Impact of Auditory Listening on Emotional States in Self-paced Outdoor Running

Klemens Weigl, Klemens Weigl, Sinja Becker, Karolin Bosch, Nhien Thai, Andreas Riener


Studies have shown that listening to music may evoke positive emotions when running. In recent years, the growing trend of listening to audiobooks is also inevitably influencing running. However, to date, there has been little research on the use of audiobooks in self-paced outdoor running. Therefore, our objective is to investigate whether self-paced outdoor running with auditory stimuli such as music and audiobooks may elicit different emotional states when compared to running with no-audio. Consequently, we adopted a repeated-measures design with three different counter-balanced conditions: music, audiobook, and no-audio. Thereby, thirty-two recreationally active female and male runners participated in a 10-minute running trial in each condition. We assessed the impact of auditory stimuli and emotional states with the Sports Emotion Questionnaire and the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2. Our results of the self-report questionnaires indicate that running with music is rated with substantially greater values when compared to the audiobook condition. Interestingly, our findings uncover no meaningful difference among the self-rated emotional state dimensions anxiety, dejection, excitement, anger, and happiness across all three conditions, respectively. Hence, we conclude that running with no-audio may evoke roughly the same emotional states as when compared to running with music or audiobooks.


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