A Crowdsourcing Methodology for Improved Geographic Focus
Identification of News-stories
Christos Rodosthenous
1 a
and Loizos Michael
Open University of Cyprus, Cyprus
Research Center on Interactive Media, Smart Systems, and Emerging Technologies, Cyprus
Crowdsourcing, Story Understanding, Commonsense Knowledge.
Past work on the task of identifying the geographic focus of news-stories has established that state-of-the-art
performance can be achieved by using existing crowdsourced knowledge-bases. In this work we demonstrate
that a further refinement of those knowledge-bases through an additional round of crowdsourcing can lead
to improved performance on the aforementioned task. Our proposed methodology views existing knowledge-
bases as collections of arguments in support of particular inferences in terms of the geographic focus of a given
news-story. The refinement that we propose is to associate these arguments with weights computed through
crowdsourcing — in terms of how strongly they support their inference. The empirical results that we present
establish the superior performance of this approach compared to the one using the original knowledge-base.
In this work we present a crowdsourcing methodol-
ogy for evaluating how strongly a given argument
supports its inference. We apply and evaluate this
technique on the problem of identifying the (country-
level) geographic focus of news-stories when this fo-
cus is not explicitly mentioned in the news-stories.
The text snippet “. . . sitting on a balcony next to
the Eiffel Tower, overlooking the City of Light . . . ”,
for example, is focused on France, but without this
being explicitly mentioned in the text. Resolving
the focus of the text is of interest both to the story-
understanding community for answering the “where”
question, and to the information retrieval community
when seeking to retrieve documents based on a loca-
tion that could be only implicit in the retrieved text.
This work builds on our previous work on Geo-
Mantis (Rodosthenous and Michael, 2018; Rodos-
thenous and Michael, 2019), a system that identifies
the country-level focus of a text document or a web
page using generic crowdsourced knowledge found
in popular knowledge-bases and ontologies such as
YAGO (Mahdisoltani et al., 2015) and ConceptNet
(Speer et al., 2017). The system treats RDF triples
from ontologies that reference a particular country as
arguments that support that country as being the geo-
graphic focus of a text that triggers that argument. A
full-text search algorithm is used for matching each
search text of the document against the search text of
each triple in the country’s knowledge base set. Geo-
Mantis was evaluated on identifying the geographic
focus using news-stories where the country of focus
was not explicitly mentioned in the text or was ob-
scured. The results of these experiments showed that
GeoMantis outperformed two baseline metrics and
two systems when tested on the same dataset.
In this work, we extend the GeoMantis method-
ology and architecture by adding a mechanism to
evaluate the arguments retrieved from knowledge-
bases using paid crowd-workers recruited from the
microWorkers (Nguyen, 2014) platform. The system
leverages existing GeoMantis query answering strate-
gies such as number and percentage of applied ar-
guments and the TF-IDF information retrieval algo-
rithm, by adding weights to each argument applied.
In the following sections we first provide a brief
overview of the available systems and then we present
the updated GeoMantis system highlighting the archi-
tecture of the argument evaluation system and how
this blends with the original architecture. Next, we
describe the evaluation strategies and we describe the
experimental setup used to test the hypothesis that ar-
guments evaluated using crowdsourcing can yield bet-
ter results compared to the results from the original
system. In the final section, new features and possible
Rodosthenous, C. and Michael, L.
A Crowdsourcing Methodology for Improved Geographic Focus Identification of News-stories.
DOI: 10.5220/0010228406800687
In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence (ICAART 2021) - Volume 2, pages 680-687
ISBN: 978-989-758-484-8
2021 by SCITEPRESS – Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
extensions to the GeoMantis system are discussed.
Attempts to identify the geographic focus of texts
go back to the 1990’s with a system called GIPSY
(Woodruff and Plaunt, 1994) for automatic geo-
referencing of text. In the 2000’s, the Web-a-Where
system (Amitay et al., 2004) was developed, which
was able to identify a place name in a document, dis-
ambiguate it and determine its geographic focus.
Recent attempts include the CLIFF-CLAVIN
system (D’Ignazio et al., 2014), which is able to iden-
tify the geographic focus on news-stories. The system
uses a similar to the Web-a-Where system workflow
and is able to identify toponyms in news-stories, it
disambiguates them and then it determines the focus
using the “most mentioned toponym” strategy. Addi-
tionally, the “Newstand” system (Teitler et al., 2008),
retrieves news-stories using RSS feeds and then ex-
tracts geographic content using a geotagger.
Related is also the work on the Mordecai system
(Halterman, 2017), which performs full text geopars-
ing and infers the country focus of each place name
in a document. The system’s workflow extracts the
place names from a piece of text, resolves them to the
correct place, and then returns their coordinates and
structured geographic information.
Among the most recent systems is GeoTxt
(Karimzadeh et al., 2019). This is a geoparsing sys-
tem that can be used for identifying and geolocating
names of places in unstructured text. It exploits six
named entity recognition systems for its place name
recognition process, and utilizes a search engine for
the indexing, ranking, and retrieval of toponyms.
GeoMantis is a web application able to identify the
geographic focus of documents and web pages at a
country-level. Users can add a document to the sys-
tem using a web-interface. The document is pro-
cessed through the pipeline depicted in Figure 1, with
the system returning an ordered list of countries.
To identify the geographic focus, the GeoMantis
system uses generic crowdsourced knowledge about
countries retrieved from ontologies such as Concept-
Net (Speer et al., 2017) and YAGO (Mahdisoltani
et al., 2015) represented in the form of RDF triples.
An RDF triple <Subject><Relation><Country
Figure 1: The GeoMantis system architecture. The diagram
includes the RDF Triples Retrieval and Processing Engine
(top left), the Text Processing mechanism and the Query
Answering Engine (QAE). The outcome of the QAE is a
predicted list of countries ranked based on confidence.
Name> comprises a Subject that has a relationship
Relation with the Country Name, and represents the
argument that when the text <Subject> is included
in a given document, then the document is presum-
ably about country <Country Name>. These argu-
ments are stored locally in the system’s geographic
knowledge database and then presented to crowd-
workers to evaluate them on how useful they are for
identifying a specific country. After gathering the
evaluations from crowd-workers, the aggregated eval-
uations are used to add weights to each argument.
An argument is activated when a word from the
document exists in the argument’s processed text us-
ing a full-text search. The argument’s text is pro-
cessed by removing stop words, by removing in-
flected forms through lemmatization, and by extract-
ing named entities using the CoreNLP system (Man-
ning et al., 2014). Instead of returning a single predic-
tion for the target country, the system returns a list of
countries ranked in descending order of confidence.
The system measures the Accuracy of a prediction
using a number of metrics A
, where i {1, 2,3, ..., L}
and L is the number of countries in the dataset. The
Accuracy A
of the system is defined as A
, where
denotes the number of correct assignments of the
target country when the target country’s position is
i in the ordered list of countries and D denotes the
number of available documents in the dataset.
A detailed presentation of the GeoMantis system
is available in our previous work (Rodosthenous and
Michael, 2018) and interested readers are directed to
that paper for more information on the original Geo-
Mantis system architecture, query answering strate-
gies, knowledge retrieval, and processing.
A Crowdsourcing Methodology for Improved Geographic Focus Identification of News-stories
3.1 Weighted Query Answering
The original GeoMantis system is able to perform ge-
ographic focus identification using three query strate-
gies based on: 1) the number of activated arguments
(NUMR), 2) the percentage of activated arguments
over the total number of arguments for that coun-
try (PERCR), and 3) the TF-IDF algorithm (Manning
et al., 2008).
This work extends the above three query strategies
to include evaluations received from crowd-workers.
The ordering of the list of countries and the generation
of the predicted geographic focus is performed using
one of the following strategies:
Weighted Percentage of Arguments Applied
): The list of countries is ordered accord-
ing to the fraction of each country’s total weight of
activated arguments over the total weight of argu-
ments for that country that exist in the geographic
knowledge bases, in descending order.
Weighted Number of Arguments Applied
): The list of countries is ordered ac-
cording to each country’s total weight of activated
arguments, in descending order.
Weighted Term Frequency Inverse Document
Frequency (T F-IDF
): The list of countries is or-
dered according to the TF-IDF metric, as follows: 1)
is a document created by taking the arguments of
a country c, 2) T F
= (Sum of weights of arguments in
where term t appears) / (Sum of weights of argu-
ments included in D
), 3) IDF
= log
(Sum of weights
of D
/ Sum of weights of D
with term t in it).
3.2 Argument Evaluation System
To evaluate arguments, we designed a mechanism that
engages with crowd-workers, presents arguments for
evaluation, checks the crowd-workers’ confidence in
evaluating an argument, and handles payments. The
extents the GeoMantis system using the same
technology stack (PHP, mariaDB, javascript).
Workers are presented with detailed instructions
on how to evaluate each argument and are requested to
provide their microWorkers’ ID, their country of ori-
gin, and the country for which they feel confident in
evaluating arguments. Next, crowd-workers are pre-
sented with arguments to evaluate. When they suc-
cessfully validate all presented arguments, a unique
code is presented that each worker can copy into the
microWorkers website and receive the payment.
The microWorkers platform
was chosen because
it includes a large community of crowd-workers, and
it offers a mechanism to integrate third-party web-
sites. Each crowd-worker evaluates how useful each
argument is on supporting the geographic focus of a
specific country. Crowd-workers can choose between
three options: “not useful”, “I don’t know”, and “Use-
ful”, which are mapped into a -1, 0, and 1 integer val-
ues. Although the arguments presented to the crowd-
workers are those activated on a given story, the story
itself is not presented to the micro-workers so that the
evaluation happens on each argument’s own merit.
Each crowd-worker is expected to have a basic un-
derstanding of the English language since the argu-
ments to be evaluated are presented in English. To
improve the quality of the crowdsourced information,
and when possible, the system presents arguments
that infer the country of the crowd-worker’s origin or
the crowd-worker’s chosen country of confidence.
In this section we present the empirical evaluation we
conducted for testing if the addition of the crowd-
sourcing evaluation methodology produces better re-
sults than the original GeoMantis architecture. The
hypothesis that we test is whether knowledge evalu-
ated by the crowd can yield better results in terms of
accuracy compared to the results obtained from the
original GeoMantis architecture.
We adopt the following high-level methodology:
1) we create a dataset of stories, 2) we identify acti-
vated arguments by using GeoMantis, 3) we evaluate
those arguments using crowd-workers, and 4) we ap-
ply a weighted strategy (cf. Section 3.1) using those
arguments on the selected dataset.
4.1 Experimental Material
First, we need to select a dataset to perform the ex-
periments. To prepare this dataset, first we take all
stories used to test the original GeoMantis architec-
ture (EVAL npr dataset). This dataset includes stories
in their original form chosen at random from the New
York Times Annotated Corpus (Sandhaus, 2008) and
the Reuters Corpus Volume 1 (Lewis et al., 2004),
where the country of focus is not explicitly present in
the story text and it is included in the United Nations
list of countries. We then choose stories that have the
ICAART 2021 - 13th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence
country of focus among the first seven in the order list
of identified countries, when an original GeoMantis
strategy (PERCR, NUMR, TF-IDF) is applied. Fol-
lowing, we identify all arguments that are activated.
Moreover, four subsets of the dataset are created
as follows: 1) Dataset Crowd
npr 1 includes N sto-
ries from the EVAL npr dataset, where the country of
focus is correctly identified in the top position (A
and |A
| > λ, 2) Dataset Crowd npr 2 includes N
stories from the EVAL npr dataset, where the country
of focus is correctly identified in the top position (A
and |A
| < λ, 3) Dataset Crowd npr 3 includes N
stories from the EVAL npr dataset, where the country
of focus is not correctly identified in the top position
) and |A
| > λ, 4) Dataset Crowd npr 4 in-
cludes N stories from the EVAL npr dataset, where the
country of focus is not correctly identified in the top
position (A
) and |A
| < λ, where λ is a thresh-
and A
represent the accuracy at position one
and two. The above subsets are used for testing if the
argument weighting strategy can change the accuracy
in both clear and borderline cases of identifying cor-
rectly the geographic focus of a story. For example
the Crowd npr 1 subset is characterized by the num-
ber of confusing stories it includes, since the threshold
for the top identified countries is small.
4.2 Preliminary Experiment 1
Before proceeding with the experiment we decided
to run a short first experiment to verify our work-
flow and validate the argument evaluation system. As
a first test, we process the EVAL npr dataset using
the PERCR strategy and proceeded to generate the
four Crowd X subsets. For identifying an appropri-
ate threshold λ which will allow a representation of
stories from all four subsets we executed a simulation
where λ (0.17.0) (heuristically identified) and we
selected the λ that allows a maximum inclusion of sto-
ries from all 4 datasets. A value of λ = 1.3 is selected
and hence we have 210 stories for Crowd npr 1, 211
stories for Crowd npr 2, 74 stories for Crowd npr 3
and 83 stories for Crowd npr 4.
Further analysis reveals that 1,203,518 arguments
were activated for 138 countries in the EVAL npr
dataset when processed using the PERCR strategy.
For all four Crowd npr subsets, 1,021,290 arguments
were activated from 138 countries.
Since we need only the A
and A
metrics, we lim-
ited the number of activate arguments to a subset of
arguments that identify only the countries for A
. Even then, the amount of arguments was too large
to use paid-crowd-workers and we limited the number
of stories to 30, chosen randomly.
We executed a short test experiment to check if
the proposed workflow is valid and can be applied in
evaluating arguments on all stories. A story from the
npr 2 subset was selected with all arguments
applied to it (total of 357 arguments). An amount of
$0.50 USD was paid to each worker who successfully
completed the task.
We launched the evaluation system, where we pre-
sented 357 arguments to each worker for evaluation.
30% of the arguments were selected from the coun-
try that the worker was confident in contributing in,
40% were selected from the worker’s country of ori-
gin, 20% were selected from arguments that have at
least one evaluation, and 10% were selected in a ran-
dom order. In case any of the former three categories
had no arguments, we then retrieved arguments using
random selection. From the total number of presented
arguments, 10% is repeated as test (gold) questions
used to evaluate the worker’s evaluations. This per-
centage could vary from 10% to 30% (Bragg et al.,
2016). More specifically, each worker is required to
provide same answers for 10% of the test questions.
The contributions of workers who achieved a percent-
age of less than the defined threshold were not ac-
cepted as valid. The threshold could vary from 50%
to 70%.
In terms of validity of the worker results, we
examined the contributions of the two workers that
successfully completed the task. The first worker
achieved a score of 16 out of 36 (44.44%) and the sec-
ond worker achieved a score of 33 out of 36 (91.67%)
for the validation questions. We also examined the
order of validating the presented arguments. Both
workers followed the instructions provided. On aver-
age, workers completed the test after 55 minutes and
needed 10 seconds per evaluation. The fact that only 2
out of 10 workers completed the task and the amount
of time needed to complete the task showed us that we
needed to reduce the amount of arguments presented
to workers.
At this point there was no need to test the perfor-
mance of our methodology on the dataset as the pur-
pose of this short test was just to verify that the work-
flow is valid and identify possible problems with the
argument evaluation system.
4.3 Preliminary Experiment 2
After testing the argument evaluation mechanism, we
expanded the preliminary experiment with 10 stories,
taking 3 from subset Crowd npr 1, 3 from subset
Crowd npr 2, 2 from subset Crowd npr 3, and 2 from
subset Crowd npr 4. A total of 5,980 unique argu-
A Crowdsourcing Methodology for Improved Geographic Focus Identification of News-stories
ments were activated for identifying A
and A
We set the following requirements for acceptance
of a worker’s contribution: 1) A total of 100 argu-
ments should be evaluated, and 2) At least a score of
50% at the validation test should be achieved.
In Table 1 we present information on the exper-
iment and the crowd-workers’ contributions.The ma-
jority of crowd-workers are in the age group of 26-35,
followed by workers in age group 18-25.
The contributed evaluations were used to add
weights to all evaluated arguments. More specifically,
for each argument we counted the number of posi-
tive, negative and neutral feedback. When the sum
of negative and neutral feedback was smaller than the
sum of positive feedback then we added an integer
weight of 600. When they were equal then we added
a weight of 0 and when larger we added a weight of
0. We used PERCR
and NUMR
strategies and the
results showed an increase of 20% for both strategies
on the accuracy when compared to the original strate-
gies. The TF-IDF strategy was not tested at that time,
since it required all arguments to be evaluated, even
the ones that were not activated.
4.3.1 Weighting Strategy
The argument weighting strategy used in the prelimi-
nary experiment 2 is just one possible strategy of the
many that could be used. In this section we present
other possible weighting strategies that could be em-
ployed, relying on the results of the preliminary ex-
periment. Weights (W ) are assigned to each of the
arguments in the following manner: 1) We assign an
apriori weight (W ) of 1 to each argument, 2) We count
all positive feedback, i.e., “Very Confident (1)” (F
3) We count all negative feedback, i.e., “Not Very
Confident (-1)” (F
), 4) We count all neutral feed-
back, i.e., “Somewhat Confident (0)” (F
Nine different strategies were identified based on
the observations we made from the preliminary exper-
iments and we present them in the list below:
1) Strategy S
X 1
: if F
> F
+ F
, if F
< F
+ F
then W=W
, if F
+ F
then W=W
2) Strategy S
X 2
: if F
> F
then W=W
, if
< F
then W=W
, if F
= F
then W=W
3) Strategy S
X 3
: if F
+ F
> F
, if F
+ F
< F
then W=W
, if F
= F
then W=W
. Where X {1, 2, 3}.
For strategies S
1 1
, S
1 2
, and S
1 3
we assign
both positive (W
= 600) and negative weights (W
600) in a symmetrical way and for neutral eval-
uations the weight of the argument remains intact
= 1).
For strategies S
2 1
, S
2 2
, and S
2 3
we assign pos-
itive integer weights (W
= 600) to positive evalua-
tions, for negative evaluations the weight of the argu-
ment remains intact (W
= 1) and for neutral evalua-
tions we assign a positive integer weight, less than the
one assigned to positive evaluations (W
= 100).
For strategies S
3 1
, S
3 2
, and S
3 3
we assign pos-
itive integer weights (W
= 600) to positive evalua-
tions, negative evaluations are assinged a zero weight
= 0) and for neutral evaluations the weight of the
argument remains intact (W
= 1).
The value of 600 and 100 were identified heuristi-
cally by applying different values of weights in the
various strategies and were tested using the query
answering strategies during the preliminary experi-
An additional set of weighting strategies (SC
are generated from the selection of arguments that
were evaluated by workers who stated in their pro-
file that they originate or are confident in contributing
for the same country as the one the argument sup-
ports. These weighting strategies follow the same
rules as the ones presented earlier and differ only on
the source of the arguments.
4.4 Experimental Setup
The next step is to launch an experiment to test our hy-
pothesis. We took under consideration the three orig-
inal GeoMantis strategies and created a broad cover-
age dataset using the four Crowd npr subsets (cf. Sec-
tion 4.1). More specifically, we selected stories from
each of the four subsets of Crowd npr using each time
one of the 3 strategies, i.e., NUMR, PERCR and TF-
IDF to calculate the accuracy. These resulted to the
generation of 12 subsets. For each of these 12 subsets,
we retrieved stories based on a λ per strategy which
maximizes the number of included stories.
Next, we needed to choose a number of news-
stories from the Eval npr dataset that are unique
per subset. For that purpose we designed an au-
tomated process that randomly chooses news-stories
per strategy that follow the four subsets constraints.
The selection process was repeated until all 12 cho-
sen subsets were unique in terms of stories and where
that was not possible, we would choose the maximum
possible subset. 71 unique stories were chosen and
formed the Crowd npr diverse dataset.
To calculate the arguments activated, we applied
the 3 strategies on the Crowd npr diverse dataset.
The amount of arguments activated for these 71 sto-
ICAART 2021 - 13th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence
ries to calculate A
and A
is 434,562 (178,469
unique). 63% of these arguments was selected and
loaded to the crowdsourcing module for evaluation.
The acceptance threshold was raised to 70% for the
validation test meaning that all contributions below
that threshold were not accepted.
4.4.1 Microworkers Platform Setup
In this section we provide insights on the microWork-
ers platform campaign setup. To start a crowdsourc-
ing task at the microWorkers platform a user first
needs to create a campaign. Then we need to choose
a group of workers and assign tasks to that particu-
lar Group. For our case, we chose the All Inter-
national workers” group which included 1,346,882
Next we needed to set the TTF (Time-To-Finish),
which is the amount of time expected for a worker to
complete the task. Based on the results we received
from the preliminary experiment 1, it was set at 6
minutes. During the experiment setup we also needed
to state the TTR (Time-To-Rate), i.e., the number of
days allowed to rate tasks. Choosing a low value is a
good incentive for a crowd-worker to perform the task
as their payment will be processed earlier than tasks
with higher TTR. We set that to 2 days, while the pro-
posed maximum is 7. Next, we set the Available po-
sitions for the task to 7,180, as this is an estimate of
the number of crowd-workers needed to complete this
task. Additionally, we added the amount each worker
will earn when they successfully complete the task.
We chose to pay $0.20 for each completed task.
The last part of the information needed before
launching the campaign is the category of the crowd-
sourcing task. For our experiment the chosen cate-
gory is “Survey/Research Study/Experiment” which
allows crowd-workers to visit an external site and
complete the task. A template also needs to be cre-
ated with instructions and a placeholder for crowd-
workers to enter a verification code when they suc-
cessfully complete the task.
4.4.2 Crowd-workers Analysis
The experiment was conducted for a total of 24 days,
through the microWorkers platform. A total of 8,341
crowd-workers contributed, of which 6,112 (73.28%)
provided accepted contributions, i.e., contributions
that passed the threshold of 70% at the validation test.
For one of the crowd-workers, the contribution time
exceeded 23 hours and we removed both the worker
and the contributions from the accepted data list, leav-
ing a total of 6,111 crowd-workers with accepted con-
The majority of contributors are from Asia. In to-
tal, crowd-workers come from 133 countries. Addi-
tionally, crowd-workers were confident in contribut-
ing for 154 countries. Similar to the country of ori-
gin the majority of crowd-workers are confident in
contributing in Asian countries and the US. From
6,111 crowd-workers, 4,396 (71.94%) are confident
in contributing for their country of origin and 1,715
(28.06%) were confident in contributing to a country
other than their country of origin.
Crowd-workers completed a session, i.e., 100 ar-
gument evaluations, on average in 6 minutes with
σ = 8 minutes, and for each argument evaluation they
spent on average 4 seconds with σ = 25 seconds. Ta-
ble 1 summarizes the crowd-workers contributions. In
terms of age range, 76% of crowd-workers are be-
tween 18 and 35 years old.
4.5 Experimental Results
After recording the evaluations of the arguments
we added weights to each argument using one of
the proposed weighting strategies presented in Sec-
tion 4.3.1. We then used the GeoMantis QAE
to predict the geographic focus for the stories in
the Crowd npr diverse dataset using the weighted
query answering strategies (cf. Section 3.1).
It is important to note that the S
Table 1: Information and crowd-worker statistics for the
2nd preliminary experiment (2nd column) and for evalu-
ating GeoMantis on the Crowd npr diverse dataset (3rd
Number of Stories 10 71
Total number of Arguments
to evaluate
5,980 178,469
Number of arguments
Minimum number of
evaluators per argument
3 3
Test acceptance percentage >50% >70%
Time needed for evaluation 3.8 days 24 days
Number of Crowd-workers
(completed contributions)
280 6,796
Number of Crowd-workers
(accepted contributions)
217 6,111
Avg time per contribution
(completed contributions)
36 min. 6 min.
Avg time per contribution
(accepted contributions)
7 min. 6 min.
Avg time per evaluation
(completed contributions)
21 sec. 4 sec.
Avg time per evaluation
(accepted contributions)
5 sec. 4 sec.
Amount paid per worker $0.10 $0.20
A Crowdsourcing Methodology for Improved Geographic Focus Identification of News-stories
Table 2: Accuracy at A
and A
when tested on each of the 3 strategies (NUMR
) for the
Crowd npr diverse dataset. The left column depicts the system and weighting strategies presented in Section 4.3.1. On
the top rows of the table we present the original strategies (GeoMantis v1) and the results when these are applied on the
EVAL npr dataset and the Crowd npr diverse dataset, comprising 1000 and 71 stories respectively, for comparison with
their weighted versions (GeoMantis v2). In the last 2 rows we present results from two widely used systems when applied on
the Crowd npr diverse dataset.
System Dataset NUMR PERCR TF-IDF
GeoMantis (v1) EVAL npr 30.50% 47.30% 43.40% 58.60% 55.40% 68.20%
GeoMantis (v1) Crowd npr diverse 33.80% 56.34% 50.70% 83.10% 84.51% 92.96%
GeoMantis (v2, S
1 1
) Crowd npr diverse 43.66% 64.79% 61.97% 84.51% 94.37% 95.77%
GeoMantis (v2, S
1 2
) Crowd npr diverse 45.07% 64.79% 59.15% 88.73% 94.37% 97.18%
GeoMantis (v2, S
1 3
) Crowd npr diverse 43.66% 63.38% 53.52% 84.51% 94.37% 97.18%
GeoMantis (v2, S
2 1
) Crowd npr diverse 42.25% 64.79% 67.61% 90.14% 95.77% 98.59%
GeoMantis (v2, S
2 2
) Crowd npr diverse 42.25% 63.38% 61.97% 87.32% 95.77% 98.59%
GeoMantis (v2, S
2 3
) Crowd npr diverse 42.25% 64.79% 60.56% 87.32% 95.77% 98.59%
GeoMantis (v2, S
3 1
) Crowd npr diverse 42.25% 64.79% 67.61% 90.14% 95.77% 98.59%
GeoMantis (v2, S
3 2
) Crowd npr diverse 42.25% 64.79% 63.38% 88.73% 95.77% 98.59%
GeoMantis (v2, S
3 3
) Crowd npr diverse 42.25% 64.79% 60.56% 87.32% 95.77% 98.59%
CLIFF-CLAVIN Crowd npr diverse 61.97% - 74.65%
Mordecai Crowd npr diverse 56.33% 70.42% 76.06%
strategies yields better or the same results to the SC
strategies. The SC
strategies use evaluations only
from crowd-workers who stated that the originate or
are confident in contributing to arguments supporting
their stated country.
Furthermore, we applied two widely used
systems CLIFF-CLAVIN and Mordecai to iden-
tify the geographic focus of news-stories in the
Crowd npr diverse dataset.
The results of the experiment show an improve-
ment on all query answering strategies for the S
weighting strategies, when compared to the origi-
nal strategies. In Table 2 we present the results of
the experiments per weighting strategy and per query
answering strategy. The highlighted rows show the
best performing weighting strategies, i.e, S
2 1
3 1
. In terms of the query answering strategies, the
best performing strategy is the TF-IDF
, followed by
and then NUMR
When we also compare the results from the up-
dated GeoMantis architecture using the S
2 1
and S
3 1
strategies and the TF-IDF
query an-
swering strategies, to that of CLIFF-CLAVIN and
Mordecai we observe that our system outperforms
both of them. The CLIFF-CLAVIN system, returned
an unidentified geographic focus for 16.90% of the
news-stories. Moreover, due to the fact that CLIFF-
CLAVIN does not order the results and for compar-
ison reasons we calculated A
when only one coun-
try was returned and it was the correct one and A
(where 7 is the maximum number of countries re-
turned for that dataset) when more than one country
was returned and the correct one was among them.
We have presented a crowdsourcing methodology for
evaluating the strengths of arguments used by the
GeoMantis geographic focus identification system,
and have shown that this processing of arguments
leads to an improved performance.
In a more general context, our work shows that
even crowdsourced knowledge, like the one used by
the original GeoMantis system, can benefit by a fur-
ther crowdsourced processing step that seeks to eval-
uate the validity of the original knowledge.
Our approach is inspired by the work on computa-
tional argumentation, where each piece of knowledge
is treated as an argument in support of a given infer-
ence (Dung, 1995). Adding weights on these argu-
ments is one of several extensions that have been con-
sidered in the computational argumentation literature
(Dunne et al., 2011). Future versions of the system
could benefit further by borrowing ideas from compu-
tational argumentation techniques on how conflicting
ICAART 2021 - 13th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence
arguments can be reasoned with, giving rise to addi-
tional strategies.
Finally, indirect crowdsourcing approaches, such
as the use of Games With A Purpose (Rodosthenous
and Michael, 2016), could be used to evaluate exist-
ing, or even acquire novel, arguments instead of ap-
pealing to paid crowdsourcing (Habernal et al., 2017).
This work was supported by funding from the EU’s
Horizon2020 Research and Innovation Programme
under grant agreements no. 739578 and no. 823783,
and from the Government of the Republic of Cyprus
through the Directorate General for European Pro-
grammes, Coordination, and Development.
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A Crowdsourcing Methodology for Improved Geographic Focus Identification of News-stories