusted GRP
to demonstrate a decrease in the Human Development
Index in depressed regions in terms of ecology
(Ryumina, 2013).
Private investments of big companies contribute
greatly to balanced ecological and economic regional
development, especially in conditions of insufficient
budget funds (Uskova and Razgulina, 2015;
Malysheva, 2019, 2020).
Today the moment has come when from separate
individuals it is possible to "assemble" a society
capable of being post-industrial (Shishkin, 2012).
The regulation mechanisms in SMW management
area were studied by S.N. Bobylev, A.M.
Gonopolsky, A.V. Ivanov, A.M. Malinin et al.
In the modern world, economic growth results in
the environmental pollution, depletion of resources,
climate change and human health deterioration
(Bobylev and Zakharov, 2011).
The ideology of SMW management shall imply
the formation of a full cycle of its collection,
transportation and processing within the network of
logistics centers (Gonopolsky, 2011).
At the same time, SMW management was least
affected by market relations: lack of competition,
reasonable tax policy, residual financing and costly
tariff formation (Ivanov, 2009).
In cities, construction waste often exceeds the
volume of generated SMW, therefore it is necessary
to provide for SMW joint disposal and construction
waste using an interterritorial component (Malinin et
al., 2010).
The issues of program development for the solid
municipal waste management are studied in the works
of A.K. Golubin, V.V. Devyatkin, L. Ya. Shubova et
Along with conventional SMW management
measures, scientists recommend alternative methods:
separate waste collection, reuse of garbage, reuse of
household items (Golubin and Maksimovich, 2011).
The waste management economics in Russia is in
a rather poor state, SMW operations are unprofitable,
therefore it is necessary to strengthen the state policy
in this area (Devyakin, 2009).
As the experience of different countries shows,
there is no universal method of SMW processing. But
the rational sorting of MSW serves as a unifying
element in the process of complex waste processing
(Shubov et al., 2011).
Foreign authors define SMW as waste, with its
collection, transportation, and disposal performed by
the municipality (R. Baudry).
Foreign studies also describe that the average rate
of SMW generation in high-income countries is about
six times higher than in low-income countries
(Wilson, 2015).
The most effective method of SMW sorting by
sorting percentage is a secondary collection in
different containers (65%), sorting at waste sorting
stations (30%), then a collection of components at
SMW secondary collection points (10%). Separate
collection of recyclable materials is one of the key
measures in waste management; in some cases, the
reception of recyclable materials from the population
can be organized through collection points for
recyclable materials. Foreign experience
demonstrates that the proper organization of waste
processing makes it possible to use up to 90% of
SMW recycling products for the construction
industry (Lowe and Whitman, 2009).
In the Russian Federation regions, various approaches
are applied to SMW integrated management. In
regions and cities with a high population density and
standard of living, waste incineration plants, waste
sorting lines, and waste transfer stations are included
in the waste management chain.
Since January 1, 2019, a new SMW management
system has been introduced in our country, it provides
for a change in the principles and mechanisms of
waste collection, sorting, processing, and disposal.
The Russian Federation regions received the right to
appoint operators to deal with the complete chain of
solid municipal waste collection and disposal from a
garbage can to a special landfill.
In the Chuvash Republic, a territorial scheme for
SMW management was also established by Order of
the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the
Chuvash Republic No. 1036 dated September 22,
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2016. As part of the transition to a new system for
solid municipal waste management, on April 27,
2018, in the Chuvash Republic, an agreement was
signed on the organization of activities for solid
municipal waste management between the Ministry
of Construction, Architecture, Housing, and
Communal Services of the Chuvash Republic and
LLC MVK Ekotsentr.
Since on January 1, 2019, in the Chuvash
Republic the regional operator represented by LLC
MVK Ekotsentr was appointed, but it has not yet
started operations due to the insufficient number of
waste trucks and container fleet, the existing system
of SMW collection and disposal operates according
to the previous scheme. The SMW management chain
in the Chuvash Republic can be described as follows
(see Fig. 1):
Figure 1: The existing system for the collection and disposal of MSW in the Chuvash Republic.
At present, all operations with waste in the
republic are arranged according to the municipal
principle, with low values of economic efficiency,
environmental friendliness, and, in fact, in the
absence of sorting. SMW sorting is performed only in
Cheboksary and Novocheboksarsk. In the city of
Cheboksary, the introduction of the separate waste
collection began 10 years ago. Containers for paper,
glass, plastic, and organic matter appeared in many
courtyards. However, the waste separate collection
came to nothing soon. Today you can see special
waste containers in Guzovsky Grove, in the
Shupashkar Park behind the Tractor Builders' Palace
of Culture, in the “Lakreevsky Forest” recreation
park, and in some school grounds. There are
practically none of them left in courtyards. The
situation seems to be even worse in comparison with
other regions. In the Greenpeace ranking, where the
situation in 106 Russian cities was analyzed,
Cheboksary took the 80th place. According to
environmentalists, only 3.8% of Cheboksary
residents can use bins for separate waste collection
near their homes (A. V. Boytsova).
In the Chuvash Republic municipalities, SMW is
accumulated at the sites of specialized containers and
bunkers. Moreover, bagged waste is stored either on
established or arbitrary street sites, or near yard farms
to be collected by a waste truck.
In municipal districts of the Chuvash Republic,
container sites are not sufficient or absent at all. At
the same time, in some settlements, containers for
SMW accumulation were established. In these
situations, the most effective way of organizing MSW
accumulation sites in such settlements was to arrange
System-logistic Approach in the Field of Recycling of Municipal Solid Waste in the Chuvash Republic
SMW accumulation sites in bags (other containers) in
one designated place for the whole settlement. Using
this method of accumulation, solid municipal waste
shall be transported to their placement site by loading
them in bulk, often by non-specialized transport.
An example of a container-free accumulation
system for the whole administrative district of the
republic is the Yalchevsky District; there are no
container sites on its territory, the waste
accumulation, and transportation from the population
in all nine rural settlements is carried out according to
the schedule and in bags. There is no container
accumulation on the territory of Alikovsky District.
Poretsky District can serve as an example of a poor
organization of SMW accumulation system; on
average, in each settlement out of eleven (i.e., with
the exception of the Poretsky rural settlement,
providing 35 0.75 m3 containers), there is currently
one container. There is a selective system of waste
containers in Kozlovsky District settlements. Thus, a
number of settlements have neither installed
containers nor arrange sites for the SMW
accumulation. In general, both a containerized and
bulk SMW accumulation system is used in the
district. Also, the method of waste accumulation is
applied individually in each farm with further
transportation to waste disposal sites using tractor
These circumstances demonstrate the existing
problem of the organized collection and accumulation
of solid municipal waste, both in many rural
settlements as a whole, or even throughout the entire
municipal district of the republic.
In total, the region has 12 landfills for waste
disposal. In the Chuvash Republic, there is one SMW
processing and disposal SMW, built by the efforts of
Waste Management JSC in 2015 under a concession
agreement with the Cabinet of Ministers of the
republic. The complex consists of a waste disposal
landfill (at least 200 thousand tons per year), waste
sorting and waste processing complexes with a
capacity of at least 150 thousand tons per year. The
amount of investment in the construction of these
facilities amounted to 1.45 billion rubles. The waste
sorting station is capable of separating waste into
more than 20 types of recyclable materials. So far,
this is the only such facility in the Chuvash Republic.
Thus, at present, on the Chuvash Republic,
territory, there are not enough facilities for
processing, recycling waste, as well as facilities that
dispose of waste in accordance with the requirements
of the legislation of the Russian Federation in the field
of environmental protection. It can affect the
environmental condition in the Chuvash Republic and
the formation of unauthorized dumps. Also, due to the
insufficient number of waste disposal facilities
included in the SRWDS (the State Register of Waste
Disposal Sites), waste from some municipal areas is
transported to other areas of the Chuvash Republic,
resulting in a rapid overflow of existing waste
disposal facilities.
Commercial fractions of production and
consumption waste (paper, cardboard, metal, plastic,
etc.), as recyclable materials, are mainly exported
from the Chuvash Republic territory. It is related to
the absence of enterprises that process or dispose
recyclable materials in the republic.
The development of waste processing production
in the republic will significantly reduce the export of
recyclable materials outside the republic, increase the
employment of population and improve the
environmental situation in the Chuvash Republic.
In these conditions, it seems relevant to study the
issue of building new waste processing enterprises in
the Chuvash Republic. The author considers it
necessary to radically revise the territorial scheme of
SMW circulation in the Chuvash Republic in favor of
waste processing companies. The separate waste
collection at their generation sites will make it
possible to reduce tariffs for residents of the Chuvash
Waste processing enterprises shall be located
closer to the settlements with the highest population
and, accordingly, where more waste is generated. It is
possible to solve similar problems using multi-
objective optimization methods. In this case, the so-
called “ideal point” method should be used (G.L.
Brodetsky, 2010).
The following optimization criteria were initially
average distance to neighboring district
centers, from where waste is removed (km);
population of nearby settlements (thousand
mass of waste, generated in the settlement
The distances were determined based on the
Autodispatcher automobile portal of cargo
transportation, the population size and the mass of
generated waste were taken according to statistical
data. To calculate the “ideal point”, the best distance
value is the minimum - 34.5 km, and in terms of
population and waste size - the maximum values, 273
479 thousand people. and 145,383 tons/year,
Then, for each parameter, the sum of deviation
squares (Li) was determined:
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Li = Σ(Ni –Nip) 2 (1)
where Li is the sum of deviation squares of parameter
Ni is the individual parameter indicator;
Nip is the indicator value at the “ideal point”.
Then the distances of each individual indicator to
the "ideal point" were identified:
Ri = Li (2)
where РiРiRi is the distance of each individual indicator to
the "ideal point".
The final stage of calculations was the ranking of
indicators in ascending order of values. It is
preferable to locate future waste processing plants in
areas with the shortest distance to the “ideal point”.
The calculation results for the Chuvash Republic
districts are presented in Table 1. The cities of
Cheboksary and Novocheboksarsk, as well as the
Cheboksary district, are excluded from the list of
Table 1 since a waste sorting and processing complex
already operates in this area.
Table 1: Ranking of district centers of the Chuvash
Republic for the arrangement of waste processing
Urban district,
district center (district)
to IP
Kanashsky 68.5 1
Alatyrsky 60,888.13 2
103,773.28 3
104,147.06 4
112,108.47 5
124,419.14 6
Krasnochetaysky 124,539.87 7
125,027.72 8
125,096.34 9
125,959.55 10
Shemurshinsky 129,138.66 11
Vurnarsky 130,305.11 12
Komsomolsky 130,606.21 13
131,675.32 14
133,248.49 15
134,627.37 16
Mariinsko-Posadsky 135,468.14 17
Alikovsky 136,507.61 18
136,874.84 19
141,144.73 20
The final zoning results of the location of waste
processing enterprises in the Chuvash Republic
regions are presented in Table 2.
Table 2: The zoning results of the location of waste
processing enterprises in the Chuvash Republic regions.
Zone name Municipalities
Cheboksary Cheboksary urban district
Novocheboksary urban district
Cheboksary district
Kanash Kanashsky district
Vurnarsky district
Ibresinsky district
Yantikovsky district
Komsomolsky district
Alatyr Alatyrsky district
Poretsky district
Shemurshinsky district
Batyrevsky district
Yalchiksky district
Yadrinsky Yadrinsky district
Alikovsky district
Krasnochetaysky district
Shumerlinsky district
Kozlovsky Kozlovsky district
Tsivilsky district
Morgaushsky district
Krasnoarmeysky district
Urmarsky district
Thus, to solve the problem of optimal arrangement of
waste processing enterprises in the Chuvash Republic
regions, the calculations of the problem of multi-
objective optimization were developed. As a result of
calculations, five zones for the arrangement of waste
processing enterprises were identified - Cheboksary,
Kanash, Alatyr, Yadrin, and Kozlovka. In terms of
transport costs optimization, it is recommended to
locate future waste processing enterprises in these
specified zones.
System-logistic Approach in the Field of Recycling of Municipal Solid Waste in the Chuvash Republic
Figure 2: Zones of optimal arrangement of waste processing enterprises on the map of the Chuvash Republic relative to the
distance between regional centers, population, and mass of the generated waste.
Thus, to solve the problem of optimal arrangement of
waste processing enterprises in the Chuvash Republic
regions, the calculations of the problem of multi-
objective optimization were developed. It is
concluded that in terms of transport costs
optimization, it is advisable it is recommended to
locate future waste processing enterprises in addition
to Cheboksary, in the Kanash, Alatyr, Yadrin, and
Kozlovka zones of the Chuvash Republic. The
proposed method of multi-objective optimization for
arrangement of waste processing enterprises can be
used to plan the location of waste processing
enterprises in other regions or federal districts.
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