# Non-linear Monte Carlo Ray Tracing for Visualizing Warped Spacetime

### Avirup Mandal, Kumar Ayush, Parag Chaudhuri

#### Abstract

General relativity describes the curvature of spacetime. Rays of light follow geodesic paths in curved space-time. Visualizing scenes containing spacetime regions with pronounced curvature requires tracing of these light ray paths. We present a Monte Carlo approach for non-linear raytracing to render scenes in curved space-time. In contrast to earlier work, we can accurately resolve ray-object interactions. This allows us to create plausible visualizations of what happens when a black hole appears in a more known environment, like a room with regular specular and diffuse surfaces. We demonstrate that our solution is correct at cosmological scales by showing how spacetime warps around a stationary Schwarzschild black hole and a non-stationary Kerr black hole. We verify that the solution is consistent with the predictions of general relativity. In the absence of any curvature in spacetime, our renderer behaves like a normal linear ray tracer. Our method has the potential to create rich, physically plausible visualizations of complex phenomena that can be used for a range of purposes, from creating visual effects to making pedagogical aids to understand the behaviour of spacetime as predicted by general relativity.

Download#### Paper Citation

#### in Harvard Style

Mandal A., Ayush K. and Chaudhuri P. (2021). **Non-linear Monte Carlo Ray Tracing for Visualizing Warped Spacetime**.In *Proceedings of the 16th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 1: IVAPP,* ISBN 978-989-758-488-6, pages 76-87. DOI: 10.5220/0010217600760087

#### in Bibtex Style

@conference{ivapp21,

author={Avirup Mandal and Kumar Ayush and Parag Chaudhuri},

title={Non-linear Monte Carlo Ray Tracing for Visualizing Warped Spacetime},

booktitle={Proceedings of the 16th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 1: IVAPP,},

year={2021},

pages={76-87},

publisher={SciTePress},

organization={INSTICC},

doi={10.5220/0010217600760087},

isbn={978-989-758-488-6},

}

#### in EndNote Style

TY - CONF

JO - Proceedings of the 16th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 1: IVAPP,

TI - Non-linear Monte Carlo Ray Tracing for Visualizing Warped Spacetime

SN - 978-989-758-488-6

AU - Mandal A.

AU - Ayush K.

AU - Chaudhuri P.

PY - 2021

SP - 76

EP - 87

DO - 10.5220/0010217600760087