The Use of Moodle in the Teaching of Philosophy and Distance Learning
Andrii I. Abdula
1 a
, Halyna A. Baluta
1 b
, Nadiia P. Kozachenko
1 c
, Darja A. Kassim
2 d
Feliks M. Zhuravlev
Kryvyi Rih State Pedagogical University, 54 Gagarin Ave., Kryvyi Rih, 50086, Ukraine
State University of Economics and Technology, 5 Stepana Tilhy Str., Kryvyi Rih, 50006, Ukraine
Philosophy, Critical Thinking, Soft Skills, Reflexive Learning, Test Control, Moodle, E-Learning Environ-
ment, Education During a Pandemic, Distance Learning of Philosophy, Risk Society.
The paper highlights the importance of philosophy and special philosophical disciplines for the modern general
education, assuming their role in the soft skills training, and more concretely in developing critical thinking
in students. However, the emerging trend of reducing the university philosophy courses can make it difficult
to fulfill this role in full. In this context using the distance learning tools and learning management systems
can help to provide an appropriate educational environment (also in view of the current pandemic situation)
to ensure the sufficient level of learning outcomes in philosophical literacy and critical thinking skills. More-
over, the modern e-learning tools and technologies can facilitate the involvement of students into the global
educational space and promote development of their lifelong learning skills. In elaborating a virtual learning
environment for philosophy courses, one has to take into account certain features of philosophical disciplines,
which are instrumental in their structure and may cause some difficulties by its implementation. Namely, the
learning outcomes in philosophy courses may not easily be parametrized, philosophical questions often allow
for multiple alternative answers, and philosophical discourse is essentially communicative. Remarkably, the
Moodle learning management system is well suited for addressing these issues and enhancing the learning
process. To this effect we propose various task types to maintain high standards of learning achievements: test
control in the flipped classroom, control of work with primary sources, control of self-study, test implemen-
tation of interim thematic control. In this way the Moodle system can well be regarded as an efficient virtual
tool for an on-line support of a general philosophy course. Still, one should be fully aware that this tool can
only play a supporting role and cannot entirely replace a substantive philosophical dialogue actually occurring
either in a “physical” classroom or by means of a video-conference platform (such as Zoom, Google Meet,
etc.). Modes of study, directly related to communication, are integral part of the methodology of philosophy
and its teaching, since philosophy itself is a discursive and pluralistic field. Nevertheless, taking into account
the features of the discipline, it is possible to provide not only an effective test control, but also to implement
a number of general educational goals, such as updating the basic knowledge, memorization, activating the
cognitive interest, developing the ability to reason, and – last but not least – the skill of acquiring and assimi-
lating information. The paper presents a comparative statistical analysis of the student academic achievement
by studying philosophy in a lecture room and distantly during the pandemic.
Reforming of the education system should be pro-
vided for in response to public demand and informa-
tion standards of the world educational culture, which
is focused on the formation of key competences of
participants in education (Shokaliuk et al., 2020). In
education, the process of transformation requires re-
vision and reassessment of the humanities, especially
philosophy, as it should be regarded as a powerful
methodological platform, which leads to successful
solving of the tasks outlined in the national educa-
tional strategy.
Abdula, A., Baluta, H., Kozachenko, N., Kassim, D. and Zhuravlev, F.
The Use of Moodle in the Teaching of Philosophy and Distance Learning.
DOI: 10.5220/0010926600003364
In Proceedings of the 1st Symposium on Advances in Educational Technology (AET 2020) - Volume 1, pages 616-630
ISBN: 978-989-758-558-6
2022 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
1.1 Outlining the Problem
Scientific and technological advance shows a notable
paradox: on the one hand, society seeks acceler-
ated development to achieve pragmatic results; on the
other hand, this advance causes dangerous transfor-
mations of biosocial reality characterized by low lev-
els of prediction, uncertainty about the future events.
The constant growth of life threats is a reason to as-
sess these trends as “risk trends”. In our opinion,
modern education is not relevant without considering
the situation of risk as a “measure of unexpected dan-
ger” (Giddens, 1990). We view risk in its positive
sense as a “rational way of mastering reality”, which
is the prospect of rational construction of a new type
of educational culture, including a “diversification”
constant. Thus, on the one hand, the 2020 pandemic
caused long-term social isolation, which led to a clear
understanding that social stability, is the result of a
comprehensive justification of “protective”, prema-
ture social and, in particular, educational strategies,
and, on the other hand, it showed new tools and op-
portunities, emphasizing the effectiveness of distance
learning (Polhun et al., 2021).
What are the trends and resources of educational
culture focused on preserving the educational base in
the current situation? Undoubtedly, a high-quality,
balanced resource of distance learning justified itself
as a full-fledged type of education, having been de-
veloped from, in a certain sense, experimental educa-
tion to a global educational network. In 1969, the first
university of distance education, the Open University,
was opened in Great Britain. Nowadays, it is an edu-
cational centre playing an essential role in the social
and economic life of the country (Open University,
In the UK, the Quality Assurance Agency for
Higher Education praised the quality of the educa-
tional process at universities, involving a wide range
of distance learning technologies. Widespread use
of “distance technologies” has formed the paradigm
of “distance education” with the following con-
cepts: “distance reaching”, “emergently organized
distance teaching”, “test tools”, “independent assess-
ment”, “distance learning”, “distance counseling”, “e-
learning”, “blended learning”, “online learning plat-
form”, “learning management system”, etc (Syvyi
et al., 2020; Vlasenko et al., 2020). The centres of
distance education work successfully in other coun-
The pandemic situation has demonstrated a fine
line between social and biological. As Badiou (Ba-
diou, 2020) notes: An epidemic is complicated be-
cause it is always a point of contact between natural
and social definitions. Its full analysis is transversal:
it is necessary to understand the points where these
two definitions intersect and derive the consequences
from that”.
In our opinion, the new type of education pre-
supposes the existence of a high-quality educational
environment, which takes into account past and
present experience, provides qualitative analysis of
advantages and disadvantages, and successfully com-
bines traditional and modern educational achieve-
ments with current social values. Thus, modern ed-
ucation type presupposes the existence of philosoph-
ical discourse, focused on the formation of critical,
systemic, and other kinds of thinking, relevant sec-
tions of social ethics, especially, pedagogical, envi-
ronmental, information culture in combination with
e-learning technologies.
For it is necessary to introduce e-learning tools
in the educational process, the educators should take
into consideration the specificity of their implementa-
tion that allow to master the strategy of teaching phi-
losophy on the basis of the online learning environ-
ment. Thus, there is a need to outline the educational
perspectives of philosophy teaching with the involve-
ment of online learning environment and to identify
the particularities of the use of test tools in this pro-
The experience of the rapid transition to distance
education has well demonstrated the peculiarities,
pros and cons of the distance learning management
and, in particular, in the teaching of philosophical dis-
ciplines. On the one hand, these features are already
familiar. On the other hand, new characteristics be-
came apparent due to the peculiarities of the social
situation, the features of the national education sys-
tem and the peculiarities of the subject itself.
Therefore, in our study, based on our work (Ab-
dula et al., 2020) we aim to consider the general fea-
tures of Moodle as a tool of creating of the e-learning
environment, the features of using this platform in
teaching philosophy and analyze the relevant results
of distance learning in quarantine 2020.
1.2 Analysis of Recent Research and
The issue of the placing philosophical disciplines in
the educational space is considered by scholars all
over the world. The research paradigm is represented
in (Crawford et al., 2005; Dewey, 1904; Halpern,
2014; Hintikka, 2007; Lakhuti, 2014; Quitadamo and
Kurtz, 2007; Lipman, 2012), and others. The national
tradition includes the publications (Karapetian, 2020;
Kopotun et al., 2020; Terno, 2012). Dewey (Dewey,
The Use of Moodle in the Teaching of Philosophy and Distance Learning
1904) was one of the first educators who prioritized
critical thinking in education. He believed that the
main drawback of traditional education was its focus
on refined knowledge, devoid of analytical process-
ing. John Dewey outlined a new “reflexive” style of
education, as reflection makes it possible for a student
to perceive the object from different viewpoints. The
philosopher notes that “knowledge” does not mean
understanding; certain information does not guaran-
tee that the opinion can get the right direction (Dewey,
1904). Hintikka (Hintikka, 2007) describes critical
thinking as an opportunity to combine different per-
spectives, as a crucial resource, focused on the search
for cognitive distortions. He thinks that to teach how
to think and analyze is a huge challenge from educa-
tion to philosophers (Lakhuti, 2014). The researcher
substantiates the notion of Socratic epistemology as a
special cognitive strategy, which has a dialogical form
(Hintikka, 2007).
Standard educational programmes cannot achieve
such progress in the development of cognitive skills,
as the programmes, including the development of
critical thinking. The author of an educational pro-
gramme focused on reflective thinking Lipman (Lip-
man, 2012) admits that teaching thinking skills is
different from the ordinary acquisition of academic
knowledge. He substantiates the idea of higher or-
der thinking, which synthesizes creative, moral, eth-
ical and critical thinking. Lipman (Lipman, 2012)
considers the ways of thinking as necessary modes
of reflective educational practice. Lipman’s approach
was developed by Sanchez-Ruiz et al. (Sanchez-Ruiz
et al., 2015), Reid and Anderson (Reid and Anderson,
2012) and others. Therefore, the reflexive paradigm
highlights reflective and dialogic strategies as a de-
velopment of personal autonomy embedded in a spe-
cial space of mutual open-mindedness for joint explo-
ration and discovery.
The use of the potential of philosophy in the de-
velopment of critical thinking and other important
competences is complicated due to several reasons.
Firstly, the place of philosophy in a number of gen-
eral educational courses is uncertain. Secondly, it is
complicated to transfer the content of philosophical
disciplines to e-learning platforms.
The practical implementation of distance learning
is based on one of the most promising online learn-
ing platforms, which is actively implemented in the
educational process and facilitates its modernization
Moodle. In the current educational discourse, the
potential of using e-learning platforms is considered
in various aspects (Astafieva et al., 2020). Petrenko
(Petrenko, 2017), Pienkin and Yatsenko (Pienkin and
Yatsenko, 2014) consider Moodle as an important
component of the provision of distance education
and blended learning. Zhelezniakova (Zhelezniakova,
2016) treat it as prerequisite for realization of the
students’ self-management capacity. Myshchyshen
(Myshchyshen, 2011) considers Moodle as tools of
information and communication support to the pro-
cess of advanced training. Avdieiev (Avdieiev, 2015),
Oproiu (Oproiu, 2015) draw attention to the fact that
Moodle is a way to optimize the educational process
in higher educational establishments. For Nedilko
et al. (Nedilko et al., 2017) Moodle is a key aspect of
quality of professional training of future specialists.
Holotescu et al. (Holotescu et al., 2014) outline that
e-learning platforms provide students’ involvement in
the global educational space and the development of
lifelong learning skills. The use of e-learning plat-
forms is also considered in the context of globaliza-
tion, changes in the institutional status of the educa-
tion system (Triakina et al., 2018). Biletska (Biletska,
2013), Horshkova (Horshkova, 2015), Mintii (Mintii,
2020), Semenets (Semenets, 2017) draw attention to
the considerable practical experience of using Moo-
dle in the process of teaching exact mathematical sci-
ences and natural sciences. Dolynskyi (Dolynskyi,
2013), Akulenko (Akulenko, 2012), Shalatska et al.
(Shalatska et al., 2020), Ustinova et al. (Ustinova
et al., 2019) show that Moodle can be used by teach-
ing social science and humanities.
1.3 Unsolved Aspects of the Problem
Unfortunately, there is a dangerous tendency in the
national education to curtail the humanities, espe-
cially philosophy, ethics, aesthetics, cultural studies,
etc. They are losing their positions, undermined by
the tendencies of educational instrumentalism and vi-
tal pragmatism. The reasons of such situation are as
follows: the relativization of the educational culture,
the lack of definition of standards of quality of edu-
cation, as well as rigidity, the firm rootedness of the
“monopolized” post-Soviet educational tradition. Af-
ter a few decades, philosophical subjects focused on
Marxism lost their relevance, as they reproduced the
structures of crowd psychology, the realized ideolog-
ical function and function of identity formation. As a
result, philosophy focused on Marxism created a false
stereotype about its uncertainty or even its useless-
ness. Thus, a hidden paradox has emerged: the min-
imization of the humanities in education contradicts
current educational strategies, outlined in the Law on
Among the educational competences defined by
the Law on Education, there are a number of extra-
curricular competences, which, in our opinion, pro-
AET 2020 - Symposium on Advances in Educational Technology
vide for an in-depth mastery of a philosophical re-
source. According to the Law on Education, “com-
mon for all competences are the following skills:
reading with understanding, a skill to express one’s
opinion orally and in writing, critical and systemic
thinking, ability to logically justify one’s position,
creativity, leadership, ability to manage emotions in a
constructive way, assess risks, make decisions, solve
problems, ability to cooperate with other people”
(Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, 2017). Thorough anal-
ysis of the subject field, included in the scenario of
achieving the stated goal, implies a direct mastery
of the information product of philosophical genesis.
Instrumental competence, which means performing
technical procedures and operations, ways of deter-
mining information adequacy, criteria for trust in an
information source, etc., is also particularly relevant.
Therefore, the main unsolved aspect of the prob-
lem is the question of whether the information, puri-
fied from philosophy, is sufficiently efficient in com-
petitiveness of education if it is considered as a com-
plex product, formed by long-term research selec-
tion by historical trial and error and as the result of
successful, balanced, and projected educational pro-
grammes, focused on education and society, theory
and practice. The implementation of electronic sup-
port in the teaching of philosophy is also important.
However, the specific nature of philosophy as a sub-
ject should be taken into consideration. Using e-
learning platforms is a definite challenge of the mod-
ern times, so the educators need to respond to it ade-
Nevertheless, the following question arises: how
and to what extent can we trust e-learning, in training
philosophy and other humanities?
Instrumental and information competence be-
comes more topical. We may define it as the im-
plementation of technical procedures and operations;
the ways to determine information adequacy, criteria
of its quality and trust in the source of information;
the independence of information processing and re-
production based on academic integrity.
The previous research did not focus on the anal-
ysis of the complex specific character of modern ed-
ucation, its socio-ethical orientation, unapparent but
important problem areas of distance learning, the
research of the causes and factors of their elimi-
nation. These highlight a broader horizon of re-
search. The main unresolved aspects of the problem
are the following issues: whether learning manage-
ment, cleansed of philosophy, is effective enough to
provide competitive education as a complex social
product; whether distance education can be consid-
ered as a universal learning tool that gives a sustain-
able result; whether distance education has the oppo-
site effects and drawbacks arising due to the “dissolu-
tion” of participants of the educational process, who
are in a “closed” e-learning environment. Thus, the
objective of the paper is to reveal the peculiarities of
electronic support of teaching philosophy, highlight-
ing its subject specificity on the basis of methodically
substantiated forms of test control.
As Shunevich (Shunevich, 2011) emphasized the
formation of the theoretical framework of distance
learning dates back to the 60s of the 20-th century.
Shunevich (Shunevich, 2011) follows the classic of
distance education Keegan (Keegan, 1980) and notes
that the prolonged absence of theory has weakened
distance learning. In the article “Comparative Anal-
ysis of Early Foreign Theories of Distance Learn-
ing”, he describes the autonomy of the student in
the educational process, emphasizes the fundamen-
tal difference between classical and distance learning
(Shunevich, 2011). What is the essence of distance
learning? The e-learning course is an artificial, dia-
logical opportunity for learning, in which the bridge
between the student and the institution is an artificial
signal carrier (Shunevich, 2011, p. 106). That is why,
in our opinion, the e-learning platform should con-
tain the parameters inherent in the process of natural
learning with its flexible, multidimensional potential:
forms, methods, tools, technologies, etc.
If philosophy is considered as a source of criti-
cal thinking, the method of its formation appears as
a combination of different models of learning. It is
clear that “rigid models” are typically suitable for in-
dividual tasks, while “soft models” dominate when
there are atypical problematic situations with uncer-
tainty potential. Such models play a special role in
the process of personality formation. “The develop-
ment of critical thinking is just such a task that can be
solved with the help of a soft learning model”, says
Terno (Terno, 2012, p. 18). Methods of the critical
thinking development require a set of conditions that
include problematic situations, knowledge of critical
thinking strategies, creating choice situations, making
a dialogue, giving students’ opinions in writing, the
right to correct mistakes, etc. This system of learning
implies its openness, plasticity, the presence of varia-
tions and feedback.
Individual-oriented project methods and dialogue
play a special role, as they are focused on recon-
structing the educational participants’ individual ex-
The Use of Moodle in the Teaching of Philosophy and Distance Learning
perience. The methodology is based on the follow-
ing principles: identifying and denying assumptions,
verifying accuracy of facts and logical consistency,
examining context and exploring alternatives (Terno,
2012, p. 18). In our opinion, this is the way in which
the monologic “banking” or fixed teaching is reori-
ented to qualitatively developing innovative model.
Such a guideline was taken into account by the
community of lecturers of the Philosophy Department
in Kryvyi Rih State Pedagogical University in the
process of teaching the course “Philosophy” with its
positive consequences. Firstly, the philosophical re-
source was preserved as a source of formation of dif-
ferent types, styles of thinking, a methodological plat-
form for learning the variety of the best examples of
world philosophical culture. Secondly, the structure
of the course, the logic of its presentation, demon-
strated the effective implementation of a number of
tasks of informative and constructive content, as it
successfully combined the traditional informative or
lecture-seminar system of education and the modern
pedagogical approaches, which necessarily include
person-oriented techniques. And fourthly, we would
like to draw attention to the advantages and problems
caused by using e-learning management systems in
general and, in particular, by using Moodle, taking in
consideration the global challenges of the COVID-19
Thus, there was a need to combine the critical re-
source of philosophy and the tools, provided by the
e-learning environment. Obviously, such a combina-
tion could not have been a perfunctory transfer of the
course to an online learning platform. However, it
also requires both the peculiarities of the course and
the specifics of the chosen platform. We used Moodle
as such e-learning platform.
In our opinion, we should consider the particular-
ities of using Moodle, taking into account the global
challenges, tasks and problems that cause the reform
of the education system in Ukraine. Moreover, it is
necessary to pay attention to features of use of the
platform in comparison with similar systems. Thirdly,
it is necessary to demonstrate the expediency of ap-
pealing to Moodle, in the context of teaching the so-
cial sciences and humanities, especially philosophy.
As for the first aspect, we should admit that the
implementation of Moodle is increasingly correlated
with the prospect of implementing the principles of
blended and distance learning, taking into account
that the latter is a relatively new phenomenon in
the educational space of Ukraine (Bondarenko et al.,
2018). Petrenko (Petrenko, 2017) says: “The use of
modern information and communication, electronic
technologies in combination with pedagogical expe-
rience will allow to raise higher education in Ukraine
to a higher level” (Petrenko, 2017, p. 140). This prob-
lem is also considered in the context of globaliza-
tion, changes in the institutional status of the educa-
tion system and the integration of the national educa-
tion system into the European educational space (Pe-
trenko, 2017, p. 116). In response to these challenges,
the scholars draw attention to the following benefits
of distance learning: the ability to save considerable
amount of time while displaying significant amounts
of information; focusing on the specific achievements
of each student; ensuring the relative independence
of the process of communication between the student
and the teacher from the place and time, organization
of control and planning of students’ independent work
in the conditions of reduction of class hours and tran-
sition to the credit-modular system, etc. (Lavrentieva
et al., 2019, p. 102), (Zhelezniakova, 2016, p. 34).
In general, these characteristics have economic, op-
erational, informational and pedagogical dimensions
(Myshchyshen, 2011, p. 98). Unlike distance learning
that requires using ICT, blended learning presupposes
a combination of different forms of activities (tradi-
tional, distance, electronic, etc.), at the same time it
takes advantage of distance learning and eliminates
its disadvantages (Petrenko, 2017, p. 141). An impor-
tant tendency of recent years is the increasing level
of integration of distance and traditional learning (Pe-
trenko, 2017, p. 6).
As for the second aspect, we should mention that
there are several groups of e-learning organization
software: copyright software, learning management
systems, content management systems, and educa-
tional content management systems (Pienkin and Yat-
senko, 2014, p. 105). Among these tools, one of
the most suitable for higher education institutions
is the open source distance learning platforms, to
which Moodle belongs (in general, there are a great
number of such systems: ATutor, Claroline, Dokeos,
Sakai, Prometheus, etc.) (Pienkin and Yatsenko,
2014, p. 106). A considerable number of scholars
think that Moodle has certain advantages over other
similar systems. The evidence is the considerable
number of users who have chosen this system (about
90 million people (Petrenko, 2017, p. 140)), as well
as the fact that it is used by educational institutions in
more than 100 countries (Pienkin and Yatsenko, 2014,
p. 106), demonstrating positive statistics of students’
involvement (Oproiu, 2015, p. 428–430). The basis
for the functioning of this system is based on the prin-
ciples of social constructivism, according to which,
the teacher is regarded as an assistant and mentor;
training is carried out in activity; self-presentation and
self-realization of students are provided; the learn-
AET 2020 - Symposium on Advances in Educational Technology
ing environment is flexible, able to adapt to spe-
cific needs; the student can observe and respond to
the activity of participants in the educational process
(Teplytskyi et al., 2015). Accordingly, Moodle al-
lows to organize distance learning in such a way that
it meets the today’s didactic requirements: regularity,
systematic character, objectivity of control, individ-
uality, economic efficiency, that is, it is fully capable
of completing the tasks assigned to it (Avdieiev, 2015,
p. 7).
Other advantages include: openness of the sys-
tem, ability to adapt to specific tasks and types of ac-
tivities; providing ample opportunities for communi-
cation and data exchange; the availability of a flex-
ible evaluation system and opportunities for statisti-
cal analysis of performance; versatility and simplicity
in using (Pienkin and Yatsenko, 2014, p. 106). An
important argument in favour of Moodle is that as
an open source system, it can be freely distributed,
applied and modified (Pienkin and Yatsenko, 2014,
p. 141).
Moodle is quite capable of providing the distance
learning functions assigned to it, but it should be ad-
mitted that the use of a virtual learning environment
has its peculiarities when it supports training courses
in philosophical disciplines.
(1) The complication of parameterization of learn-
ing outcomes. This is due to the fact that all
philosophical disciplines and, first of all, philos-
ophy involve the teaching of thinking, and not
just memorizing the biographies of a number of
philosophers and difficult obscure terms. Obvi-
ously, this peculiarity is inherent in other courses,
but the main difference is that the results of teach-
ing philosophy are very difficult to calculate and
quantify. This problem is typical, in general, for
determining the level of competence formation,
which does not reduce to specific knowledge, abil-
ities and skills. We have discussed above the com-
petences, which include, inter alia, environmen-
tal competence and information and communica-
tion competence, lifelong learning, civic and so-
cial competences related to the ideas of democ-
racy, justice, equality, human rights, well-being
and a healthy lifestyle, with an awareness of equal
rights and opportunities; cultural competence. For
this type of competence there is a problem of ver-
ification, parameterization, quantification, the so-
lution of which would make it possible to simply
revision of the level of their formation by tools
of e-learning, where testing is particularly conve-
nient and widespread.
(2) The plurality of approaches. The second problem
is related to the specificity of philosophy, namely
its pluralistic nature. Philosophy cannot be rep-
resented as a single holistic entity, the conven-
tional result of a study of the existing philosophic
community. Philosophy is a constant develop-
ment of thought, which consists in asking ques-
tions, finding answers and constantly rethinking
them. Thus, any reference or educational mate-
rial in philosophy bears a significant imprint of the
philosophical position of its author, which cannot
be considered universally acceptable to all partic-
ipants in philosophical discourse.
(3) Communicative nature of philosophy. There was
an experiment when the android Bina48 gave a
lecture on philosophy (Palmer, 2018). Its results
show the achievements of robotics, but they do not
mean a breakthrough in the teaching of philoso-
phy. The main results of the teaching of philoso-
phy are formed in the course of communication;
they are argumentative and critical skills, values
and socio-cultural competences.
For the use of e-learning courses is an up-to-date
challenge that can greatly enhance students’ cogni-
tive activity through interesting activities, the philos-
ophy teacher must find ways to integrate these activ-
ities into the learning process and use them in a way
that does not deteriorate, but rather improve the qual-
ity of philosophy teaching. Obviously, it is simply
impossible to fully implement a philosophy course on
an e-learning platform without communicating with a
teacher. It is not only about teacher’s support in fo-
rums, chats, ongoing consultations and other forms of
feedback, but it is also about full-fledged group sem-
inars, involving pluralism of thoughts, discussions,
and critical, philosophic reasoning in real-time.
In teaching philosophy, not all activities are reduced
to face-to-face communication. The student has to de-
velop skills of individual work, be able to work with
primary sources, to carry out relations and system-
atization, to draw conclusions, to reason the opinion
and to express it and so on. Thus, in the process of
philosophy teaching, it makes sense to use e-learning
courses as a support of full-time study, which allows
to cover other activities of the student and to evalu-
ate his or her individual work. Let us consider some
of the techniques of using a Moodle-based e-learning
course and their peculiarities in philosophy teaching,
using the Moodle controlling tools in the philosophy
The Use of Moodle in the Teaching of Philosophy and Distance Learning
3.1 Test Control in the Flipped
Classroom Model
Firstly, the thing that makes Moodle convenient is to
provide theoretical material. This approach makes
it possible to use the flipped classroom model when
students are introduced to the lecture material before
the lecture begins. Then, the lecture itself is based
on explaining the most interesting points of the topic,
discussing problematic and incomprehensible parts of
the material.
It is advisable to combine the flipped classroom
model with the simplest test to check whether the stu-
dents have read the material to the lecture. Test tasks
most often involve the literal reproduction of text and
they perform two functions: checking for content un-
derstanding and activating memorization.
We should admit that the test assessment of the
quality of the philosophy study is quite complicated
and, when provided formally, it usually has a nega-
tive result. Firstly, ordinary tests are mainly focused
on checking the memorization of certain characteris-
tics, terms and names, which is quite possible without
understanding the essence of the philosophical con-
cept. Secondly, tests without any material, given in
advance, provide students with a choice of a textbook
or other reference sources. In the case of philosophy,
it cannot be guaranteed that the opinion of the author
of the test coincides with the way the relevant mate-
rial is presented in the textbook chosen by the student.
Thus, it is advisable to limit the use of simple veri-
fication tests as a control measure in the virtual ac-
companiment of philosophy training to the following
parameters: (1) tests can only serve as a tool of the
simplest control of familiarization with the material
before the lecture; (2) tests should be directly bound
to, and limited to, the material provided.
It is necessary to mention some technical points.
Moodle allows you to create various types of tests.
For this purpose, it is quite convenient to use several
test types: multiple choice tests, tasks with short an-
swer, matching tasks, built-in answers, gap texts, true
or false statements. The most problematic types of
tasks are multiple choice tests and gap texts, where
a student has to fill in the missing words. In Moo-
dle multiple choice tests are implemented very well,
if you do not take into account the following feature:
if the student selects all the answers, he or she will
be assessed as having chosen all the right answers.
Therefore, while creating the test, it is advisable to
use the penalty for incorrect answers, which is real-
ized by negative indicators.
Missed word assignments or the gap texts dif-
fer from short answers in that regular “*” expres-
sions to substitute any character sequence cannot be
used. Missing words should be filled in, so there
is a serious spelling problem. If we do not con-
sider the cases of the students’ illiteracy or care-
lessness, we deal with the instability of Ukrainian-
speaking philosophical terminology and the lack of
a stable tradition of Ukrainian transliteration of the
philosophers’ names. For example, “Leibniz” can be
spelled in Ukrainian as
and etc.
There are several ways out of the situation. For ex-
ample, it is possible to provide students with accurate
spelling, to familiarize them with the terms to be used
in the tests, and to provide clear instructions for com-
pleting this type of assignment.
3.2 Test Control of Independent
(Out-of-Class) Learning
The university course in philosophy provides much of
the material that the student studies out of the class-
room. It is necessary to state that making notes and
writing assignments are irreversibly out-of-date, but
this should not be considered as a negative trend.
Rewriting and reproduction is rapidly inferior to spec-
ulating and evaluation, which should be reflected as a
change in teaching methods, especially in philosoph-
ical courses that have a world-view forming task. In-
dependent study in a philosophy course means that
the student works on certain themes for which the stu-
dent has been provided with the relevant list of refer-
ences. However, no one can guarantee that the stu-
dent will not use Google search engine as the primary
source of answers instead of reading recommended
textbooks and sources. In such situation, one can find
some positive aspects, as independent work involves
familiarity with fairly standard concepts, definitions
and personalities. Thus, doing simple tests for choos-
ing names, book titles, philosophical directions will
not be superfluous, and it will allow the out-of-class
study with the online learning environment should
also include tasks that do not provide obvious answers
that pop up in the first search engine rows. So, it is ad-
visable to develop tasks that help the student to master
the material submitted for self-study. It is appropri-
ate give the student a task to analyze the text where
the student is offered to choose a statement that most
fully reflects the main idea of the text, or a statement
that contradicts the text, a statement that may or may
not a conclusion.
The skill to work with primary sources, analyze
them and correlate with the theoretical material de-
scribed in the textbook is an important type of stu-
dents’ activity while studying philosophy. The pri-
AET 2020 - Symposium on Advances in Educational Technology
mary sources are often discussed at the seminar, but
this kind of work can be successfully implemented
through the online support of the Moodle training
course. In addition to widespread multiple-choice
tasks and built-in answers, it is appropriate to use
gap texts and true or false statements. Moreover, it
is necessary to focus not on the literal reproduction
of the text of the primary source, but on realizing the
author’s opinion and on correlating it with the philo-
sophical direction or tradition to which the author of
the text belongs. The re-writing tasks showed good
results in “true or false statements”, when the opin-
ion presented in the source text is formulated in other
The specificity of test verification of out-of-class
study is the need to set a deadline clearly. This is due
to the fact that most of these tasks are woven into the
canvas of the classroom material and their untimely
fulfillment breaks the logic of teaching. On the other
hand, the student should understand that out-of-class
study is as chronologically regulated as activities in
the classroom, which are carried out on schedule. The
method of self-study is not regulated. It is focused on
checking the results; thus the student develops skills
of self-study, self-control and planning.
3.3 Test Implementation of Interim
Thematic Control
The possibility to make full use of test tasks for in-
terim control is also limited. Firstly, it does not jus-
tify setting a high score for these types of control, so
it stimulates some manifestations of students’ plagia-
rism, because it exists in a form of distance learning.
Secondly, thematic control does not imply the avail-
ability of ready-made material, as in the case of prepa-
ration for an “flipped classroom” or an activity for
checking understanding of primary sources. Thirdly,
thematic control should be designed not only to check
what students have memorized, but also to presuppose
tasks that require speculation and reasoning. Thus, it
is appropriate to use such tasks as matching, multi-
ple choice tests, but with a slightly more complicated
formulations. The challenges of finding a mismatch,
finding an error, or finding the wrong answer are con-
sidered to be fruitful. The task of matching state-
ments with authors has also shown good results as
well as the tasks for chronological ordering. In ad-
dition to testing knowledge, the matching tasks also
have a cognitive load: it is convenient to offer stu-
dents a number of characteristics of philosophical di-
rections or doctrines, which are usually opposed, in
order to relate them to these areas (here it is appropri-
ate to create the task in such a way that the character-
istics are distributed evenly and not more than three
parameters, optimally two). It is appropriate to offer
students assignments for reasons that involve estab-
lishing a pattern, continuing a logical chain, choosing
the causes or effects of a particular position.
We should draw attention to the task of drawing
conclusions in which students are asked to select all
the correct conclusions (or one) from the text pro-
posed. In the simpler version, it is a reformulation
of the thought, in a more complex one, the logical
or substantive consequences generated by the idea
demonstrated in the text. Test for matching is conve-
nient to use as an extension of the test for true or false
statements, because it allows you to evaluate a num-
ber of statements at once by correlating them with the
choice of true/false.
The result of thematic control in this form is not
only the score expressed in points, but also a certain
broadening of the student’s horizons. Obviously, in
the development of in-class and out-of-class activi-
ties, the student does not focus on reading the works
of the philosophers mentioned above, but focuses pri-
marily on short theoretical information that can pro-
vide a clear answer to the questions of the seminar
or the assignment for out-of-class study. Philosophy
does not provide such answers. The teaching of phi-
losophy involves the formation of the skills of con-
textual, discursive analysis, aimed at clarifying the
course of reasoning of a particular philosopher, which
leads him to certain conclusions. The mentioned test
organization achieves at least two goals: firstly, it fa-
miliarizes students with the aphorisms and important
quotations of the classics of philosophy, shows their
depth, and secondly it develops the skills of philo-
sophical analysis and intensifies educational interest.
An indirect, but pleasant, consequence is that students
remember the names of philosophers and basic philo-
sophical terms.
One of the main challenges for the education system
worldwide has been the COVID-19 pandemic. The
pandemic, as well as the severe restrictions imposed
by governments of different countries to subdue the
rapid outbreak of the disease, has affected the func-
tioning of the social, economic, and political spheres
of society and has significantly transformed all com-
ponents of the learning process.
A key component of these changes is the active in-
The Use of Moodle in the Teaching of Philosophy and Distance Learning
troduction of distance learning technologies at differ-
ent levels from radio, television, and text messaging
to full-fledged online learning (World Bank, 2020).
As a rule, the leading role in this process was given
to learning with the support of recent information and
electronic technologies, the use of multimedia and e-
learning. Such learning is known to involve two ap-
proaches: (1) asynchronous learning via the media,
e-mail, discussion forums, where students and teach-
ers do not have to be online together; (2) synchronous
learning through video conferencing and live chat, al-
lowing students and teachers to feel directly involved
in the learning process rather than isolated from it
(Lisnani et al., 2020). The responses to the deci-
sions to control the risks and how to minimize their
impact on the students by implementing all compo-
nents of e-learning are as follows: using new edu-
cational technologies such as Learning Management
Systems (LMS) of Moodle, and Blackboard for pro-
viding communication, sharing course content, ex-
changing lecture notes, slides, and other materials,
controlling knowledge, and using Zoom and simi-
lar software products to schedule, stream, or record
classes is a response to risk control decisions and the
way to minimize the impact of those risks on stu-
dents by implementing all components of e-learning
(Hamaniuk et al., 2020).
Simultaneously, such overall, albeit forced, tran-
sition to distance learning requires not only the justi-
fication and implementation of the necessary changes
in the shape and content of the education process but
also an assessment of its current and potential con-
sequences. However, the practical experience of the
rapid transition to distance learning allows us to iden-
tify a number of not only positive but also negative
aspects. Thus, in a positive sense, the benefits of the
transition to e-learning are revealed in several direc-
(1) The general dimension include the active access to
online resources to find the necessary information
and materials, implementation of the function of
recording lectures, meetings, benefits for personal
growth and development (increasing computer lit-
eracy), increasing the use of available resources
(Moodle and other platforms), updating technolo-
gies for the university.
(2) The pedagogical aspect presupposes that students
and faculty could join the latest technologies and
teaching tools, master the technologies of blended
learning, and receive the opportunity to work re-
motely (Oyedotun, 2020, p. 2). It is also empha-
sized that the use of LMS in the education pro-
cess helps to facilitate e-learning, as it allows ac-
cess to learning without time or place restrictions,
which is essential in the context of social isolation
caused by the pandemic (Raza et al., 2021).
The negative aspects can be characterized as fol-
(1) Limited material and technical base, lack of
necessary resources, equipment, Internet access
(which questions the possibility of providing a
full-fledged e-learning mode, while the offline
mode is insufficient), lack of permanent power
supply in some countries.
(2) Lack of sufficient qualifications, prior training and
practical experience for both students and faculty.
(3) Problems with ensuring high-quality teaching due
to limited technical capabilities reduced students’
interest in work and lack of teacher-student en-
(4) Limited opportunities for monitoring knowledge
and student malpractices.
(5) Factors of psychological and social pressure in
connection with the pandemic, etc (Oyedotun,
2020, p. 2).
This list of risks can be continued if we take
into account the experience of implementing distance
learning at Kryvyi Rih State Pedagogical University.
Firstly, there is the lack of a single e-learning platform
clearly defined at the state level. Secondly, method-
ological support has been developed insufficiently.
Thirdly, there are significant technical risks associated
with the insufficient capacity of the existing material
and technical base, etc.
As the global studies with the sample of 30,383
students from 62 countries show that most students
appreciate the support of the faculty and communi-
cation with the university community, but the lack of
computer skills and the sense of increasing workload
have not allowed them to achieve higher learning re-
sults in new conditions (Aristovnik et al., 2020).
These problems concern not only the introduction
of distance learning in a particular country. They arise
due to the limited nature of the technology itself, the
reassessment of its ability to fully achieve its objec-
tives, to respond to other global challenges that are
not directly related to the COVID-19 pandemic. It is
obvious that these problems are also connected to the
specifics of the rapid and forced transition to distance
learning (although, of course, economic, social or po-
litical factors can significantly reduce or, conversely,
increase their acuteness).
Simultaneously, we should also pay attention to
the peculiarities of the social or mental environment,
the way of providing education in a particular educa-
tional institution, the features of the course (including
AET 2020 - Symposium on Advances in Educational Technology
the cycle of philosophical disciplines), the possibil-
ity of their implementation by distance learning. As
demonstrated by the analysis of changes in higher ed-
ucation in response to COVID-19 in 20 countries, the
feedback from higher education providers could vary
considerably and include both social isolation strate-
gies and curriculum redevelopment for the transition
to online learning (Crawford et al., 2020).
We will try to assess the consequences of the rapid
transition to distance learning under quarantine re-
strictions, taking into account the specifics of the or-
ganization of education and the results of the final
and current performance of the students at Kryvyi Rih
State Pedagogical University (Ukraine).
The purpose of our analysis is the statistical gen-
eralization of the results of the current and final suc-
cess of the students studying the course of philosophy
with a different share of e-learning support. The anal-
ysis was carried out in the framework of teaching the
course of philosophy in the second year of studying at
Kryvyi Rih State Pedagogical University. The course
of philosophy is taught for one year, so it lasts two
terms. The final control is carried out in the form
of an exam; the intermediate control is carried out
only in the form of the sum of points received for the
first term. The course provides the following distri-
bution of hours by the types of activities: 34 hours of
lectures, 34 hours of seminars, and 56 hours of self-
Traditionally, the course is taught entirely in the
classroom, and Moodle is usually used to control the
progress of the students’ mastering the themes for
self-study, to provide references and additional ma-
terials, and to support the work of part-time students.
Since March 2020, educational institutions have been
to significantly expand the use of learning manage-
ment systems and online platforms. For the course
of philosophy, such systems were mainly Moodle and
Zoom. Thus, with the implementation of e-learning,
a big share of the classroom material was presented in
Moodle: the texts of the lectures, materials to prepare
for seminars, primary sources with the tests to them
to assess how the students have mastered the mate-
rial. Besides, the teachers continued to hold classes
according to schedule, but with the help of Zoom.
It is obvious that the organization of the learning
process was not immediate; the adaptation to the new
learning environment took place until about the end of
April. It is easy to track, considering students’ speed
of scoring. To do this, we can compare the increase in
the ratio of the total number of points in each seminar
of the second term to the number of students in the
group that did not have an experience of e-learning
and the group that experienced distance learning in
the second term (figure 1).
Figure 1: Speed of scoring in the second semester 2020.
For comparison, we used the data of the average
student group of the Faculty of Natural Sciences (FK-
18), which did not show a sharp decline in attendance
due to the transition to distance learning, and the data
from the previous year of the group of the relevant
specialty (FK-17), which studied entirely in the class-
room (the lecturer is the same in both cases).
The OY-axis on the figure 1 shows the scale of
an average increase of points per n students of the
group (the sum of points for the current t and pre-
vious themes divided by the number of n students in
the group), themes (t) from 1 to 8 are plotted on the
OX-axis. For clarity, the set of points is shown by a
solid line.
The comparison of the speed of scoring shows a
significant difference in the students’ activity in the
first month and a half of e-learning (themes 2-4 along
the OX-axis). However, later the situation improved
due to the fact that students adapted to the conditions
and began to complete tasks. Thus, the average num-
ber of points gained during the term, by the end of the
term was almost equal to the previous year, i.e. the
students reached the standard.
Since autumn 2020, the learning of philosophy
has been also continuing similarly as e-learning, but
due to the fact that students have already been morally
and technically prepared for that, there is no corre-
sponding “failure”. This can be seen from the com-
parison of the speed of scoring for the first term by
groups FK-19 and FK-18, FK-17 (figure 2). Only the
first group out of these three mastered the course of
philosophy with extended distance learning support
under quarantine in the first term, while in the first
term, the rest two groups studied the corresponding
course fully in the classroom.
Today, the speed of scoring in the classroom and
online does not differ significantly.
In general, the results of the retrospective analysis
of the rapid distance learning implementation can be
divided into two groups. Firstly, these are subjective
The Use of Moodle in the Teaching of Philosophy and Distance Learning
Figure 2: Speed of scoring in the first semester 2021.
impressions, and secondly, they are certain statistical
Let us start with subjective impressions. We will
not talk about the impressions of the organization
of teaching during the quarantine and the efforts re-
quired for that. First of all, subjective impressions are
about the student performance and quality of learning
as well as the students’ general attitude to study. Sub-
jectively, the introduction of learning management
system for studying philosophy has an interesting ef-
fect: the number of students with average points de-
creases significantly, while the number of students re-
ceiving a high score or a low score increases accord-
ingly. Thus, students with good performance begin to
study even better, but bad students – even worse.
This impression is illustrated by comparing the re-
sults of the exam session by groups of the Faculty
of Foreign Languages (figure 3). For comparison,
we have chosen all student groups of the admission
year 2017–2018 (111 people) who took the philoso-
phy exam in June 2019 and all student groups of the
admission year 2018–2019 (70 people) who took the
exam in June 2020. The first sample shows the results
of the philosophy exam (2019) in groups where the
students did not study online and the second one illus-
trates the results of the same exam (2020) in groups
where the students studied philosophy online in the
second term and where they had to pass the exam the
online. We have considered only the results of the first
attempt to pass the exam, and the grades for the resit
of the exam are not taken into account.
Percentages are plotted on the OY-axis, and corre-
sponding letter grades are on the-OX axis. It is clear
that the percentage of letter grades A, B, C (excellent
and good) has increased, but also the percentage of
letter grades Fx and F (unsatisfactory) has increased.
Simultaneously, there was a corresponding decrease
in the percentage of letter grades D and E (satisfac-
The students, who received a higher-than-
expected grade, explain this fact as follows: they re-
ceived constant access to learning materials, the op-
Figure 3: Comparing the results of the exam session by
groups of the Faculty of Foreign Languages.
portunity to complete additional activities online, and
the ability to score points online for classes they could
not attend. Thus, as a rule, students who aspire for a
good grade are offered to work with primary sources
as additional tasks. This activity means that the lec-
turer conducts an extra colloquium with students to
determine the level of text understanding. During e-
learning, the assessment of the primary sources was
accomplished using tests. Students noted that this is a
convenient way of assessment because the questions
fully correspond to the text of the primary source, so
after reading the text, one can successfully pass the
test. In addition, an unexpected motive for more ac-
tive work for the students with good performance was
the lack of access to grades and the level of prepa-
ration of other students. Thus, students noted that
awareness of the poor level of preparation of other
students usually affects negatively their motivation for
better training. Moodle allows students to see only
their own grades, so some of the students applying for
the scholarship assumed that there were a significant
number of students in their group who prepared bet-
ter than them and, therefore, could get a higher score
in the scholarship ranking. Thus, the number of the
highest per cent grade (100) in 2019 was 15 out of
330 (4.5%), and in 2020 22 out of 297 (7.4%).
At the same time, the grades of the part of stu-
dents who are usually classified as “weak E-graders”
in many groups have shifted significantly towards Fx
grade. It should be noted that the number of “lower”
F (0-24 points) has increased significantly. From in-
terviews with students, we have found out that when
there is a low motivation to learn, personal contact
with the lecturers serves as an additional means of
control. The majority of students noted that they
needed further explanations on how to use the learn-
ing management system and that they considered dis-
tance learning as a vacation, but hoped to make up for
AET 2020 - Symposium on Advances in Educational Technology
a lost time at the end of the term.
Let us consider statistical generalizations. The re-
sults of the analysis of a larger sample (table 1) in-
cluding students from five faculties do not confirm the
importance of “subjective impression”. For compari-
son, we used data from two samples: 2019 (the num-
ber of sample elements – 330) and 2020 (the number
of sample elements – 297).
Table 1: General characteristics of the statistical sample.
2019 2020
Number 330 297
Sum 20826 18999
Average 63.1091 63.9697
Mode 50 50
Median 62 63
Dispersion 388.6385 498.1376
Mean deviation 16.4436 18.0229
Asymmetry 0.1281 -0.2849
The column (2019) shows the results of the final
control of groups that studied the course of philoso-
phy only in the classroom. The corresponding share
of e-learning platform involvement was insignificant;
it was used mainly for controlling the studying of the
themes required for self-study. These groups took the
exam in June 2019.
The column (2020) shows the results of the final
control of groups that studied the course of philoso-
phy in the classroom in the first term, but in the second
term, they were to transmit to e-learning. Thus, in the
second term, the share of the learning management
system increased significantly. These groups took the
exam in June 2020.
The comparison of the characteristics of the two
samples illustrates that the average, the mode and the
median of the students’ grades in 2019 and 2020 are
almost no different. There is a slight increase in dis-
persion and, consequently, in the mean deviation, but
concerning percent grades (0-100), such values can-
not be considered significant. There is a small but no-
ticeable difference in the asymmetry of the two sam-
ples. Although the asymmetry of both samples is
quite insignificant, in 2019, it was right-skewed, i.e.
the values of the grades weighed slightly to the lesser
side, while in 2020, the left-skewed asymmetry was
obtained, i.e. overall grades increased slightly. We
can talk about a slight increase in the extreme val-
ues of the sample, but, in general, it is not significant.
It can be illustrated by analyzing of learning quality
(figure 4).
Percentages are plotted on the-OY axis, the sum
of excellent and good grades (A + B + C), satisfac-
tory grades (D + E), unsatisfactory grades (Fx + F)
Figure 4: Learning quality.
are plotted on the OX-axis. In general, the learning
quality in 2020 increased by 1%. Due to the “slip-
page” of E-students’ study results in 2020, learning
success decreased by 2% (figure 5).
Figure 5: Learning success.
It is also interesting to track fluctuations in the per-
centage of letter grades. According to individual ob-
servations and surveys, it can be assumed that there
was a “migration” of “lower” grades: C (good) and
E (satisfactory). The percentage of these grades de-
creased since some students received a higher grade
and some a lower one. Thus, the biggest fluctua-
tion occurs in the percentage of the lower satisfactory
grade E 8%. The mode of grade D in 2019 was
65, and in 2020 it is 61. The mode of grade E itself
has not changed (50), but the mode of grades Fx + F
has increased (from 30 in 2019 to 45 in 2020) even
with a simultaneous increase in the percentage of F.
Therefore, we can assume that the grade E is partially
“dissolved” in the neighbouring D and Fx grades, re-
ducing the mode of the better grade and increasing the
mode of the worse one.
Despite the lack of impressive differences and
shocking results, we can say that the distance sup-
port of the philosophy course with the help of Moodle
has successfully fulfilled its function of providing the
learning process during the quarantine. Thus, taking
into account the specifics of the subject and using the
optimal means of organizing learning in Moodle, we
can achieve results fully correlating with learning in
The Use of Moodle in the Teaching of Philosophy and Distance Learning
the classroom. In our opinion, that indicates that the
use of Moodle in teaching philosophy is quite benefi-
Trends in modern education are linked, on the one
hand, to the desire to develop cultural competences
and, on the other, to take into account the informa-
tional influence, using its opportunities. The philo-
sophical courses, especially philosophy, are directly
meant for the formation of beliefs and convictions,
values, systemic and scientific worldview. Therefore,
the significant reduction or even the complete exclu-
sion of philosophy from higher education in favour of
majors jeopardizes the realization of the stated educa-
tional priorities. The creation an e-learning environ-
ment will help to simplify and universalize a signif-
icant number of types of activities dealt with mem-
orizing information and providing control, so lec-
tures have more time for other activities. First of all,
these are activities directly related to communication,
which is an integral part of the philosophy training.
Moodle can be used as a tool of the online support of
the philosophy course, but it is not possible to trans-
fer a full amount of discipline into the virtual space, as
this course has a considerable ideological load. This
is due to the dialogic, discursive, communicative and
pluralistic nature of philosophy. However, taking into
account the peculiarities of the discipline, it is possi-
ble to provide not only the evaluative function of test
control, but also to realize a number of educational
functions: the updating of basic knowledge, memo-
rization, activation of cognitive interest, the develop-
ment of ability to reason and more simple, but not less
important, – the skill to familiarize oneself with infor-
We should note that the use of e-learning environ-
ment on the one hand imposes certain restrictions on
the educators and creates a risk of “mechanical” pas-
sage of the course by the students. At the same time,
it encourages the teacher to develop new and rethink
existing forms of learning in order to fully implement
them in e-learning support systems (Hamaniuk et al.,
The peculiarities of the use of Moodle as a tool
in the philosophy teaching can be extended to other
courses, not just the humanities. They open the
prospect of using test tools not only as a control but
also as an effective learning tool. Moodle tools such
as essays and seminars are promising to assess the
level of idea formation, the ability to express and rea-
son students’ own opinions, but they also have their
own implementation specifics, which we will high-
light in future research.
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