Future Parking Applications: Wireless Sensor Network Positioning for Highly Automated in-House Parking

Andrea Jung, Paul Schwarzbach, Oliver Michler

Abstract

One of the bottlenecks for motorized individual transportation for end-to-end trips is the search for parking space. Common solutions to minimize spatial needs are in-house parking garages, but even in those, finding available parking lots can be quite time consuming. In this contribution we therefore present a cheap and retrofittable parking system, enabling automated entrance to parking lot reservation, navigation and clearing for already existing parking garages. One of its key component is a robust indoor positioning based on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) enabling vehicle independent and automated routing. We will provide a general overview of WSN measurement principles and propose two possible technology candidates, a 2.4 GHz narrow-band technology and Ultra-Wide Band (UWB). Furthermore, a robust range-only positioning approach utilizing Markov Localization, called Probability Grid Positioning (PGP), is presented. With the help of UWB and IEEE 802.15.4 ranging modules the algorithm is qualitatively evaluated with measurements in a car park in Leipzig, Germany. Our proposed PGP approach leads to overall smoother trajectories compared to a state-of-the-art Least Squares Estimation (LSE) and thus achieves accurate and robust positioning in demanding heavy-multipath environments. This can build the foundation for future work in the field of highly-automated in-house parking.

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