Changing the Maintenance and Repair System While Expanding the
Connected Vehicles Fleet
Irina Makarova
, Vladimir Shepelev
2,3 b
, Eduard Mukhametdinov
and Anton Pashkevich
Kazan Federal University, Syuyumbike prosp., 10a, 423822, Naberezhnye Chelny, Russian Federation
Silkway International University, Tokaev Street 27 “А”(housing А) Turkestan Street Corner,
160019, Shymkent City, Kazakhstan
South Ural State University, ave. V.I. Lenin 76, 454080, Chelyabinsk, Russian Federation
Politechnika Krakowska, Warszawska st., 24, Krakow, Poland
Keywords: Connected Vehicles, On-board Diagnostic Systems, Branded Service Systems.
Abstract: Autonomous vehicles have become a logical outcome of the realization to Intelligent Transport Systems di-
rection as a system strategy. The article analyses the directions of road vehicles intellectualization. The prob-
lems and ways to improve the safety, reliability and sustainability of transport systems are indicated. It is
shown that to control the connected vehicles reliability it is necessary to improve the branded systems of
maintenance and repair. This is realized through the improvement of on-board diagnostic systems. The use of
sensors that read data on the vehicle's state, its routes and external factors affecting reliability ensure the
adequacy and quality of the source information. Using a single information space for generating operational
databases as well as a defect codifier for generating failure statistics and their multidimensional analysis will
allow us to determine the service strategy and also carry out its adjustment if necessary when changing the
failure statistics.
The modern cities problem, which is aggravated as
they grow, is the transport system, that in many cases,
due to its inefficiency, creates a lot of problems, rang-
ing from environmental ones, to difficulties in mobil-
ity. Lack of parking space, traffic jams and conges-
tion, problems of economic and infrastructural devel-
opment of remote areas - these are the consequences
of transport system's irrational development that need
to be addressed. The road transport development
strengthens these problems. According to analysts,
Autonomous Vehicles (AV) can solve many of these
problems. At the same time, the main trends in im-
proving the transport system efficiency are aimed,
firstly, at changing the transportation process, and
secondly, at reducing the urban space occupied by ve-
hicles (including the road network and parking lots).
This is facilitated by a shift from the model of per-
sonal vehicle ownership to a more efficient model of
its sharing, which will reduce both the need for park-
ing spaces and traffic, especially during rush hours,
since such a model involves using a joint car for reg-
ular trips, for example, to work or study. It will also
create opportunities for more equable development of
urban space, because it will expand the available op-
tions for transit to areas that are currently inaccessi-
Automakers are investing in the creation of
intelligent and energy-efficient vehicles, because in
the face of fierce competition, they are interested in
implementing reasonable and effective mobility
options. At the same time, both ownership options
and the possibilities of structural changes are
analyzed, however, as practice shows, consumers are
not yet ready to completely trust highly automated
vehicles. Numerous studies are devoted to the
Makarova, I., Shepelev, V., Mukhametdinov, E. and Pashkevich, A.
Changing the Maintenance and Repair System While Expanding the Connected Vehicles Fleet.
DOI: 10.5220/0009837706220633
In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems (VEHITS 2020), pages 622-633
ISBN: 978-989-758-419-0
2020 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
operating autonomous vehicles' problems: the
advantages, prospects and features of the
transportation process organization. However, almost
practically neither of the authors has been the focus
to the reliability issues of both the vehicle itself and
electronic control systems, although it is known that
even small changes in the design entail a number of
problems associated with ensuring their trouble-free
operation. The branded service system (BSS) is a
complex organizational and technical system that is
tuned to certain technological processes and,
apparently, a change in the paradigm of transport
process organizing and a person role decrease in it
through the expansion of the unmanned vehicles fleet
will require a change in the BSS paradigm. At the
same time, a whole series of issues should be resolved
both in the technical and organizational plan, as well
as in the socio-economic one.
Given that while autonomous vehicles have not
conquered the market and potential customers think
only about issues of trust in them from the point of
view of the transportation process safety, soon
enough questions of maintaining operability and
warranty will come to the fore. Of particular
importance to the customer when buying a vehicle is
the issue of providing a guarantee. The new product
success depends on both engineering solutions
(product reliability) and marketing policy (price,
guarantees). Warranty service costs depend on the
product reliability, in turn, the manufacturer can
expand the warranty if he is confident in the his
products reliability. Thus, the issues of reliability,
prices and guarantees should be considered together
(Byuvol, P.A. et al. 2017 ). With the expansion of the
autonomous vehicles fleet, the question of joint
ownership of them will inevitably arise. In this case,
the issue of the vehicle technical condition control
will become more complicated, which will also have
to be addressed through the BSS.
Considering questions about the warranty period
cost and duration, the authors of scientific and
practical studies note that all models should use
information about failures in the warranty period, as
well as the fact that the information quality affects to
adequacy of decisions depends (Lee SangHyun et al.
2008, Lee SangHyun et al. 2009, Last al. 2010,
Xie W., Liao H. & Zhu X. 2014). Since the failures
causes can be due by various factors that are
heterogeneous and stochastic, it is necessary to have
a tool for processing large data amounts, that can be,
inter alia, textual (Buddhakulsomsiri J. et al. 2006).
For forecasting, various data mining methods are
used, including neural network algorithms
(Shubenkova, K. et al. 2018).
The article analyzes the reasons for the ambiguous
attitude of consumers to autonomous vehicles, the
advantages and prospects of this transport systems
development direction, especially in the context of
the resource conservation paradigm, the 4th Industrial
Revolution and Smart City. Thus, the article will
consider the concept of an updated BSS, methods and
the possibility of their application within the proposed
concept framework.
Autonomous vehicles are becoming a promising tech-
nology for improving urban mobility while saving
space and energy in urban areas. But it should be
borne in mind that the positive external effects that
are necessary for their non-deployment are not suffi-
cient. Highly automated vehicles are more economi-
cal, require less room for manoeuvres and parking,
however, all these advantages can only appear if their
share in the fleet is significant (Fig.1).
Figure 1: Modification the road user’s interaction with the
connected vehicles’ development.
2.1 Connected Vehicles Contribution to
Urban Sustainability
The document (Berrada, J. et al. 2017) goal is to de-
scribe and classify existing core business models, and
then apply them in the autonomous vehicles field. The
authors created a rating system using six identified
factors that influence value creation, and then evalu-
ated nine business models based on these factors. As
a result, the authors found that hybridization of two
or more business models is possible. For example, the
widespread deployment of private autonomous vehi-
cles may limit the benefits of using shared autono-
mous vehicles in the same area. The hybridization
method would allow taking advantage of each form
Changing the Maintenance and Repair System While Expanding the Connected Vehicles Fleet
of the business model and lead to an increase in the
service quality.
According to Gartner, Inc. (Gartner Fore-
casts…2019), by 2023, the increase in the vehicles
production which have equipment that could provide
autonomous driving without human supervision will
reach 745,705 units compared to 332,932 units in
2019. This growth will mainly be observed in the
countries of North America, Greater China and West-
ern Europe, as the countries of these regions will be
the first to introduce rules regarding autonomous
driving technologies. The main obstacle to the auton-
omous vehicles development and production is the
fact that today there are no countries with existing
regulations that allow their legal operation. Accord-
ing to analysts, companies will not deploy autono-
mous vehicles until it becomes clear that they can op-
erate legally without human control, as vehicle man-
ufacturers are responsible for the vehicle actions of
the during its life cycle. According to Sean Behr, co-
founder and CEO of the company Stratim, which con-
trols more than 10,000 cars and vans from 50 custom-
ers, including BMW, Ford and General Motors, by
the decade end will begin to shift in the public mind,
as the motorization level will decrease due to an in-
crease in the volume of joint transportation services,
which will be, at least partially, autonomous.
For corporate fleets, however, the need for pre-
ventative maintenance and emergency vehicles re-
pairs will remain unchanged. Peter Smith, that is vice
president of vehicle services, Business & Industry, to
indicates that ABM currently provides a variety of
rental car maintenance services, including fluid in-
spection, tire inspection, interior and exterior clean-
ing, and shuttle services vehicles - to ensure a turno-
ver between rentals - for car rental companies. How-
ever, he raises the question that, given the existing in-
frastructure based on oil changes and spark plugs,
fleet owners will need to restructure their business to
keep their unmanned electric vehicles in good condi-
tion and make a profit. According to him, night truck
parking should be equipped with charging stations,
and maintenance compartments can become high-
tech canopies equipped with advanced telemetry sys-
tems and serviced by technical specialists. The on-
board systems on each truck will report ongoing
maintenance and more complex problems. Upon arri-
val of the truck at the service point, the technician will
be able to find and fix the problem. The reality is that
while automation will increasingly contribute to in-
creasing the productivity and usefulness of autono-
mous vehicles, these processes will still require mile-
stones, and people will always play a strategic role in
organizing maintenance and operation.
The rapid progress in autonomous driving tech-
nology raises the question of suitable operating mod-
els for future autonomous vehicles. The key factor de-
termining the viability of such operating models is the
competitiveness of their cost structure, for example,
due to the development of public transport and car
sharing systems, but, as shown in the article (Bösch
P.M. et al., 2018), this is effective only in case of in-
creased demand for certain types of transportation.
To prove the new vehicles types competitiveness,
the study (Loeb B. & Kockelman K.M. 2019) authors
simulated a fleet of shared autonomous electric vehi-
cles serving the requests of 41,242 agents in the Aus-
tin, Texas network to determine which fleet scenarios
are most beneficial for the operator and users. The
study provides detailed cost estimates of the shared
autonomous electric vehicles (SAEV) fleet, including
the costs of purchasing vehicles, maintenance, batter-
ies, electricity, building charging stations (including
land and paving), servicing charging stations, insur-
ance, registration, and general administrative ex-
penses. In addition, strategies to reduce load factors
are critical to the viability of this fleet, and they must
be modelled to determine their impact on vehicle
costs and effectiveness.
As McKinsey’s analysts point out, the automotive
industry is rapidly turning into a real mobile ecosys-
tem. Connected vehicles can become powerful infor-
mation platforms that not only improve driver capa-
bilities, but also open up new opportunities for busi-
ness to value creation (The future of… 2019). At the
same time, the basic logic of autonomous driving, es-
pecially in cities, will remain unchanged. Shared elec-
tric robo-taxis or shuttles can eliminate mobility pain
points in cities (for example, traffic jams, crowded
parking spaces and pollution), while improving urban
mobility, increasing its accessibility, efficiency, con-
venience for users, environmental friendliness and in-
clusiveness. With untrammelled integration into the
public transport system, this type of transport will be-
come an important factor contributing to the reduc-
tion in the current share of transportation by private
cars (Change vehicles…, 2019)
2.2 Connected Vehicles and the Service
System Role in Expanding Their
2.2.1 Forecasts of Maintenance and Repair
According to the vehicle service activities' analysis,
one of the factors for increasing maintenance costs in
iMLTrans 2020 - Special Session on Intelligent Mobility, Logistics and Transport
2018 was the increase in prices for spare parts, in par-
ticular for the brake and calliper, due to an increase in
the number of models equipped with larger diameter
tires. Continuous improvement in the vehicles qual-
ity, which occurs every model year, contributes to the
decrease in the need for complex overhauls, which
leads to a maintenance costs reduction. In addition,
component reliability is enhanced, which in turn re-
duces repair costs, helping to offset the continued in-
crease in labour costs and high spare part prices. One
of the negative consequences of improving the vehi-
cles reliability is the temptation to extend their service
life, which is caused, inter alia, by a decrease in the
catastrophic failures frequency of vehicles with high
mileage. The vehicles utilization rate can also be in-
creased due to increased reliability. However, as ve-
hicles become more complex, the failures prediction
also becomes more complicated, and as a result, ve-
hicles repairs are mainly “in fact” (in case of malfunc-
tions). Although the technological innovations intro-
duced in modern vehicles are very reliable, in the
malfunction new component event they are very ex-
pensive to repair. This can lead to certain repair costs,
for example, on-board diagnostics systems and elec-
tronics (in particular, infotainment systems).
A growing number of vehicles are equipped with
Advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS), which
have function such as collision avoidance, visibility,
lane departure warning, adaptive cruise control, pe-
destrian protection and blind spot monitoring. While
the ADAS advantages outweigh any disadvantages,
these are trade-offs that come with high acquisition
costs and new maintenance processes.
There are many ADAS types, some of which are
built into vehicles, while others are available as the
add-on package part. ADAS uses input from several
data sources, including vehicle's images, LIDAR, ra-
dars, image processing, computer vision and vehicles
networks. ADAS systems require specialized equip-
ment and specially trained personnel. Many repairs,
which were previously simple, now require ADAS
system calibration, which consists of cameras, sen-
sors and controllers, which requires specialized and
expensive tools and equipment.
On the other hand, OEMs have improved a num-
ber of vehicles, which helped lower costs on vehicles.
Examples include built-in diagnostic displays that
change the driver behaviour, and diagnostic trouble
codes (DTCs) that expand the dealer’s ability to more
quickly identify maintenance issues. One example of
a newer technology that reduces maintenance and re-
pair (M & R) costs is electronic steering, which is
more reliable than mechanical hydraulic assistance.
Another example of lower maintenance costs due to
higher quality components is that brake pad life is ex-
tended. As autonomous vehicles become available,
maintenance processes, such as replacing tires and
oil, and monitoring the braking system, will become
more predictable as they will be independent of driver
reaction. This will shift costs from using cheaper ser-
vice / repair providers to using OEM dealerships. Au-
tonomous vehicles also increase the forecasting accu-
racy the need for maintenance, which will allow for
preventive maintenance.
The autonomous vehicle industry is seen by many
vehicle manufacturers such as Waymo, Tesla, GM,
Ford, Mercedes-Benz, Volvo and many others as rev-
olutionary, while the leadership pursuit in this direc-
tion and rapid technological progress in the automo-
tive industry will lead to increased need for more per-
fect digital skills. According to current forecasts and
predictions, by 2021 there will be level 4 autonomous
vehicles. Level 5 vehicles are expected to appear by
2030. Politicians who are confident that autonomous
vehicles will appear in the near future are already
adopting new legislation and government regulations.
However, for vehicle services' owners and auto me-
chanics, the idea of what the new autonomous land-
scape means is less well known. (The Self-Driving…,
2.2.2 Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS),
Personnel and Maintenance
Contrary to the prevailing opinion that autonomous
vehicles will reduce the need for the auto mechanics
activity, according to experts, automated technolo-
gies will create new jobs, which will lead to a demand
for continuous training for service technicians. Au-
tonomous vehicles, with the as artificial intelligence
(AI) develops, accompanied by machine learning im-
provement and the advent of many mandatory addi-
tional sensors, will require wider diagnostic capabili-
ties. It is expected that future servicing specialists to
autonomous vehicle will require advanced degrees to
bridge possible skill gaps, which will be imple-
mented, including in a continuing education system.
In order to adapt to new technologies imple-
mented both in autonomous vehicles and in service
equipment, the need for maintenance of software and
electrical components will increase, but at the same
time, traditional automotive systems will also need
constant maintenance, which will require skills and
experience of highly qualified technical specialists. It
should be borne in mind that changing the vehicles
fleet structure will lead to a shift in the service pro-
Changing the Maintenance and Repair System While Expanding the Connected Vehicles Fleet
cesses structure. For example, advanced computeri-
zation will help to reduce the number of collisions and
traffic accidents associated with a driver’s error,
which can lead to a decrease in the need for body re-
pair. At the same time, more emphasis will be placed
on software programming and data management. Big
data and forecasting technology will also play a role
in how maintenance personnel will service and repair
autonomous vehicles.
Automated vehicles are complete platforms,
therefore, for data management and predictive
maintenance, it is necessary to create an ecosystem in
which service management will be implemented. It is
planned that vehicles as a service will play an im-
portant role in the ever-growing economy of car shar-
ing, and in this regard, many vehicle components, in-
cluding infotainment applications such as platforms
for connected applications and services, will be ori-
ented towards this new request to “rent on demand”.
The goal of such integrated consumer systems will be
to ensure the passenger personalization and his
greater convenience. Obviously, a further increase in
the intensity of such services use will require ongoing
Analysts predict that vehicle maintenance costs
will continue to rise, mainly due to higher labour
rates. As the functionality develops and the depend-
ence of the vehicle’s performance on electronics and
software grows, independent service providers have
increased requirements for technician competencies.
A modern auto mechanic should develop with the
rapid development of the industry, and possess
knowledge not only of the simple mechanical and hy-
draulic vehicle's systems, but also be an electrical en-
gineer, which was facilitated by the OBD (on-board
diagnostics) systems appearance. Computerization
has introduced many new disciplines that auto me-
chanics need to learn, such as fuel types and systems,
electrical circuits, and troubleshooting computers.
The OBD II system advent created a new industry
standard, according to which auto mechanics had to
be certified in electrical systems for the M&R of mod-
ern vehicle components.
Now, auto mechanics need extensive training in
repairing autonomous vehicles that will be equipped
with much more powerful and sophisticated on-board
diagnostic tools than OBD II to accurately trouble-
shoot and predict component replacement or repair.
Between dealerships, independent service providers
and fleets that themselves perform maintenance of
their own vehicles fleet, intense competition for qual-
ified specialists is ongoing. In view of the new tech-
nologies introduction, it is necessary to invest heavily
in equipment for diagnosing and eliminating mal-
functions using data from the on-board vehicle's com-
puters. In addition, the increased vehicle's complexity
requires hiring technicians with higher technical
skills, who usually get higher salaries. Demand for
these technicians exceeds labour supply. This prob-
lem is exacerbated by the smaller number of young
technicians who are replacing senior qualified spe-
cialists older age, which requires higher wages to at-
tract new talents.
2.2.3 Faults Diagnostics and Processes
Organization in the Auto Service
Despite technological advances, autonomous vehi-
cles are still vehicles, each component of which, me-
chanical or electric, has a limited life cycle. There-
fore, the greater the mileage of an autonomous vehi-
cle, the more wear and tear. The higher the degree of
difficulty, the higher the risk of technical problems.
Until the autonomous vehicles fleet becomes suffi-
cient to obtain large statistical data sets about all fail-
ures kinds, there is a significant error probability.
This can cause a significant demand for qualified ve-
hicle service specialists, as well as vehicle service
system instability.
Vehicle Health Management (VHM) often in-
cludes real-time monitoring of operating conditions,
as well as decision-making on driving, operating, and
maintenance based on anticipated conditions. The ar-
ticle (Jaw L. and Wang W. 2004) presents a universal,
flexible integration and testing concept for checking /
evaluating control, as well as workability manage-
ment capabilities, which provide the necessary envi-
ronment for evaluating effectiveness, including the
accuracy of decision-making, algorithms and models
for managing workability status in real time and in
closed cycle.
Diagnosing faults in automotive systems is criti-
cal as it affects repair and maintenance times. One
common approach is to use a fault tree diagram. But
taking into account the implicit system's structure, the
authors of (James A.T., Gandhi O.P. & Deshmukh
S.G. 2018) proposed an approach with an explicitly
included built-in structure by means of digraph mod-
elling, which uses the graph theory's system ap-
proach. The proposed approach contains recommen-
dations for diagnosing the malfunction root causes.
The fault tree obtained from the developed digraph
system is suitable for computer processing. There-
fore, this methodology can be automated to diagnose
vehicle malfunctions. The methodology computeriza-
iMLTrans 2020 - Special Session on Intelligent Mobility, Logistics and Transport
tion will help in creating a knowledge base about fail-
ures, their causes and remedies. Therefore, this ap-
proach is especially useful for M & R engineers.
M & R of modern vehicles today is a difficult task,
since various causes of failures lead to similar symp-
toms in very complex vehicles. Existing fault diagno-
sis processes, based on failure's maintenance manuals
to manufacturer standard and personnel experience,
are often inadequate and lead to great effort and erro-
neous solutions. So, the article (Meckel S. et al.,
2019) presents methods for extracting knowledge
from unstructured and informal materials on online
forums with the aim of synthesizing diagnostic graphs
from the created knowledge base, which are software
part for use in vehicle maintenance, offering more ef-
ficient and targeted diagnostic actions and real-time
The article (Borucka A. 2019) presents a wear
analysis of brake system components using vehicles
annual monitoring under various operating conditions
as an example. The goal was to study the significance
of the selected factors influence on the brakes wear
degree, as well as to present possible methods that
will be used in this area. This will provide not only a
higher safety level, but also more efficient task plan-
ning and the necessary expenses inclusion in the com-
pany's budget.
The maintenance strategy is keep to in order to en-
sure consistently high service quality, operability and
safe operation of the transport system, which requires
an appropriate schedule for vehicle maintenance. As
shown in (Kamlu S. & Laxmi V. 2019), maintenance,
which based condition, identifies the vehicle condi-
tion using either wired or wireless data to failure pre-
dicts and implementation appropriate maintenance
actions, such as repairs and replacements, before fail-
ure happens. In this paper, a Condition-based mainte-
nance (CBM) strategy was proposed that takes into
account various uncertainties, such as load, mileage
and terrain, to develop a fuzzy model for individual
vehicles. Hidden Markov models (HMM) can com-
bine all available prior knowledge in a Bayesian for-
mulation and, thanks to their Markovian structure,
provide the development of computationally complex
signal processing algorithms.
Improving the vehicle's operation efficiency is the
main goal of the diesel engines M & R system, in par-
ticular, by reducing the cost of engines maintenance
and overhaul, which are the most expensive vehicle
system (up to 25%). The article (Biniyazov A. M. et
al., 2019) authors study the patterns of the oil volume
influence in the diesel crankcase on the intensity of
changes in the engine technical condition and the oil
aging during operation.
The report (Sharma S., 2018) presents a method-
ological study on the changes analysis in the lubrica-
tion system of various medium-speed engines. In ad-
dition, this study includes an analysis of the engine oil
pressure effect on friction losses, torque study at var-
ious oil pressure values, and an analytical analysis en-
gine lubrication system functioning. Diagnostic data
collected from various engines was used as a reliable
source for detecting and troubleshooting a lubrication
system in an ordinary passenger vehicle.
The study (Börger A., Alfaro J., León P. 2019)
goal is to reduce the time required for trucks mainte-
nance. The authors indicate that due to inadequate
management and improperly performed maintenance
work, their repair time is increased. This work is
aimed at improving the terms of repair of trucks using
the Lean methodology - a management system whose
main task is to eliminate all waste in servise, which
reduces time to ensure greater customer satisfaction,
improve quality and reduce costs.
The article (Vintr S Z. and Holub R. 2003) dis-
cusses the optimizing the maintenance concept
method, which allows to reduce the vehicle life cycle
costs (LCC) based on operational reliability data
knowledge. The authors present a theoretical optimi-
zation model that describes the main relationships be-
tween LCC of the main vehicle subsystems and the
frequency of their scheduled (preventive) repairs. The
authors indicate that using the proposed model, it is
relatively easy to find reserves in the vehicle mainte-
nance concept and achieve significant savings in the
vehicle LCC using a simple measure of administra-
tive change in maintenance periods.
2.2.4 On-board Diagnostic Systems as a
Means of Working with Data
Depending on the vehicle driving automation level,
the on-board intelligent systems functions set also dif-
fers, which, as a rule, includes means to inform the
driver, help in difficult situations, to communicate
with dispatcher and service operators, as well as to the
vehicle condition's identify. So, the article (Nugroho
S.A. et al., 2018) authors cite the Car Data Recorder
Prototype (CDRP) system, which is able to improve
the accuracy of traffic accidents investigation, as it
can record the vehicles condition and report an acci-
dent by sending a notification in the SMS form using
the GSM module. The authors propose the on-board
diagnostics-II (OBD-II) function with the parameters
recording: the gas pedal position, the engine shaft
speed and engine temperature in the specified time
range. The article (Datta S. K., Härri J. and Bonnet C.
2018) discusses the importance of future autonomous
Changing the Maintenance and Repair System While Expanding the Connected Vehicles Fleet
vehicles geo-temporal awareness: describes the IoT
platform for accurate positioning in highly automated
driving (HAD), which combines IoT with joint tech-
nologies, protocols and ITS algorithms to achieve
high-precision localization for future autonomous ve-
hicles. The document (Aljaafreh J A. et al. 2011) pre-
sents a vehicle data collection and analysis system for
automating fleet management using on-board diag-
nostics (OBD), GPS, RFID and WiFi technologies,
which are successfully integrated to develop this sys-
tem. The system integrated in the vehicle determines
the vehicle location using the GPS receiver, and the
vehicle status using the OBD interface, and driver
identifies by RFID.
The article (Godavarty S., Broyles S. and Parten
M. 2000) describes an approach to developing an
online diagnostic system using readily available com-
puting resources, such as laptop computers. You can
access this information through the PC interface and
some software, which is easier than directly from the
modern vehicles' on-board diagnostics systems (OBD
II). Online diagnostics can accelerate the new tech-
nologies development cycle, such as fuel cell vehi-
cles, as well as provide user support and optimize the
such vehicles performance by reducing downtime.
However therein, the main problem is the measure-
ment dispersion, caused by numerous interference
factors that make it difficult to compare the vehicles
behaviour in real conditions with their predetermined
reference analogues. The article (Nitsche C., Schroedl
S. and Weiss W. 2004) describes an approach in
which artificial neural networks are used to facilitate
the on-board diagnostics of fuel cell vehicles. The au-
thors believe that this method can be used to diagnose
short-term failures / errors, as well as long-term shift
in the vehicle power transmission's properties, for ex-
ample, in accordance with the deterioration of the fuel
cells state.
The article (Niazi M. A. K. et al. 2013) describes
the development of a universal OBD device and its
work with various vehicles based on OBD-TT stand-
ards, such as Land Rover Defender. This device dis-
plays real-time vehicle system status, including vehi-
cle speed, engine speed, throttle position, battery volt-
age, engine coolant temperature, etc., as well as diag-
nostic trouble codes (DTCs) for various vehicles. The
DTC from the vehicle microprocessor is generated as
a result of a system error or failure.
The document (Lin C. E,2007) presents a
modified system design based on vehicle monitoring
technology to present OBD data in real time. The sys-
tem proposed by the authors combines application de-
velopment technology for both OBD and Intelligent
Transport Systems (ITS) and can meet future vehicle
requirements for real-time ITS and ODB applications,
and also uses GPRS mobile communications for real-
time data transition over the internet.
The article (Wang Y. et al., 2016) authors, in order
to reduce vehicle exhaust emissions when using a sys-
tem with a selective urea catalyst, developed inte-
grated methods for on-board diagnostics and fault-
tolerant monitoring. The article presents a method for
detecting and troubleshooting a urea injection system
using data processing and their validation in the se-
lective catalyst reduction (SCR) system developed by
the authors. The article (Hu J. et al., 2011) introduces
the vehicle diagnostics methods and the on-board di-
agnostic system (OBD), compares and analyses sev-
eral types of diagnostic protocols that are widely used
in the OBD system. Compared to manual diagnostic
devices, this is a faster diagnostic method that pro-
vides powerful help and repair instructions. In addi-
tion, the system can be upgraded for more convenient
use and expansion of remote diagnostics.
The article (Bostelman R. and Shackleford W.
2010) presents the National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST) diagnostic tool and its applica-
tion in NIST automated guided vehicle (AGV),
which, according to the authors, is very useful for un-
derstanding the vehicle functionality. The manufac-
turer of AGV can benefit from this tool for design,
adjust, and monitor vehicle parameters and control al-
gorithms to enable robust autonomous vehicle con-
trol. The article (Zhang J., Yao H. and Rizzoni G.
2017) authors developed a systematic model diagnos-
tic approach based on a structural analysis of electric
drive systems, which can serve as the basis for the on-
board diagnostics systems for electric vehicles de-
sign. Remote technical condition monitoring includes
the use of V2I systems for the formation and applica-
tion of individual M & R systems. The V2I infor-
mation model developed in (Gritsuk I. et al., 2018) is
characterized by the vehicle digital field, limited by
regulatory rules, means of monitoring the technical
condition parameters and infrastructure components
for monitoring each vehicle. The system is based on
a general approach to the system study “Vehicle -
Driver - Operating Conditions - Vehicle Operation In-
The article (Luka J. and Stubhan F. 1999) authors
indicate that the increase in the mechatronic systems
use in vehicles requires the diagnostic functions inte-
gration, which will be widely implemented in the ve-
hicle on-board software and will allow to improve the
diagnostic depth in the future, since they will be based
on functional and mathematical models. The data ob-
tained from the diagnostic functions describe the ve-
hicle general condition and are stored in non-volatile
iMLTrans 2020 - Special Session on Intelligent Mobility, Logistics and Transport
memory. The main information source can serve as
customer complaints that can be received through the
voice channel. Data about the vehicle, as well as in-
formation from the driver, are compared with failures
that arose earlier in other vehicles. Mobile diagnostics
will optimize the diagnosis and repair process, espe-
cially in the vehicle emergency event away from the
3.1 The Single Information Space
Concept When Creating
Infrastructure for Expanding the
Autonomous Vehicles Fleet
During the transition to the fourth industrial revolu-
tion, cyber-physical systems are formed which con-
nect, through informational interaction, subsystems
with different purposes, sizes and properties. So, the
connection between the production system and BSS
is carried out at the level of material flows using the
logistic system, and at the information level - by cre-
ating a single information space.
Today, the automobile plants products annually
are complicated not only constructively, which leads
to the need to improve the service and repair technol-
ogy, but also intelligently, which is expressed in the
emergence of new systems built into the vehicle.
These are systems responsible for management, secu-
rity, and the interface with various services and other
entities. Changing the concept of the transportation
process and the vehicle operation require careful prep-
aration and adequate processes management in BSS
network. In this regard, changes are inevitable in all
systems related to the vehicles life cycle: production,
logistics and service. The BSS concept will change be-
cause the manufacturer needs to qualitatively imple-
ment the principle of responsibility for his product
throughout the entire life cycle (Embracing Industry
4.0. 2019.), and this is possible only with appropriate
control over the processes in all systems, especially at
the initial stage AV launching on the market.
As follows from the analysis of consumer opin-
ions and analysts' forecasts, apparently, first of all, the
concept of using autonomous vehicles will be imple-
mented in freight logistics. It should be understood
that modern trucks, unlike cars, are almost impossible
to service in small auto repair shops. Another feature
that analysts talk about is the fact that possible
maintenance errors can be associated with a lack of
reliable information about failures and their causes,
which should accumulate as the autonomous vehicles
fleet expands. Therefore, its BSS will be a place of
collection and storage of information about the fea-
tures of operation, maintenance and repair of both a
particular vehicle and the entire fleet (Fig. 2).
Given that despite the additional control and
other intelligent components, the vehicle still remains
a complex technical system, therefore a significant
part of the service and repair technologies will remain
the same. Moreover, intelligent vehicles will make up
a small fleet share for a considerable time. Neverthe-
less, it is necessary to pre-engage in preparing the in-
frastructure not only for organizing the transportation
process, but also for maintaining the vehicle in a
healthy and safe condition for reliable operation.
Figure 2: Unified information space of a manufacturer ve-
It should be remembered that the logistics of the
future, like the entire industry 4.0, will be based on
new materials, nanotechnology, RFID technology or
cyber networks, so neo-industrialization will vary sig-
nificantly affect supply chain management and logis-
tics in general. To improve the accuracy of the infor-
mation necessary for supply chain management, it is
necessary to integrate RFID systems into MES sys-
tems, which will optimize outbound and inbound lo-
gistics. The RFID system allows you to: monitor the
supply chain in real time (using web access); track the
goods at each supply chain stage; reduce the human
factor impact.
The inclusion of each vehicle as an active object
by means of the communication channels in the
cyber-physical system, will make it possible to obtain
information about the state its nodes and aggregates
and to predict the residual life. With an adequate sen-
sors selection and on-board diagnostic systems im-
provement, this allows you to set the wear amount
and predict the probable failure moment. Thus, pos-
sessing such information and transferring it to the
production system's data storage cloud system, it will
be possible to predict the need for spare parts for re-
pairs and to establish a unique product samples within
the mass production framework.
Changing the Maintenance and Repair System While Expanding the Connected Vehicles Fleet
For the such interaction scheme organization be-
tween the service system and the production system,
the including on an individual vehicle system of on-
board diagnostics and online data transaction is im-
plied. Such systems operate through four main com-
ponents: GPS satellites, vehicle on-board diagnostic
kit, GSM network and the GPS control service pro-
vider server. Satellites are used to obtain key infor-
mation about the vehicle, such as: location, direction
and speed. The on-board kit is a GPS-receiver, GSM-
transmitter and minicomputer, and also includes on-
board diagnostic devices. All the necessary infor-
mation from GPS satellites, from sensors and / or the
on-board computer is collected in the so-called black
box, from where it is transmitted through the GPRS
local GSM operator channel to the server, where the
information is properly processed and transmitted to
the cloud data storage. The end user (in this case, a
person or a machine) has access to information either
through special software, or through a regular Web
browser from planet anywhere with Internet access.
The use of wireless signal transaction technolo-
gies imposes increased requirements for the trans-
acted data security. The SmartMX type microcontrol-
ler, which is certified according to the international
Common Criteria standard to the EAL5 + level, will
be responsible for data security, which ensures com-
pliance with the highest security requirements. It of-
fers increased attack resistance and high performance,
with cryptographic coprocessors and ultra-low power
consumption. To serve a number of applications,
SmartMX supports proprietary operating systems
such as open platforms such as Java and MULTOS
(NXP SmartMX…, 2019).
3.2 Reliability Management in BSS to
Autonomous Vehicles
Competitiveness issues are addressed at product's life
cycle all stages. To a large extent, competitiveness
depends on the speed of updating the model range and
the reliability of products during operation. Since the
vehicle is a complex technical system consisting of
many parts, its reliability depends on how reliable
these parts are. Although there are not many details
limiting reliability, however, the issues of increasing
their reliability and predicting possible replacement
periods are relevant.
At the vehicle operation stage, which is the long-
est of all life cycle stages, the main customer’s re-
quirement is to maintain the vehicle in a technically
sound condition. This activity area acquires particular
relevance in connection the design complexity, there-
fore, the organization of a producer company single
information space with all dealer service centers will
allow to quickly identify problems and solve them
(Makarova, I.; et al. 2012, 2015, 2016).
As a rule, truck service is carried out in special-
ized service centers operating according to the manu-
facturer's standards. Since it is important for the vehi-
cle owner that the service is carried out as soon as
possible, a large number of scientific papers are de-
voted to the processes optimization methods. If the
failure of any detail or aggregates occurred during the
warranty period, then the issue of improving the re-
pair efficiency is important both for the manufacturer
and for the vehicle owner. The manufacturer must
provide a quick replacement of the failed system, and
the client must receive a working vehicle for the im-
plementation of the logistics process and profit. In the
transition to autonomous vehicles, the ensuring oper-
ability issues will be specific in nature and will be
based on information from on-board diagnostic sys-
tems, as well as, traditionally, on failure statistics,
which at the initial moment of entering AV on the
markets will be incomplete.
In addition, it must be borne in mind that, obvi-
ously, the regulations for daily maintenance and pre-
ventive maintenance will also change, since by re-
moving the person-driver from the control loop, we
thereby exclude the possibility of preventing a tech-
nical system sudden failure by indirect signs that can
be identified either by a person or a specific sensor (if
provided in the monitoring system).
Nevertheless, the algorithm for organizing the M
& R of autonomous vehicles can generally look like
the one shown in Figure 3.
3.3 Methods and Means of Data
Aggregation, Analysis and Security
Decision making is based on real data about the man-
aged object, therefore, for analysis, strategy develop-
ment and operational management aggregated infor-
mation is used. To storage, integration, updating and
coordination of operational data from heterogeneous
sources create data warehouses (DW). DWs are nec-
essary for the formation of a consistent and uniform
view of the control object as a whole, therefore they
contain information collected in real-time from sev-
eral operational databases of On-Line Transaction
Processing systems (OLTP). A multidimensional in-
telligent data model (OLAP cube) will be located in
the single information space's management center of
the automotive company.
To implement OLAP, you can use a hybrid option
that combines Relational OLAP (ROLAP) and Mul-
tidimensional OLAP (MOLAP). This provides higher
iMLTrans 2020 - Special Session on Intelligent Mobility, Logistics and Transport
scalability of ROLAP and faster calculation of MO-
LAP. Hybrid OLAP (HOLAP) servers allow storing
large amounts of detailed information. The database
administrator, in this case, will be responsible for en-
tering and updating the information, updating the data
in the measurement tables, as well as adjusting the
Fact table, if users need new queries.
Data for multivariate analysis can be obtained us-
ing a special utility directly from the database by for-
malizing the selected data array. Reporting Services
(SSRS) has a complete tools set for creating, manag-
ing and delivering reports, what allows you to create
reports for a large data sources number. Reporting
Services tools are fully integrated with SQL Server
tools and components. (SQL Server…, 2020). In ad-
dition, SSRS has APIs through which developers in-
tegrate or expand the data processing and reports in
user applications.
Given, that connected vehicles have a large differ-
ent sensors number, it is necessary to provide in BSS
the rules for their verification, as well as maintenance
and replacement procedures. If there are vehicles of
varying intellectualization degrees in the serviced ve-
hicle fleet, their preliminary clustering is required to
select the optimal service strategy for each vehicle
type. The conceptual scheme BSS management is
shown in Figure 4.
Figure 3: The BSS functioning algorithm when using connected vehicles.
Figure 4: Management organization in the BSS information space.
Changing the Maintenance and Repair System While Expanding the Connected Vehicles Fleet
Executed studies have shown that trends in the auto-
motive industry are due to digitalization and intellec-
tualization, that largely depends on the information
quality. Increased requirements for safety and relia-
bility in transport systems increase the requirements
for the quality of data necessary for the management
and sustainable development of transport systems. In
our opinion, only complex solutions can have a posi-
tive effect. Growing data volumes increase the analy-
sis tools importance, most of which are based on
OLAP principles, modern big data analysis methods
and security tools. The BSS development and its im-
provement, taking into account the entry into the mar-
ket of intelligent vehicles, a significant part of which
will be connected, requires the creation of a single in-
formation space for process control throughout the
entire vehicle life cycle. This will allow you to timely
and effectively solve problems arising in the service
system, as well as build long-term strategies based on
big data analysis. For this, it is necessary that the de-
sign and technological solutions in the production
system are combined with rational management, in-
cluding in the service system. This will allow you to
find the optimal processes parameters at all stages of
the car's life cycle, as well as make rational manage-
ment decisions.
This work was supported by the Russian Foundation
for Basic Research: grant No. 19-29-06008\19
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