Introspection as a Condition of Students’ Self-management in
Programming Training
Liudmyla I. Bilousova
1 a
, Oleksandr H. Kolgatin
2 b
, Larisa S. Kolgatina
3 c
Olena H. Kuzminska
4 d
Kryvyi Rih State Pedagogical University, 54 Gagarin Ave., Kryvyi Rih, 50086, Ukraine
Simon Kuznets Kharkiv National University of Economics, 9a Science Ave., Kharkiv, 61166, Ukraine
H. S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University, 29 Alchevskyh Str., Kharkiv, 61002, Ukraine
National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroiv Oborony Str., Kyiv, 03041, Ukraine
Introspection, Self-Management, Students, Independent Work, Training in Programming.
The paper is devoted to the study of types of managing the student’s educational activity. The educational
discipline “Practicum of problem solving in informatics” for students of third year study, future teachers of
informatics have been chosen for realising pedagogical conditions of computer-oriented management of stu-
dents’ educational activity. Progressive turn from direct management through co-management, subsidiary
management to self-management was the main idea of designing the courseware. The information and com-
munication educational environment has been based on the platform of learning management system Moodle.
The Workshop elements of Moodle played the central role in management of students’ educational activity.
The results of our pedagogical observation and assessment showed the efficiency of suggested approach. Ad-
ditionally, there were shown the lack of students’ competency in time planning and introspection on the base
of the experimental data.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
Informatisation of the educational process has led to
the creation of information and communication ed-
ucational environment in institutions of higher edu-
cation and significantly influenced the goals, content,
methods and means of students’ educational activity,
forms of its organization. The use of modern pow-
erful computer tools for implementation of manage-
ment tasks in educational process means the transition
to a new type of management computer-oriented,
which can provide the personalisation and not only
serve the achievement of learning goals, but also help
the student to become the active participant of such
management, that is the subject of self-management.
The use of information and communication technolo-
gies is connected with developing innovative manage-
ment practices and introducing these technologies to
educational process. There are many theoretical and
practical studies in this field, but it remains relevant
1.2 Analysis of Previous Research
One of the most fundamental analysis of theoretical
and methodological aspect according to the manage-
ment of the independent learning activity of students
of pedagogical higher educational institutions was
suggested by Malykhin (Malykhin, 2009). Recently,
appropriate methodical systems have been introduced
into the practice of the educational process to pro-
vide for computer-based management of students’ ed-
ucational activity. Information and communication
educational technologies, especially, cloud technolo-
gies that transform education have been analysed ac-
cording to results of the “Cloud Technologies in Ed-
ucation” workshop (Kiv et al., 2020). Lavrentieva
et al. (Lavrentieva et al., 2019) have analysed new
methods of the organization of students’ independent
study activities together with the use of ICT and tools.
Bilousova, L., Kolgatin, O., Kolgatina, L. and Kuzminska, O.
Introspection as a Condition of Students’ Self-management in Programming Training.
DOI: 10.5220/0010922000003364
In Proceedings of the 1st Symposium on Advances in Educational Technology (AET 2020) - Volume 1, pages 142-153
ISBN: 978-989-758-558-6
2022 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
Computer-based tools of supporting students’ inde-
pendent experimental activity in the process of learn-
ing quantum physics have been proposed by Velychko
and Shulga (Velychko and Shulga, 2018). Manage-
ment of students’ educational activity was provided
as support in instrument setup, measurements, results
processing. Vlasenko et al. (Vlasenko et al., 2019)
have designed and are developing an educational site
“Differential Equations” to support students’ educa-
tional activity. The site contains theoretical frame-
work, practical classes, provides consultations on-
line and via e-mail, testing, discussion cases, forum
and provides support for the teaching of the course
and solving practical problems of research charac-
ter by students. Podlasov et al. (Podlasov et al.,
2017) have proposed elements of blended training in
physics at a technical university on the basis of pro-
grammed learning (students study new material or
fixate their knowledge) in the Moodle system with
the help of the element Lesson. Kyslova and Slo-
vak (Kyslova and Slovak, 2016) developed methods
of using the mobile learning environment in study of
higher mathematics by future electromechanical en-
gineers. These methods are based on the complex ap-
plication of computer tools: using Google Apps Ed-
ucation Edition (texts, diagrams, links, videos); exe-
cution of practical tasks and research with developed
models in cloud-oriented GeoGebra and CoCalc envi-
ronments; application of Drawings for generalization
and systematization of concept connections, Forms
for testing, CoCalc for task generation. Tools inte-
gration was provided with using Classroom, Calendar
was used for scheduling training activities. Triakina
et al. (Triakina et al., 2018) analysed E-learning in-
struments for self-education and have suggested the
ways of this tools implementation into professional
training. Methods and technologies for the quality
monitoring of electronic educational resources were
analysed by Kravtsov (Kravtsov, 2015). Pinchuk et al.
(Pinchuk et al., 2019) stressed flexibility and adapt-
ability of pedagogical systems as principals of a sub-
stantial transformation of the education system. Re-
alisation of these principals needs in comprehensive
pedagogical diagnostics and prognosis in educational
process. A methodical system of computer-oriented
management of independent work of future teachers
in the process of learning computational methods (nu-
merical methods) was developed by Bilousova et al.
(Bilousova et al., 2019). This system is based on
the use of specially designed computational models
in MathCAD environment and assumes learning man-
agement system Moodle to support for management
of students’ independent work. It should be noted
that development of the educational process on the ba-
sis of its reorientation to students’ self-management
their own cognitive activity not only contributes to
enhancing the autonomy of students, but also gives
the education of personal significance. By determin-
ing the individual trajectory of educational and cogni-
tive activity of each student on the basis of the max-
imum consideration of his individual and cognitive
abilities, the necessary prerequisites for the forma-
tion of his skills of systematic and continuous pro-
fessional self-improvement are created. Useful anal-
ysis in this direction were suggested by Kruk and
Zhuravleva (Kruk and Zhuravleva, 2010). Santos
et al. (Santos et al., 2012) suggested a tool for em-
powering students to reflect on their activity. Spe-
cial analysis of a way and steps for transforming stu-
dents’ independent work management from direct to
self-management was suggested by Bilousova et al.
(Bilousova et al., 2020). This theoretical analysis was
implemented in training process of future teachers of
informatics that gave authors possibility to see binds
between students’ introspection and competence in
self-management. Self-regulated learning were dis-
cussed by Nussbaumer et al. (Nussbaumer et al.,
2012). They stressed that the cognitive and meta-
cognitive activities are not directly measurable, so the
measurable actions should be mapped to cognitive
and meta-cognitive learning activities (Nussbaumer
et al., 2012). But known results observed in our re-
view are not enough to built completed model of a
student for pedagogical prognosis.
1.3 Objectives
The potential of computer-oriented management of
students’ educational activity is not fully realized, ac-
cording to the above analysis. It actualizes the study
of pedagogical conditions, the introduction of which
improves the effectiveness of such management. We
should find the methods to contribute students in ob-
taining better educational results and in acquisition of
the active personal position in managing their own in-
dependent work. We also need in some approaches to
measuring the parameter of the model of a student for
pedagogical prognosis and effective choosing appro-
priate type of management. This task is complex and
very complicated, so it can not be solved in a single
study. Our work is directed to solving this problem
by studying some elementary issues of student model
and correlation some its parameters with efficiency of
some management type.
The purpose of this paper is theoretical and prac-
tical study of introspection as a pedagogical condi-
tion of effective computer-oriented management of
students’ educational activity in information and com-
Introspection as a Condition of Students’ Self-management in Programming Training
munication educational environments.
There are various approaches to defining the concept
of management in pedagogical systems in the psycho-
pedagogical literature. Thus, Markov (Markov, 1978)
views management as an organization of purpose-
ful actions, Itelson (Itelson, 1964) sees management
as the actions that are directed to achieving a previ-
ously set goal. Korshunov (Korshunov, 1987) con-
siders that management is the organization of a pro-
cess that ensures the achievement of a predetermined
goal. Filippov (Filippov, 1980) considers manage-
ment as the purposeful influence of the subject on
the object and the change of this object as a result
of influence. Nechaev (Nechaev, 1992) speaks about
management as purposeful regulation of processes. In
some studies, management is seen as an element of
some system that connects all its elements and sub-
ordinates them to the goal. Thus, Yakunin (Yakunin,
1988) sees the essence of management in the interac-
tion of the student and the teacher, which is carried
out in accordance with the set goals and is aimed at
activating the student’s activity in the learning process
and achieving the required results. We agree with all
of the above statements, which highlight certain fea-
tures of management and confirm the relationship be-
tween management and activities. It is also defined
by the new interpretative dictionary of the Ukrainian
language: “To manage - 1. To direct activity, work
of someone, something; be led by someone, some-
thing; manage. 2. To direct the course of a process,
to influence the development, the state of something”
(Yaremenko and Slipushko, 1999). On the basis of
this analysis of pedagogical research on the problem,
the essence of managing student’s educational activ-
ity is determined as realization of interaction of a stu-
dent and a teacher, which is aimed at activating stu-
dent’s activity in the educational process and achiev-
ing the educational goals. As a result of this interac-
tion, the social and cognitive experience of the stu-
dent changes, which acquires the trait of independent,
purposeful activity in order to become ready to solve
future professional problems.
The development of information and communica-
tion technologies creates prerequisites for improving
the efficiency of managing students’ educational ac-
tivity in modern higher education process. Given the
new role of the teacher as a tutor, a moderator, who
provides support to the student in choosing and build-
ing an individual educational trajectory, the new qual-
ity of management is seen in its variability, coordina-
tion of management actions with individual capabili-
ties, needs and requests of the student. This manage-
ment is directed to help the student to get knowledge
and skills according to the curricula, but also to in-
creasing involvement of the student in managing their
own educational activity, in the progressive transi-
tion from direct management to co-management, sub-
sidiary management and further to self-management.
ICT-oriented management of student’s educational
activity is a multi-stage process (collection of infor-
mation, statement of objectives, decision-making, im-
plementation of the decision, monitoring and evalua-
tion of results, adjustments) that is implemented with
the use of appropriate ICT tools at each stage. Im-
plementing student’s self-management with the use of
modern, powerful computer management tools means
moving to a new type of management computer-
oriented, capable to provide higher quality of man-
agement. This new quality can not be proved theoret-
ically, but it was observed in educational process. We
have analysed our previous empirical work [hide for
peer review] and can highlight the most important fea-
tures of computer-oriented management of student’s
educational activity:
adaptability that is based on detailed data on the
level of knowledge and skills required for inde-
pendent work, as well as on the dynamics of their
flexibility that assumes gradual involving of a stu-
dent in improving management of his/her own in-
dependent work through the transition from di-
rect management to co-management, subsidiary
management and self-management on the base of
analysis of the accumulated experience of using
a certain type of self-management and data on its
timeliness, which is provided by the opportunity
to monitor the process of the task execution and
the availability of communication resources, that
allows timely and targeted assistance and advice
to the student, based on the accumulation and
analysis of data on the progress and effectiveness
of his educational activity;
transparency, which involves openness of require-
ments to the results of the educational activity, cri-
teria for the evaluation, rating indicators of stu-
dent’s educational achievements;
objectivity in making managerial decisions that is
based on objective testing data and tracking the
effectiveness of the student’s educational activity.
Pedagogical conditions for the effective imple-
mentation of the said management in the educational
AET 2020 - Symposium on Advances in Educational Technology
Table 1: Activities of the subjects of the educational process at different management types on the stage of implementation of
the decision.
Type of management
Direct management Co-management Subsidiary management Self-management
The teacher sets a task for
the student
The teacher discusses a
task with the student
The student chooses a task
from a database
The student formulates a
task and coordinates it
with the teacher
The teacher sets the meth-
ods of the task execution
The teacher discusses the
methods of the task exe-
cution with the student
The student chooses the meth-
ods of the task execution from
suggested by the teacher
The student determines
the methods of the task
execution independently
The teacher suggests nec-
essary resources to for the
The teacher suggests nec-
essary resources to for the
The student chooses necessary
resources from the given re-
source base
The student determines
the necessary resources
The teacher gives the ex-
ample of the correct oper-
ation sequence
(detailed instruction)
The teacher gives the
common schema of the
operation sequence
(framework instruction)
The student determines the
operation sequence indepen-
The student determines
the operation sequence
The teacher provides cur-
rent correction of the task
execution process
The teacher adjusts the
process of completing the
task, if necessary
The teacher adjusts the pro-
cess of completing the task, if
the student ask him for help
The student controls the
task completing process
The teacher provides the
student with current sys-
tematic help
The teacher helps the stu-
dent, if necessary
The teacher helps, if the stu-
dent asks
The teacher helps, if the
student asks
The teacher gives the pat-
tern of report to sum-
marising obtained results.
The student acts accord-
ing the model
The teacher gives the plan
of report to summarising
obtained results.
The student acts accord-
ing the plan
The teacher gives the require-
ments to report and summaris-
ing obtained results.
The student produces the anal-
ysis of obtained results inde-
The student coordinates
the form of report with
the teacher and produces
the analysis of obtained
results independently
process have been substantiated on the basis of anal-
ysis of the new opportunities for managing the stu-
dent’s educational activity:
designing of information and communication ed-
ucational environment, which contains variation
educational-informative, instructive-methodical,
software-instrumental, as well as communication
resources for organization and support of the stu-
dent’s educational activity;
using a system that automates the collection, ac-
cumulation and analytical processing of perfor-
mance indicators of student’s educational activity;
ensuring the readiness of all participants in
the educational process to implement computer-
oriented management of the student’s educational
The above pedagogical conditions was checked in the
comparative pedagogical experiment in the PhD the-
sis of one of the present paper authors. The results
of this experiment have proved that abidance of sug-
gested pedagogical conditions contributes increasing
the efficiency of computer-oriented management of
independent work of future teachers in the process of
their natural and mathematical training.
Only comprehensive application of all condi-
tions ensures the effective management. The im-
plementation stage of ICT-oriented student’s educa-
tional activity management is the key stage, when
the student actively takes part in this management
as the person of educational process. Understand-
ing the character of interconnections between the
teacher and the student (table 1) is very important
for developing the flexible management based on
different types of management (direct management,
co-management, subsidiary management, and self-
management) (Bilousova et al., 2020).
We have realised the above approach to management
of students’ educational activity in the students’ train-
ing in programming. The information and commu-
nication educational environment has been based on
Introspection as a Condition of Students’ Self-management in Programming Training
the platform of learning management system Moo-
dle. It contained built-in communication resources
as well as reference to educational-informative re-
sources and instructive-methodical materials accord-
ing to programming the basic algorithmic construc-
tions for organization and support of the students’ ed-
ucational activity.
The first stage of empirical work was realised in
practicum of problem solving in informatics for future
teachers of informatics. 10 students took part in this
work. The software-instrumental resources (Eclipse
environment and the tools of common information
technologies) were present at every students’ com-
puter. The leading information channel was the inter-
active lectures, where the elements of programs have
been analysed in details. The educational activity of
the students at this interactive lectures were managed
directly, because the students did the notes in the form
of parallel development the suggested and analysed
algorithms as Java programs. Interactive parts of this
lectures involved some students in co-management of
educational activity, but some of them were passive
and continue execute the tasks in direct management
regime, using the ready fragments of code and ori-
entating only at the teacher’s commands in the time
planning. The students’ notes in the form of devel-
oped and tested programs became the instructional
materials for management students’ independent ac-
tivity in problem solving.
There were created 5 Workshop elements of ac-
tivity in the course in Moodle environment and sug-
gested 5 series of individual tasks for each student ac-
cording to the such topics: linear algorithms; branch-
ing; cycles; one-dimensional arrays; two-dimensional
arrays. There were 10 variants of tasks, so each stu-
dent obtained individual variant. The example of full
task series for one of these variants is shown in ta-
ble 2. Every of this series contained three tasks of dif-
ferent levels. Student should complete one of this task
for passing or all tasks for high grade. The first task
assumed the direct (but distance) management of stu-
dents’ educational activity, because this task was very
similar to the one was analysed at lecture. The second
task assumed the direct or co-management. This task
was based on some of analysed algorithms but was
not fully similar. Students could solve this problem
using only the lecture notes (direct management). But
sometimes students needed in additional information
for solving the problem. They could ask the teacher
or colleagues personally or using the built-in tools
of Moodle (co-management) as well as to use some
additional information resources (subsidiary manage-
ment). The third task was difficult and assumed us-
ing the algorithmic constructions that were not anal-
ysed at lectures. Students had to discuss this problem
with the teacher (co-management) or independently
use the additional information resources (subsidiary
management). So, the students independently and in-
tuitively made the decision on using some of above
type of management of their own educational activity
for each task according to their educational achieve-
ments and skills of independent activity.
Students uploaded the results of the tasks execu-
tion to the Workshops. It should be the correct pro-
gram with the author’s tests to prove it correctness.
The second phase of students’ activity in Workshops
was to check and grade the works of the colleagues –
assessment phase. Only the students, who have ex-
ecuted the first stage of the task and have submitted
their works, could take part in the assessment. The
assessment process is creative activity, but its man-
agement was direct, because the students assessed ac-
cording to the simple instruction: +1 point, if the pro-
gram is submitted and perform the required results;
+1 point, if the program correctly work with the au-
thor’s tests, +1 point, if the reviewer cannot suggest
any tests to indicate the bugs. Grading of the assess-
ment phase was produced automatically by compar-
ison of student’s given grades with other reviewers’
grades for corresponding works. Teacher also took
part in the assessment as a reviewer with weight co-
efficient of 10. This procedure represents our method
of evaluation. So, the student’s grade for submission
is a sum of the grades for three tasks and the grade
for each task is from 0 to 3 as it was described above.
The student’s grade for assessment was evaluated au-
tomatically with a built-in algorithm of learning man-
agement system Moodle for the Workshop element.
The teacher carried out pedagogical observation
during the course. Students, who did not submit their
works in time, passed each task at additional time in
the form of discussion of the results with the teacher
personally. Such results were not analysed in this
There was the final test for future informatics
teachers at the end of the course. This final test took
place in a classroom at fixed time under the teacher
observation. The students were suggested to design
three programs of different difficulty levels with us-
ing algorithmic elements of different topics. The stu-
dents, who completely designed the program for the
satisfactory level could obtain up to 74 grade point.
In case of errors the grade was decreased. When the
satisfactory level was passed successfully, the student
was suggested with a task for sufficient level (up to
89 grade points). And finally, a task for high level
was suggested. Some students could not satisfactory
pass this test in fixed time. They had additional at-
AET 2020 - Symposium on Advances in Educational Technology
Table 2: Example of tasks set for workshops.
Topic The First Task The Second Task The Third Task
Linear Al-
Develop a program for calculat-
ing the income of a family of 4
people for the specified income of
each family member
Develop a program to calcu-
late the rest when buying n
units of goods at a price of
dollars x
cents, if the box
office submitted y
dollars y
Develop a program to calculate
the amount of money to buy n CD
disks, if each individual CD disk
costs x hryvnia, and a box of ten
CD disks is sold at a discount of y
Branching Develop a program to test knowl-
edge in the history of science ac-
cording the following scenario: 1)
the computer submits the task:
“Year of birth of Serhii Oleksi-
iovych Lebediev an outstand-
ing scientist, under whose leader-
ship the first computer in the con-
tinental Europe was built”; 2) the
user enters the answer as an inte-
ger number; 3) the computer com-
pares the user’s answer with the
correct one (1902) and informs
the user about the result of the
Develop the program which
on the set air temperature rec-
ommends clothes:
less than minus ten
not less than minus ten
but less than plus ten -
not less than ten but
less than eighteen
eighteen and above
“does not matter”
Develop a program that deter-
mines whether the brick will pass
into a rectangular hole, according
to the specified size of the hole
(a, b) and the brick (x, y, z). Input
may be not sorted in ascending or-
Cycles In the treasury of the fairy king-
dom are jugs of living water. All
jugs are numbered sequentially.
The amount of water in each jug is
determined by the magic formula
, where i is the number of the
jug. Develop a program that for
given numbers i
and i
finds the
total amount of water in the jugs
from i
to i
For n numbers entered from
the keyboard, compare the
count of positive and nega-
tive numbers
For n numbers entered from the
keyboard, find the length of the
maximum series of numbers that
are ordered in ascending order.
Do not use the array
onal Array
Replace the surnames “Danko”
with “Tanko” in given array of
Delete items that are equal
and next to each other from
given array, which contains a
list of company names
Two arrays of surnames are spec-
ified. Elements with the same in-
dex define the ancestor descen-
dant pair. Develop a program that
identifies all the ancestors of a
person by a given surname and
writes their surnames to a new ar-
ray in chronological order
onal Array
Replace all negative elements of
the 2D array with zeros
A square table is specified,
each element of which deter-
mines the distance between
cities. Assume that there are
no errors in the table. Find
pairs of cities with the mini-
mal distance between them.
A rectangular table is given: the
number 1 indicates land, and the
number 0 indicates water. Deter-
mine the number of islands. As-
sume that from one cell you can
go to another “by land” if they are
located next to each other verti-
cally or horizontally.
tempts, but only the results of the first attempt were
used in the present study.
The second stage of our empirical work was re-
alised in the course Algorithms and data structures”
for future bachelors in Computer science (Software
and applications development and analysis). We used
Introspection as a Condition of Students’ Self-management in Programming Training
the same series of tasks that was suggested to students
by Workshop elements in Moodle personal learning
environment. The kind of grading was the same as
one on the first stage: +1 point, if the program is sub-
mitted and perform the required results; +1 point, if
the program correctly work with the author’s tests,
+1 point, if the reviewer cannot suggest any tests to
indicate the bugs. Students took part in the grading
together with a teacher, it was anonymous peer re-
view process. This work supported developing stu-
dents’ skills in introspection and promoted them to
self-management of their own independent work. The
analysis of students’ review used in this paper to de-
scribe binds between quality of such grading, qual-
ity of submissions and student’s introspection compe-
The pedagogical environment was essentially dif-
fer from the one at the first stage because of different
educational programs and influence of the COVID-
2019 pandemic. Microsoft Visual Studio (C++) was
used as the software-instrumental resources. All stu-
dents solved these problems out off classroom. There
were only review lectures and one practical work in
class rooms, because COVID-2019 pandemic have
started. So the students have not been equipped with
examples of solving similar problems, but they had
some experience in programming as a result of pass-
ing previous courses according the curricular. We
can believe that management of students’ indepen-
dent work in problem solving was subsidiary or self-
management. Personal learning environment in Moo-
dle was the key component of the courseware. The
leading information channel was the interactive lec-
tures realised in Lesson element of Moodle (direct
management with answering short questions after
each portion of information) as well as the teacher
consultations in built-in messenger (co-management).
The system of pedagogical diagnostics was based
on analysing workshop submissions and assessments,
built-in lecture testing, results of final tournaments
in programming. The material on base algorithms
for linear data structure processing (linear algorithms,
branching, cycles, one-dimensional arrays process-
ing, two-dimensional arrays processing) covers only
first module of the course in contract with the curric-
ular of future teachers of informatics.
There were not the final test for future computer
science bachelors because of COVID-2019 pandemic.
So we needed another values for comparison the stu-
dents’ educational achievements with characteristics
being investigated. We used the results of automated
testing during the students’ work with Lesson element
in Moodle. There were 6 of such interactive lectures
in the course (not only for the investigated topics).
The questions were both theoretical and practical. A
student could try to pass the lecture so many times as
he/she wanted. We used the highest test results for
each lecture as the test value. The average of these
test values across the course were calculated to obtain
appropriate characteristic for each student. Also the
average time that students used for lecture studying
and testing was analysed as an additional characteris-
tic of student’s style of learning.
Students had possibility to pass the course with-
out taking part in suggested workshops by indepen-
dent studying correspondent material using the Inter-
net and taking part in tournaments to show their com-
petences. 11 students – future bachelors of computer
science have taken part in the workshops.
4.1 Future Informatics Teachers
Correlation between students’ final test results and
students’ average grades for submitted works has
been evaluated to estimate the validity of our assess-
ment tools on the sample of future teachers of infor-
matics (figure 1). Coefficient of Pearson’s correlation
is 0.70 that is statistical significant at the 5% signifi-
cance level.
Figure 1: Correlation between students’ final test results
and students’ average grades for submitted works (future
informatics teachers).
Correlation between the quality of tasks execution
by students and their skills in assessment seems to be
very good for 7 students (figure 2), but 3 students with
highest results of tasks execution did not take part in
assessment, so we cannot prove this correlation statis-
tically, the size of our sample is not enough. Accord-
AET 2020 - Symposium on Advances in Educational Technology
ing to our pedagogical observation, some students did
not take part in the assessment because of their mis-
takes in time planning.
Figure 2: Correlation between students’ average grades for
assessment and average grades for submitted works (future
informatics teachers).
Not all students were able to maintain the proper
pace of educational activity progressing from the first
topic to the last (figure 3). Some of them worked
effective only in the begin, when direct instructions
were full enough to execute some tasks. Because of
low motivation and lack of elementary skills in self-
management, they did not switch to co-management
by their own initiative. These students did not sub-
mit some works in time and then passed the tasks at
classes with personal participation of the teacher in
the process of programming and time planning. So we
should develop a mechanism for preventive diagnos-
tic of students’ skills in self-management and timely
turn them to direct management of educational activ-
ity. Also, we see that direct management is an easier
way of educational activity for some students. This
way seems more comfortable for them. So, we should
develop special methods to motivate this category of
students for their progressing to self-management of
the own educational activity. But other students ac-
tively used communication and additional sources to
solve problems and did not decrease the level of sub-
missions, when progressing to next, more difficult
As expected, the most difficult for the students
was the third task in each Workshop, the least difficult
the first task (figure 4). Analysing the structure of
student works according to given criteria (figure 4),
we can conclude that the most problem for students
was not the development of the program but provident
that it works correctly. The author’s tests often were
absent or incorrect. The program, if present, often
was correct, but sometimes the reviewer’s tests could
find some bugs.
Figure 3: Students’ progressing from the first topic task
(Linear algorithms) to the last (2D-arrays). Students’ names
are shown as S1-S10. Vertical axis shows students’ grades
for submission. The maximum possible grade was 50 (fu-
ture informatics teachers).
Figure 4: Part of submissions that satisfy to the criterion
(program code, author’s test, reviewer’s test) on each task
(first, second, third). This part was calculated as average
for all 5 Workshops (future informatics teachers).
The analysis of the structure of students’ works
showed that the students’ competency in introspection
was not enough. In our opinion, the introspection is
one of the leading elements of self-management com-
petency. So the educational tasks should always con-
tent some sub-tasks on introspection.
Summarizing the result of our experience in com-
bining of different types of management of students’
educational activity, we can conclude that providing
the above pedagogical conditions gave us possibility
to improve the educational process in “Practicum of
problem solving in informatics”. Flexible manage-
ment of students’ educational activity with timely turn
from the direct management to co-management and
subsidiary management with return, when needed,
supported the efficiency learning. In despite students’
involving in practical labour out of the educational
process, the goals of “Practicum of problem solving
Introspection as a Condition of Students’ Self-management in Programming Training
in informatics” were achieved.
4.2 Future Computer Science Bachelors
According to curricular future computer science
bachelors had additional training in programming and
their results were higher (see figure 5). Their compe-
tence in introspection was enough to produce testing
of own programs in comparison with future informat-
ics teachers. But sometimes students did not see the
error in these tests. So the grades for auto testing were
lower than one for submissions: the program works
and processes some data with errors, this errors are
shown by author’s test, but the author submits this test
and does not see the errors. To find errors that were
not shown by author’s test was more difficult. But
reviewers found these errors, so grades for review’s
tests were less. This situation is well known in prac-
tice of software developing. Therefore, introspection
is one of the necessary soft competencies in this field
of business.
Figure 5: Part of submissions that satisfy to the criterion
(program code, author’s test, reviewer’s test) on each task
(first, second, third). This part was calculated as average
for all 5 Workshops (future computer science bachelors).
We did not observe a tendency to decreasing stu-
dents activity and quality of submissions with increas-
ing the difficulty of tasks (see figure 6).
In our opinion, this fact characterises that students
of this sample do not need in direct management of
their independent work and tried to solve complicated
problems. On other hand they, may be, were not so
careful with “simple” problems.
Figure 7 shows correlation between students’
grades for assessment and submissions. This grades
was calculated as average of corresponded grades for
all 5 workshops. All grades are shown in relative val-
ues, so diapason of values is from 0 to 1.
The above analysis shows that introspection is one
Figure 6: Students’ progressing from the first topic task
(Linear algorithms) to the last (2D-arrays). Students’ names
are shown as S1-S11. Vertical axis shows students’ grades
for submissions. The maximum possible grade was 1.0 (fu-
ture computer science bachelors).
Figure 7: Correlation between students’ average grades for
assessment and average grades for submitted works (future
computer science bachelors).
of the key integral characteristic of the student’s learn-
ing style. It is important element of pedagogical con-
ditions for high levels of student’s independent work
management up to self-management. More over, the
introspection is a part of professional competences of
software engineers. We can see positive correlation
between the introspection signs and the signs of prob-
lem solving in software developing. Despite satis-
factory level of introspection that was observe at our
study we should stress that any courseware needs in
special tasks for developing and monitoring students’
We can conclude that the level of students’ in-
dependent work management was enough high as a
result of providing the theoretically grounded peda-
gogical conditions in in the teaching the course Al-
gorithms and data structures”. Realisation of distant
learning components in our courseware gave us pos-
sibility for monitoring and timely change the levels
AET 2020 - Symposium on Advances in Educational Technology
of learning activity management for each student and
supported students’ self-management when COVID-
19 pandemic has influenced on the educational pro-
4.3 Correlation Between Introspection
and Success in Directly Managed
Direct management of students’ educational activity
(independent work) was organised at studying new
material with Lesson elements of Moodle learning
management system. There were suggested 6 such
lectures: “Graph processing algorithms (data repre-
sentation)”; “Graph processing algorithms (data anal-
ysis)”;“Optimization problems on graphs”; “Basics of
tree data structure”; Application of tree data struc-
ture”; “Fundamental algorithms and their construc-
tion”. This lectures assumed a student to read edu-
cational material by short portions and answer cor-
responding questions online. The lecture work was
graded on the base of student’s answer correctness.
Students attempts to listen the lecture material and
answer the question were not limited. The highest
grade for answering was used in the course grading
system. The time of each attempt was stored. So
we have possibility to check was there some corre-
lation between students’ results in creative work with
their programs developing or testing (high levels of
students’ independent work management) and results
in lecture studying that was managed directly.
Figure 8 shows that correlation between students
submissions and their lecture testing result are absent.
Direct management provided high level of students’
mastering in educational material despite of their re-
sults in program developing. Moreover, some stu-
dents with high mastering in programming did not
paid attention enough to obtain the maximum grade
for this kind of educational work. We can see similar
picture when analysing the correlation between stu-
dents’ grades for assessment and their lecture testing
result (figure 9). There are not correlation between
students’ grades for assessment and the average time
that students used to complete lecture with built-in
tests also (figure 10). So we can conclude that intro-
spection did not influence at the efficiency of direct
managed educational activity.
Our pedagogical observations during the presented
empirical work showed that providing the theoretical
Figure 8: Correlation between students’ average grades for
submissions and average of the highest grades for lecture
testing (future computer science bachelors).
Figure 9: Correlation between students’ average grades for
assessment and average of the highest grades for lecture
testing (future computer science bachelors).
Figure 10: Correlation between students’ average grades for
assessment and the average time that they used for lecture
studying and testing (future computer science bachelors).
grounded pedagogical conditions of management of
Introspection as a Condition of Students’ Self-management in Programming Training
student’s educational activity led to improving the ed-
ucational process in the field of programming. We
implemented flexible management of student’s edu-
cational activity with timely turn from the direct man-
agement to co-management and subsidiary manage-
ment. We observed that such methods supported the
efficiency of learning.
Analysis of obtained experimental data in context
of our theoretical framework has given the base for
such conclusions:
signs for student’s introspection as a characteris-
tic of his/her learning activity was suggested: 1)
student’s success in testing there own programs;
2) student’s success in testing and evaluation of
the program code of other participants of the ed-
ucational process our pedagogical observations
showed that introspection measured by this way
positively influenced to students self-management
students’ competency in introspection is impor-
tant as for self-management of their independent
work as for solving practical tasks in the field of
programming, so it should be improved, and ed-
ucational tasks should always content some sub-
tasks on introspection;
some students are not ready to manage their own
learning activity, sometimes the type of manage-
ment of student’s educational activity should be
timely turned back to direct management us-
ing direct management of learning activity for stu-
dents with low competence in introspection gave
them possibility to master the educational mate-
students’ introspection did not influence on effi-
ciency of their learning activity under direct man-
agement; more over, some students with high
level of introspection did not carry out the tasks
under direct management enough carefully; so
the improving management of students’ indepen-
dent work from direct management through co-
management and subsidiary management to self-
management is the important task of educational
Further work in the field of computer-oriented
management of students’ independent educational ac-
tivity we see in developing new methods of stu-
dents’ progress from direct management through co-
management and subsidiary management to self-
management in information and communication edu-
cational environments, in introduction of these meth-
ods into various educational disciplines as well as
studying pedagogical and psychological conditions to
increase students’ motivation for self-management of
own educational activity.
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Introspection as a Condition of Students’ Self-management in Programming Training