Augmented Reality Applied to Reducing Risks in Work Safety in
Electric Substations
Victor Menezes Rocha
1,2 a
and Saul Delabrida
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Instrumentação, Controle e Automação de Processos de Mineração (PROFICAM),
Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP) and Instituto Tecnológico Vale (ITV), Ouro Preto, Brazil
Vale S.A., São Luís, Brazil
Departamento de Computação (DECOM), Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), Ouro Preto, Brazil
Keywords: Electric Arc, Electric Shock, Electricity Hazards, Incident Energy, Industrial System.
Abstract: Activities that involve electric energy are among the most dangerous and most harmful to the worker they
perform. Therefore, the general objective of this work is to develop a virtual reality application that simulates
the use of augmented reality technology as a means of access guidance and safety instructions with electric
substation operators/maintainers. For this purpose, a newsletter, a simplified 3D electrical substation was
modelled for experimentation in virtual reality and, thus, to evaluate a user experience regarding the use of
the prototype and define what are the main requirements that can be used for the construction of the final
An industrial electrical substation is a physical
arrangement of devices and equipment which the
purpose is to modify the characteristics of electrical
energy (voltage and current) to levels suitable for use
in the machines that make up the production process
and their subsequent distribution to them (Mamede
Filho, 2005). During the performance of the
maintenance and operation activities of these
substations, the worker is exposed to several risks,
among them that of electric shock, caused by
accidental contact in energized parts, and that of the
incident energy resulting from an electric arc
(Queiroz & Senger, 2012).
In Brazil, according to the Brazilian Association for
Awareness of the Dangers of Electricity (Abracopel),
7,040 accidents were recorded in the last 5 years (2015-
2019). Its main causes are electric shock (60% or 4196
cases), short circuit fires (39% or 2764 cases) and
lightning strikes (8% or 557 cases). However, despite
the higher percentage involving domestic accidents
and people not directly related to the electricity sector,
380 fatal accidents occurred with professional
technicians or electricians (Abracopel, 2020).
In order to mitigate the risks associated with
activities involving electricity, over the years there
has been a constant evolution of safety procedures
and industrial processes. Currently, the occupational
safety management applied in electrical substations,
is mainly based on the Regulatory Standard (NR) 10.
This standard aims at safety in installations and
services in electricity and provide for individual and
collective control measures, safety in energized
electrical installations, works involving high voltage
and emergency situations (Brasil, 2019).
In turn, industrial processes are increasingly
automated. With the advent of the fourth Industrial
Revolution, a new form of more technological
production has been achieved with the aim of
increasing productivity, reducing costs and helping to
control and make quick, efficient and well-qualified
In fact, what is sought is industrial automation
based on the perfect relationship between the worker
and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), embedded
systems connected in a network, capable of managing
physical processes and, through feedbacks, adapting
new conditions in real time (Lee et al., 2015). In this
way, the human being starts to assume the role of an
entity with a higher level of control, redirecting his
Rocha, V. and Delabrida, S.
Augmented Reality Applied to Reducing Risks in Work Safety in Electric Substations.
DOI: 10.5220/0010454805330540
In Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS 2021) - Volume 2, pages 533-540
ISBN: 978-989-758-509-8
2021 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
efforts to situations that require higher lines of
reasoning and more assertive decision-making.
Another point is the need for maintenance
workers to keep the machines in perfect working
order. In this scenario, Augmented Reality (AR)
enters as another technology of this revolution,
facilitating these works by providing more detailed
information on the equipment and procedures to be
performed. This technology is able to superimpose
information and virtual objects on the real
environment in which the user is. Thus, data, videos,
images, photos, animations, texts and other
computer-generated objects can be manipulated and
appear integrated into the environment through a
device, such as a smartphone, tablet or special glasses
(Figure 1).
Figure 1: Augmented Reality applied to the context of
electrical maintenance. Sources: and,
When associated with Virtual Reality (VR,
advanced interface technology for computational
applications, which allows the user to navigate and
interact, in real time, with a virtual three-dimensional
environment), AR has also been shown to be effective
for conducting safer virtual training for workers
(Hernández et al., 2016; Peng et al., 2018) Figure 2.
Figure 2: Representation of the visualization of objects and
scenarios in Virtual Reality, Mixed Reality and Augmented
Reality. Source: adapted from
The use of these last two technologies has been
documented in the literature in actions of simulation,
training and choice of more correct solutions in cases
involving electric power substations (Antonijević et
al., 2016; Torres Filho et al., 2013). However, most
of the works have as object of study open-air
substations belonging to the energy concessionaires
(Hernández et al., 2016; Peng et al., 2018).
The purpose of this work is to carry out the proof
of concept of the use of AR as support for industry
workers, for that purpose an VR application was
developed to simulate AR and the preliminary tests
with the use of AR showed a reduction of
approximately 90% in decision-making errors
regarding improper access in risk areas.
The rest of this article is structured as: Section 2
describes the main risks that workers in the electricity
sector are exposed to. Section 3 describes the work
related to AR and VR in the electricity sector. Section
4 describes the experiment developed in VR
simulating the use of AR. Section 5 the results
obtained and problems identified in the prototype.
Finally, Section 6, where we conclude this work.
Electricity is an invisible risk, which does not emit
visual or audible alerts to the individual, a fact that
often lowers attention under operating conditions.
Activities related to it, present risks to people's health
and safety, and can cause everything from mild
symptoms to immediate death. In the industry, several
electrical risks can be identified, but the main ones are
electric shock, electric arc and electromagnetism, the
first two being more harmful to workers (Lourenço et
al., 2007).
Electric shock is the pathophysiological effect
resulting from the direct or indirect passage of
external electrical current through a human's body.
Depending on the exposure time, the victim's physical
resistance, the intensity and path of the circulating
electrical current, the physiological damage caused
by the shock can bring more serious complications for
the individual (Cadick et al., 2012).
The electric arc, is the passage of electric current
through a non-conductive medium, such as air or oil,
at high speeds (approximately 100 m/s). In general, it
occurs due to the dielectric rupture of this medium,
caused by the potential difference between the two
materials and the proximity between them (Mamede
Filho, 2005; Souza & Michaloski, 2017). The three
main problems that increase the danger of the electric
arc and are also capable of causing a person to die are:
a) Arc temperature - capable of reaching high
temperatures and causing incurable burns;
b) Incident energy - amount of thermal energy
(sudden fire) printed on a given surface and
released during the formation of an electric arc.
It can lead to the ignition of a worker's clothing,
further increasing the risk of burns;
ICEIS 2021 - 23rd International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems
c) Pressure wave - developed through the
explosive expansion of air and metals in the arc
path. It is capable of breaking eardrums,
crushing the lungs, causing head trauma, among
other things.
Thus, the electric arc is an evident danger for both
companies and workers. In companies, this
phenomenon can cause total destruction of electrical
panels and consequent loss of production, since their
high temperatures and fused and vaporized metals can
quickly reach other equipment and electrical circuits
(Floyd et al., 2005). However, the risks are even
greater for workers. People directly exposed to an
electric arc event are subject to third degree burns,
possible blindness, shock, explosion effects, hearing
loss and instant death. In order to have an idea of the
dimension of the risk of formation of an electric arc,
Cadick et al. (2012) highlight that fatal burns can
occur even at distances greater than 2.5m.
This work aims to study alternatives for workers
performing inspection and maintenance activities in
electric stations. Augmented reality and virtual reality
were defined as the core technologies for the
proposed solution. Next section describes related
This section describes works that use Augmented
Reality (AR) or Virtual Reality (VR) in the industrial
A virtual environment is the representation
through computer graphics of various elements of the
real or abstract world, such as the dimension of an
environment, lighting, size, shape and texture of an
object, among others. In turn, Virtual Reality (VR)
can be defined as the computational technique used to
create these artificial environments in a realistic way,
allowing its users to interact with it in real time
(Kirner & Siscoutto, 2007; Laviola Júnior et al.,
2017). In fact, through this human-machine interface,
the user, in addition to being able to feel immersed in
a three-dimensional environment, is also able to
navigate, interact and modify its components in a
natural and intuitive way (Cardoso et al., 2007; Lin et
al., 2002; Wiederhold & Bouchard, 2014).
In view of its benefits, VR has been used in the
most diverse areas of knowledge. In medicine, for
example, its use ranges from aid in rehabilitation
processes for patients, the simulation of complex
situations, such as surgical tests, bone marrow
collection, among other procedures, for fixing the
protocol that should be adopted from a controlled
environment (Brunner et al., 2016; Faria et al., 2016;
Souza-Junior et al., 2020). In military training, VR, in
turn, can generate a multitude of conflict simulations,
which enable the exploration of the operator's limits
and the correction of mistakes made so that there is
no compromise on the mission to be triggered
(Cuperschmid et al., 2015).
VR can be used in simulations of electrical
substations to train teachers and graduate students,
field operators and other support and maintenance
professionals. As their users are not exposed to real
equipment during the simulation, these scenarios may
represent a decrease in the risk of accidents inherent to
the learning and decision-making process. This
technology has also been considered a powerful tool as
visualization interfaces for energy system simulators
and critical systems monitoring and control operations
(Barata et al., 2015; Barcelos et al., 2013).
Still, Guangwei and Guan (2009), using a scene
graph development approach for organizing and
managing models in the realization of the Level of
Detail (LOD), present a VR system design that allows
operators to have a complete view of the process
involving simulation, training and control of a
substation's virtual environment. Finally, Silva et al.
(2013), made adjustments to the Unity3D game
engine to develop an application that would allow
better monitoring and control of substations. In this
work, Unity3D presented a good amount of resources
and a satisfactory performance in relation to
supporting scenes with large amounts of polygons;
the LOD resource; the flexibility to choose
programming languages (C #, JavaScript and Boo);
the creation and use of packages with sufficiently
generic functionalities that enable the reuse of
functions; and the possibility of creating components
to automate the scene editor.
If, on the one hand, virtual reality (VR) uses virtual
objects and environments, on the other, augmented
reality (AR) allows the visualization in an integrated
way of a virtual element in the real world in which the
user is; a real “augmented world” (Azuma, 1997;
Mullen, 2011). Simplistically, Drascic and Milgram
(1996) define AR as a technology capable of
generating a real environment with graphic
improvements. In other words, AR brings with it a new
concept of visualization of information and images
generated by computer, as it complements real
environments instead of replacing them as in VR
applications. Several AR technologies are available on
the market, ranging from a simple smartphone camera,
to more expensive options, such as AR glasses, which
have semitransparent displays, coupled with a 3D
camera for the projection of the virtual image.
Augmented Reality Applied to Reducing Risks in Work Safety in Electric Substations
By being able to generate a sense of dominance in
the user, combining the presentation process and the
possibility of interaction and manipulation of virtual
objects, AR has become an increasingly immersive
experience (Cardoso et al., 2014). In the last decade,
several sectors have benefited from the development
of its applications, such as educational, tourism,
medical, design, geospatial, among others
(Carmigniani et al., 2011; Engelke et al., 2015;
Fiorentino et al., 2014; Gheisari et al., 2016; Mekni
& Lemieux, 2014; Nee et al., 2012).
AR-based systems, for example, can support a
variety of services, such as sending repair instructions
via mobile devices or selecting parts in a warehouse,
reducing travel costs and preventing maintenance
rework from having to be misinterpreted (Bahrin et
al., 2016). Still, new human-machine interfaces can
be created from AR in the manufacture of
applications and IT assets, displaying KPIs (Key
Performance Indicator) and feedbacks about
manufacturing processes in real time, in order to
improve decision making (Gorecky et al., 2014).
Peres et al. (2018), for example, propose the
application of AR for access to accumulated data and
information in hydroelectric dams to be analyzed for
cracks in the concrete, thus reducing the demand for
mental workload in the employee. However, despite
this new area of technology that has been discussing
for some time in academic papers, Martinez et al.
(2016) reviewing the literature on Industry 4.0, found
no reference to augmented reality in the 531 abstracts
of the analyzed publications, which indicates that this
subject seems to be in an early stage of development.
In the context of electrical power substations,
Barcelos et al. (2013), identifying the difficulty of
graduates from Electrical Engineering courses in
differentiating and classifying the elements of a
substation, present a proposal for the use of AR in the
visualization of these components as a way of
complementing learning. For this, a protocol for
creating an interactive catalog was suggested.
Initially, virtual objects were created in 3D Studio
Max® and, after the generation of their respective
markers, the Unity 3D® game building engine and
the NyARToolKit library enabled the
synchronization between reading the catalog and
viewing these objects in three dimensions. Also, the
availability of AR glasses for students provided a
greater experience of usability of the generated
system and better immersion of the user. Finally, as
suggested by Antonijević et al. (2016), AR can also
be used as a support tool to increase the information
visible to the user and contribute to the automation of
electrical substations, using a simple smartphone.
These authors developed an application based on QR
markers and a combination of IEC61850
communication with AR, so that engineers received
in real time the information necessary for
maintenance and inspection of equipment from the
process data recorded in the SCADA system.
Based on the technologies and concepts presented in
sections 2 and 3, a proof of concept of the use of AR
is presented in this work. To this end, the aim was to
develop a use case to be applied to the electrical
maintenance team that involved the development of a
prototype using Unity 3D, for a virtual environment
(VR) similar to a physical arrangement of an
industrial electrical substation in the context of
simulation of maintenance activities on equipment
contained in this room with (and without) the use of
AR to read information from the equipment (RV
simulating an AR environment); and evaluate the use
and perceptions (user experience) by the maintenance
execution teams, identifying advantages and
problems arising from such a solution and verifying
the team's propensity regarding the need to use (or
not) the proposed solution for knowledge of details
and information in real time of electrical installations.
Therefore, the prototype to be developed should be
able to:
1) Run on Android phones and simulated with the
support of Virtual Reality Glass (VR Box) and
Bluetooth Remote Controllers;
2) Represent as accurately as possible the physical
arrangement of an electrical substation;
3) Allow the user to move everywhere within the
scene and have a first-person camera
4) Establish virtual barriers to enable the correct
positioning of the user in relation to the area of
risk of electric arc and, if this exceeds the
delimitation, show an alert indication on the
5) Provide information about each electrical panel
(data of current, voltage, active power and
category of the panel) at the moment the user
positioned himself in front of him;
6) Record the number of infractions committed
during the execution of the pre-established task.
After application development, the use case was
elaborated a 9 members the electrical maintenance
teams (engineers and technicians) in Vale's operating
areas in the ports of Tubarão (Vitória/ES) and Ponta
da Madeira (São Luís/MA; Figures 3-4). The texts
ICEIS 2021 - 23rd International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems
contained in figures 4 are in the official language of
the developing country (Portuguese). Therefore, the
experiment took place as follows:
1) Users were allowed to browse the virtual
environment momentarily, through computers,
before starting the test itself, in order to become
familiar with the environment and with the
movement controls.
2) Participants were asked to perform a field survey
task of short-circuit current information on all
panels contained in the fictitious substation and
write it down on a clipboard. Assumptions were
passed on to the participants and should be
considered when performing the task:
i. The information to be obtained (short circuit
current) would be available on labels affixed
to the front of each panel;
ii. Electricians would be wearing flameproof
clothing (Nomex), category 2, that is,
minimum protection of 8 cal/cm2 (incident
energy, according to ATPV index) as PPE;
iii. The substation would not have an adjustment
group, that is, there would be no mechanisms
to reduce the incident energy of the panels, by
changing /adjusting the operating times of the
protection relays and/or using internal arc
3) The experiment was carried out for the first time
with the virtual Scenario 1 without the
indication of the information on a virtual panel
located to the left of the vision in the glasses,
simulating the current method (without the use
of AR). The expected behavior for this scenario
would be for the electrician to refuse to do the
activity. As he does not have prior knowledge of
this information, he should adopt his right of
refusal when considering the possibility of the
panels presenting an incident energy higher than
the category of his PPE (in this example,
category 2). However, once he made the wrong
decision to read the data, accessing the risk
zone, an improper access counter was increased.
4) The experiment was repeated in a second virtual
Scenario 2, with indication of the information,
simulating the augmented reality method,
informing the electrician about the data in
advance, and allowing a safe decision not to
violate the safe and adequate distance to your
PPE (flameproof clothing, with a category
appropriate to the incident energy of the panel).
A video with the view of the substation modeled
in 3D can be accessed behind the address: In the video we
are running the application on the second scenario
Figure 3: (A) Overview of the modeled substation; (B)
Practical Reproduction of the Experiment in São Luís; (C)
VR Box and Bluethooth Remote Controler glasses used for
the experiment.
Figure 4: (A) Front view of a panel and tag with their
respective information (with AR); (B) Front view of a panel
and tag with their respective information. Image with the
entry warning tag in the risk area and panel indication.
Highlighted within the red square without filling is the
accounting of errors made by the user when applying the
(with RA). Therefore, it is not necessary for the user
to access the unsafe area to view the main information
on the panel. At the end of the video, it is shown that
to read the label attached to the panel, it is necessary
Augmented Reality Applied to Reducing Risks in Work Safety in Electric Substations
to get closer, consequently exposing the work to risk.
It is also possible to view the error/unsafe actions
counter in the lower left corner of the screen.
After performing the tests, with the help of NASA
TLX methodology, users were asked to evaluate the
workload in both scenarios in terms of mental
demand, physical demand, temporal demand,
performance, effort and frustration. Thus, after
compiling the results, it was found that the scenario
without AR had a final score of 54,81, while the
scenario with AR had a final score of 48,59. For this
methodology, the lower the grade, the better the
performance of the technology, since it requires less
work demands, indicating a propensity of the team
regarding the need to use the proposed solution. An
analysis by arithmetic mean of the grades was also
performed, confirming the data obtained previously
(Table 1; Figure 5).
Table 1: Notes from Scenario 1 (without AR) and 2 (with
AR), according to NASA TLX methodology and
Arithmetic Average. Legend: WN - weighted note; SD -
standard deviation.
Figure 5: Comparison of the user's final grades (NASA
TLX and arithmetic mean) in relation to the demands
demanded during the execution of the experiment without
and with the use of augmented reality.
Finally, the scenario with augmented reality
showed an approximate reduction of 90% in errors of
decision making regarding the improper access in risk
areas (39 errors made in the scenario without AR and
four with AR). This may indicate that the developed
system has been successfully tested, confirming that,
from its improvement, its application in real
environments of electric power substations would be
an effective solution to mitigate the risks associated
with the activities carried out in it. However, two
limitations were identified, which should be
addressed in future projects: the low resolution of the
video, which made it difficult to read the information
with the use of cell phones; and the difficulty in
recognizing by the user the model used to represent
the electrical panels, being recommended the
adoption of market design standards and/or the
substation to be implemented the technology, so that
users feel familiar with the interfaces.
This work evaluated augmented reality as a feature to
support the workers in the industry field. Our focus is
to provide a friendly user interface in hazardous
environments. In this case, we evaluated the human
operation of electric panels.
We also have used a virtual reality environment
for stakeholders' experience. This strategy allowed us
to understand the real application's best requirements
and reduced the time spent developing the real
application. Our methodology also reduces the need
to access the hazardous environment.
The developed prototype was experimented by
application stakeholders. Our findings demonstrate
that the system is a feasible alternative to reduce and
emit alert to workers in the field. Finally, as indirect
advantages of using this technology, we can highlight
the increase in the productivity of the teams, through
a quick return of information and performance in the
maintenance process, increase in the perception of
information reliability, elimination of human errors in
the collection / reading of data and reducing the level
of stress of workers in making decisions that involve
their safety. Then, with the lessons learned in this
experiment, a real augmented reality system (not VR)
is being developed for future user evaluation.
Sum (score)
Sum (score)
27 20% 63 12,60 7,00 1,12 1,25 44 8,80 4,89 2,71 7,36
13 10% 48 4,62 5,33 2,50 6,25 26 2,50 2,89 1,69 2,86
27 20% 57 11,40 6,33 2,65 7,00 34 6,80 3,78 2,49 6,19
33 24% 58 14,18 6,44 3,57 12,78 82 20,04 9,11 0,93 0,86
19 14% 55 7,74 6,11 3,26 10,61 54 7,60 6,00 3,50 12,25
16 12% 36 4,27 4,00 3,28 10,75 24 2,84 2,67 1,66 2,75
135 54,81 35,21 48,58 29,34
Scenario 1 Scenario 2
Without RA With RA
ICEIS 2021 - 23rd International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems
This study was financed in part by the Coordenação
de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior -
Brasil (CAPES) Finance Code 001, the Conselho
Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e
Tecnológico (CNPQ), the Fundação De Amparo a
Pesquisa Do Estado De Minas Gerais -
FAPEMIG grant code APQ-01331-18, the Instituto
Tecnológico Vale (ITV), the Universidade Federal de
Ouro Preto (UFOP) and Vale S.A.
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ICEIS 2021 - 23rd International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems