Creativity of Foreign Languages Teachers in Ukrainian Higher
Education Institutions: Empirical Data
Kateryna S. Balakhtar
1,2 a
, Olena I. Bondarchuk
2 b
and Serhii E. Ostapov
2 c
Yuriy Fedovych Chernivtsi National University, 5 Sadova Str., Chernivtsi, 58012, Ukraine
University of Educational Management, 52A Sichovykh Striltsiv Str., Kyiv, 04053, Ukraine
Creativity, Foreign Languages Teacher, Creative Components, Value Component, Cognitive Component,
Behavioural Component, Individual Psychological Factors, Organizational and Professional Factors.
The study highlights the problem of creativity of foreign languages teachers of higher education as a pow-
erful resource for self-realization and the development of the personality of higher education student. The
research aims at describing the teachers’ creativity as their ability to creative non-standard thinking, to ef-
fectively solve complex problems of both professional activity and their own lives. The article highlighted
the results of empirical research of value, cognitive and behavioural components and individual-psychological
and organizational-professional factors of creativity of foreign language teachers. According to the results
of ANOVA, there were established statistically significant differences in the manifestations of creativity of
foreign language teachers depending on their gender, age and organizational and professional characteristics.
We offer the structure of the program of the development of creativity of the foreign languages teacher di-
rected on the development of value, cognitive and behavioural components and individual-psychological and
organizational-professional factors.
At the age of innovative changes, unpredictable and
ever-changing life demands the evolutionary transfor-
mations in all fields, including education. According
to Kozbelt et al. (Kozbelt et al., 2010), these changes
are impossible without the development of creativity.
Since this development takes point from education,
to form the foreign languages teacher’s creative po-
tential has becoming an urgent request. Moreover,
the education base is creativity due to Guilford (Guil-
ford, 1967), which expands the teacher’s worldview;
makes them to solve serious problems; promotes per-
sonal development; diversifies life; strives to self-
realization and self-actualization.
The World Economic Forum in Davos at 2016 pre-
dicted that creativity in 2020 would be one of the three
most essential skills that employers will value in their
employees, along with critical thinking and compre-
hensive problem-solving. This forces higher educa-
tion institutions to form an institutional environment,
a creative teaching community capable of developing
creativity, creative thinking, and involving students
in the production of creative knowledge at all levels
(Council of the European Union, 2007).
Increasing creativity in the educational process al-
ways begins with the education of teachers (Rinke-
vich, 2011), the formation of their competencies,
which depends on motivation, competence content of
the educational process and the competence of re-
search and teaching staff and regulated by the Law of
Ukraine “On Higher Education”, Standards and Rec-
ommendations on quality assurance in the European
Higher Education Area, Tuning Educational Struc-
tures in Europe (Gonz
alez and Wagenaar, 2008) and
other normative legal acts, administrative documents
which are in the field of responsibility of higher edu-
cation institutions in the context of their autonomy.
In changing real-time conditions, teachers of
higher education institutions by the requirements of
international institutions to form general and special
competencies of graduates (Gonz
alez and Wagenaar,
2008; Bakum and Morozova, 2015; Kazhan et al.,
2020) should demonstrate a high level of effective de-
velopment and implementation of innovative educa-
tional technologies, forms, methods and techniques
Balakhtar, K., Bondarchuk, O. and Ostapov, S.
Creativity of Foreign Languages Teachers in Ukrainian Higher Education Institutions: Empirical Data.
DOI: 10.5220/0010920500003364
In Proceedings of the 1st Symposium on Advances in Educational Technology (AET 2020) - Volume 1, pages 81-96
ISBN: 978-989-758-558-6
2022 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
in the organization and content of the educational
process (Kulbashna, 2014; Savchenko et al., 2018).
Teachers have to not only be creative and productive
in any reformations but also: interact effectively in
society; adequately respond to challenges; and acti-
vate their creative potentials. Thus, a modern gradu-
ate is ready to perform novel unexpected professional
tasks that exceed knowledge and experience and re-
quire non-standard creative solutions from him or her.
Teachers have a pivotal role to play in creating a
quality experience for students and providing condi-
tions for the acquisition of new knowledge, compe-
tencies and skills (Smidt, 2015). And it is impossible
to do without critical and creative thinking (Vlasenko
et al., 2020), highly developed imagination, aesthetic
worldview, and openness to new life and professional
experience, flexibility, originality and so on.
Hence, to form a creative personality, it is rele-
vant to: create an appropriate creative environment,
promote the development of a high level of creative
abilities, creative potential and be inclined to creative
activity, etc. “High educational institution has always
been a place of creativity but in the XXI century.
There are much higher requirements for educational
institutions - to become a creative teaching commu-
nity, where students participate in the production of
creative knowledge at all levels” (Korniyenko, 2021).
Creativity is essential both in the theoretical and
practical activities of higher education teachers. Af-
ter all, as Zhuravlova and Filonenko (Zhuravlova and
Filonenko, 2012) point out, a creative teacher per-
ceives problems from a different angle, does not turn
into a stereotypical solution to the problem, but solves
it in an intriguing new way. The creative teacher per-
sonality is characterized by originality, tolerance to
uncertainty, openness to new informative and thor-
ough knowledge, diligence and self-demands. These
allow the teacher to create new products and imple-
ment them in professional activities.
Hence, creative teaching is important in all fields
of education, as a creative foreign languages teacher
of higher education improves and develops students’
creativity, their perception about creativity, and assists
with a successful way into further life.
But the main outcome of creative teaching is that
creative foreign languages teachers of higher educa-
tion institutions teach their student how to upgrade
their creative ideas, beliefs and behaviour (Morris,
2006). In addition, creative teaching is natural part
of foreign languages teachers of higher education in-
stitutions. Accordingly, foreign languages teachers of
higher education institutions have three advantages in
creative teaching, i.e. all languages are naturally cre-
ative; languages classes are unlimited in time of top-
ics, and the visualization of real life situations through
different tasks in the classes (Stepanek, 2015).
Creativity of foreign languages teachers of higher
education institutions acquires special meaning, as
it is a powerful resource for the development of
student’s personality of higher education institutions
(Moskaliova, 2014), promotes the development of
constructive, critical thinking and professional com-
Therefore, the teacher’s creativity, his ability to
creative non-standard thinking, the ability to effec-
tively solve complex problems of both professional
activity and his own life are of particular importance
(Balakhtar, 2019b,c). Consequently, the present study
has aimed to explore the peculiarities of creativity of
foreign languages teachers of higher education insti-
Around the world, there are many scholars, scientists
and theorists who have made a great contribution to
research about creativity. Creativity is seen by many
researchers in terms of novelty, originality, productiv-
ity, problem-solving ability, the ability to be reflex-
ive and risky (Amabile, 2001; Tanggaard, 2011). To
identify the concept of creativity, it is better to differ-
entiate the terms of creative potential, creative actual-
ization and creative talent (Barbot and Lubart, 2012;
Besanc¸on et al., 2013).
Walberg (Walberg, 1988) stated that the creative
potential is hidden skill to generate the effective orig-
inal work which is a part of personal’s capital. Cre-
ative potential is a mixture of resources becoming
functional with aspects of motivation, cognition and
personality (Sternberg, 2020; Sternberg and Lubart,
1995). The personal’s achievement, which is cre-
ative, considers as creative actualization. Therefore,
creative talent is an ability to produce creative work
(Besanc¸on et al., 2013).
Among modern Ukrainian researchers, a signifi-
cant groundwork in the development of the concept
of creativity as a deep, initial and completely “natu-
ral” personality traits, mechanisms of creative think-
ing, the creative potential was made by Maksymenko
(Maksymenko, 2013), Moliako (Moliako, 2007) and
Particular attention in the context of the problem
under study deserves the work of scientists devoted to
the study of the psychological characteristics of the
creative potential of heads of general educational in-
stitutions (Bondarchuk and Pinchuk, 2015) as a fac-
tor in constructive solutions to managerial problems
AET 2020 - Symposium on Advances in Educational Technology
(Moskaliova, 2014), the formation of communicative
competence of leaders of educational organizations
(Briuhovetska, 2010), the formation of a creative style
of activity, knowledge and development of intellec-
tual and creative abilities (Sologub, 2005, p. 4-5) and
Hence, creative potential specifies the mixture
of individual and contextual resources becoming ef-
fective in a creative work within motivation, cogni-
tion and personality factors (Sternberg and Lubart,
1995). Importantly, Sternberg and Lubart (Sternberg
and Lubart, 1995) determine creativity is more than a
combination of an individual’s resources.
Scholars consider on the three points: creativity is
impossible if there are some thresholds for some com-
ponents (for instance, knowledge) even when other
components are high; some compensation prevails
when one component is more powerful than the other
one and confront it (e.g. knowledge versus motiva-
tion); creativity is in process when all the categories
are present and active (Sternberg, 2020).
The system of knowledge, skills and abilities is
dominant in the activity of teachers. It is vital to de-
velop the mental qualities, types and forms of think-
ing (including critical) depending on the specifics
of professional activity. According to Makarenko
(Makarenko, 2017), the cognitive component relies
on the intellectual sphere and reflects “awareness and
knowledge of reality about the profession, possession
of a set of theoretical and practical knowledge on
which praxeological foundations of professional ac-
tivity and practical thinking, and ways of acquiring
knowledge are based”.
Knowledge serves as a “special form of spiritual
assimilation of the results of cognition, the process of
reflecting activities, which is characterized by aware-
ness of their truth”. Assimilation of knowledge is
characterized by purposefulness, systematicity, con-
sistency, logic and meaningfulness. Knowledge deter-
mines the teacher’s attitude to morality, work, value
system, activity and reality in general.
The recognition of the values has a significant role
as certain beliefs remain a central place in the individ-
ual belief system and serve as guiding principles of
life. Value orientations are a mandatory component
in the professional teacher’s activity, display the life
experience, life goals of the individual, and indicate
what is most in demand for him/her and has a per-
sonal meaning. After all, the internal acceptance of
personally unhesitating senses is an imminent condi-
tion for the personal values formation (Honcharenko,
1997, p. 137). As for personal values, it is, as Radul
(Radul, 2019) notes, aware and accepted by the indi-
vidual general meanings of his life.
A teacher of higher education must have universal
(life, man, tolerant, society, happiness, justice, etc.),
national (national idea, native language, the language
of other peoples, traditions, customs, national sym-
bols, folklore, etc.), civil (democratic) rights and re-
sponsibilities, tolerance for dissenters, respect for the
culture and national traditions of other peoples, reli-
gious tolerance, etc.), family (values of family life: re-
spect, love, mutual aid, the harmony of relationships,
etc.) and personal (education, self-realization, health,
life wisdom, etc.) values (Yanitskiy, 2000, p. 6).
It is worth noting that teachers’ ideas about the
system of values, the hierarchy of its beliefs are rele-
vant today. Thus, Rokeach (Rokeach, 1973) describes
values as a firm belief that a particular behaviour or
ultimate goal of existence has potential significance
from his point of view, and may differ from the op-
posite or opposite behaviour or ultimate goal of exis-
tence. Thus, values act as the standards or the crite-
ria regulating as installations, so and actions, compar-
isons, estimations. In other words, they legitimize the
individual and his environment (Farcane et al., 2019).
Creativity is the foremost quality of a person of
the XXI century and is of paramount importance in
the formation of higher education institutions teach-
ers’ professional and methodological competence, in
general, and teachers of foreign languages in particu-
lar. It “... is a human activity, as a result of which new
material and spiritual values of social significance are
created. Creativity, being the work result and indi-
vidual’s efforts, at the same time, always has a social
character” (Rokeach, 1973). Creativity is a process
that contributes to the creation of new. Creativity is
considered as a potential, an inner person resource,
which is a relatively stable characteristic of the indi-
vidual and provides the ability to abandon stereotyp-
ical ways of thinking, acquire the ability to identify
new ways of solving problems or new forms of ex-
pression (Bondarchuk and Pinchuk, 2015; Dyachenko
and Kandybovich, 1998).
According to Hamza and Griffith (Hamza and
Griffith, 2006), teachers should be “accessible,
friendly, knowledgeable, interesting, caring, leaders,
insightful, imaginative, and able to manage conflicts,
minimize disruptions and create innovative classes in
the classroom”.
According to Saprykina (Saprykina, 2013), the
components of creativity of the teacher’s personal-
ity are motivation, psychological and pedagogical
knowledge, general erudition, pedagogical intuition,
highly developed intellect, high level of universal cul-
ture, and professional mastery of various methods of
teaching and education. The researcher notes that a
creative teacher is independent, self-reliant and per-
Creativity of Foreign Languages Teachers in Ukrainian Higher Education Institutions: Empirical Data
sistent, has high intellectual development, sense of
humour, lively mind and acting character, and is able
to show flexibility in their views.
Achieving the formation of the components of cre-
ativity is complicated by the specific features of the
pedagogical activities of higher education institutions
teachers, which are characterized by: “a special kind
of subjective professional interaction; multifunction-
ality and increased degree of professional responsi-
bility; the need for continuous self-improvement in
teaching and research; the ambiguity of criteria for
assessing the effectiveness of scientific and pedagog-
ical activities; increased social requirements for pro-
fessional and personal qualities of the teacher, etc”
(Bondarchuk and Pinchuk, 2020).
The creativity of a higher education institutions
teacher, including a teacher of foreign languages, is
an integral part of personal development, which in-
teracts with creative socio-cultural relationships, in-
tellectual baggage of knowledge and spiritual values,
experience, skills and abilities between all subjects of
socio-pedagogical activities, which necessarily con-
tributes to self-realization, adaptation, socialization
and self-affirmation of the higher education teacher
(Petryshyn, 2014).
A foreign language teacher may implement vari-
ous activities in the process of teaching foreign lan-
guages, which contribute to both the development of
thinking skills and pronunciation of students: “cre-
ation of associations, analysis of cause-and-effect re-
lations, decision-making, problem-solving, creative
thinking” (Puchta and Williams, 2011). The higher
education teacher may carry out the creative teaching
in two ways: a) creatively teach and present educa-
tional material; b) teach for encouraging the develop-
ment of creativity in the personality of each student.
Creative teaching involves the use of figurative ap-
proaches in the construction of the educational pro-
cess to make teaching more entertaining, exciting and
productive. Teaching for creativity is challenging but
enjoyable, fascinating and efficient. In this case, the
teacher spends more time on: planning the lesson;
creating and developing ideas; evaluating the effec-
tiveness of selected tools and teaching methods; im-
provising, using interactive teaching methods; taking
risks every day; and assuming that the methods and
techniques he/she uses do not always work. Creative
teachers are always ready to experiment, realizing the
need for teaching experience (Guilford, 1959), “ex-
tremely responsible for the quality of teaching, al-
ways energetic, caring about the subjects and cre-
ative” (Volobuieva, 2011).
Buzovska (Buzovska, 2014) considers the peda-
gogical creativity of a foreign language teacher to be
a decisive factor in the development of creativity in
professional activity on the way to the top of ped-
agogical skills. She estimates the components are
creative thinking, production and generation of new
original ideas and approaches, problem-solving un-
According to Morozov (Morozov, 2004), peda-
gogical creativity consists of communicative and di-
dactic components. At the same time, the basis of
communicative creativity is dialogue and improvisa-
tion, and didactic creativity is receptivity to intellec-
tual values and the ability to innovate.
According to Sidorenko (Sidorenko, 2001), the
creativity of a foreign language teacher has contra-
dictions in problematic situations or creative tasks, as
well as objective (social and material) and subjective
(purpose, knowledge, skills, motivation, etc.) prereq-
uisites for development and realization of creativity
in the process of teaching foreign languages, the pres-
ence of novelty and originality in views on the process
and outcome of teaching.
Moreover, the teacher may indirectly influence the
modelling of value orientations of higher education
institutions students, their behaviour and actions dur-
ing teaching foreign languages. The peculiarity of a
foreign language teacher professional values is due
to his/her teaching a language that, “regardless of
ethnicity and genealogy is one of the most valuable
works of humanity as a civilized community, a reflec-
tion of the mentality of the natives, the phenomenon
of identification and culture” (Mamchur, 2016).
Besides, scientists believe that such components
like his/her inner potential, social and professional
experience, psychological, pedagogical and subject
knowledge, the ability to create new ideas, skills and
capabilities of the future specialist shape the creativity
of a foreign language teacher (Marchiy, 2008); cre-
ative thinking (improvisation, fictional spontaneous
situations, real experience, existing knowledge in a
new form, etc.) (Fisher, 2005; Oliver, 2013; Sawyer,
2011); intelligence, knowledge, thinking skills, per-
sonality, motivation and environment (Sternberg and
Lubart, 1993), etc.
It is also worth noting that the pedagogical cre-
ativity of a foreign language teacher is realized during
working and is manifested in the desire to improve
the professional level and achieve pedagogical skills.
Thus, if teaching a foreign language is fascinating and
exciting, then, as Starbuck (Starbuck, 2006) says, it
is creative teaching with a creative foreign language
The professional development, high level of mo-
tivation, openness, high sense of security, propensity
for new and flexible actions, goal-oriented teaching
AET 2020 - Symposium on Advances in Educational Technology
are those means that better characterize the creative
personality of a foreign language teacher. At the
same time, it is also vital to have remarkable intelli-
gence, diligence, energy, intuition and self-confidence
(Tavarez DaCosta, 2019).
The indicators of creativity of a foreign language
teacher include:
a developed memory;
the ability to concentrate;
to clearly and logically formulate their ideas,
to acquire skills of analysis of complex situations
and problems, using them in terms familiar to the
to have a high intensity of generating ideas, care-
fully filtering;
the capability to synthesize the general picture;
to be creative;
to critically evaluate the results of research, espe-
cially their own;
to develop a broad scientific worldview;
to get acquainted with the scientific and practical
results of related fields;
to strive for high culture, etc.
Creativity promotes self-development, adaptive
response to changing societal conditions and allows
producing new ideas using the creative abilities of
teachers, their intellectual experience, and openness
to experience. We suppose it necessary not only to
consider the essence and structure of creativity but
also to explore factors that contribute to the devel-
opment of the creative potential of foreign language
Thus, among the factors that contribute to the de-
velopment of the creative potential of foreign lan-
guage teachers, Bretsko and Marushka (Bretsko and
Marushka, 2018) identify: the motivational sphere,
the desire for self-development, improvement of per-
sonal professional skills and abilities; taking into ac-
count individual personality traits; awareness of the
significance of the humanistic value of the creative
individuality of the individual; specific organization
of training of future foreign language teachers; devel-
opment of abilities of future specialists to the analy-
sis, awareness of results of own professional activity;
mastering the knowledge of creative potential, knowl-
edge and understanding of the peculiarities of its de-
velopment, combine and use in pedagogical activities
in the study.
Besides, the researchers have found that follow-
ing properties characterize the creative personality of
a foreign language teacher, as: flexibility, spontane-
ity, creative thinking, imagination, originality, cre-
ative attitude to the profession, demanding the re-
sults of their work, achieving the defined goal of cre-
ative activity and effective solutions to problem sit-
uations, the ability to deviate from stereotypes and
inertia of thinking in teaching, create creative prod-
ucts; need and readiness for creative and professional
self-realization; non-standard attitude to oneself, the
world around, to any life situations and phenomena.
The psychological factors of development of pro-
fessional creativity of a teacher of foreign languages
singled out by Hotsulyak (Hotsulyak, 2008) deserve
special attention in the context of our research. These
include the motivational readiness of the teacher to
work systematically to improve the level of method-
ological skills; ability to critically analyze one’s own
professional activity, which makes it possible to iden-
tify characteristic psychological barriers and choose
“developing” strategies for their prevention and over-
coming; self-analysis of the formed system of me-
thodical and professional knowledge, skills, abilities
and search of new means and ways of teaching a for-
eign language; mastering by the teacher of innovative
interactive methods, forms and methods of solving
specific tasks of teaching a foreign language with the
observance of the appropriate psychological continu-
ity of the stages of mastering the methods of solving
methodological and pedagogical problems.
Thus, taking into account the above and taking
into account the definitions of creativity in the works
of scientists, we interpret the creativity of a foreign
language teacher as personal property, an inner re-
source that allows creative and innovative activities
aimed at producing and generating original (non-
trivial) foreign ideas and approaches. languages, ef-
fective solution of tasks in a non-traditional way, con-
structive non-standard and critical thinking, the desire
to improve their own experience, professional abili-
ties on the path to self-realization and the formation of
creative personality of students in foreign languages,
using interactive teaching methods involving innova-
tive technologies.
Components of creativity of a foreign teacher
are a cognitive component (system of general and
appropriate knowledge about creativity, features of
creative potential, understanding and understanding
of methods of teaching foreign languages based
on creative technologies, production of non-trivial
ideas, critical thinking), value (set of values, needs
and motives), which promote and accompany cre-
ative and innovative activities) and behavioural (ef-
fectiveness in making non-standard decisions, cre-
ating creative products, the ability to self-organize
Creativity of Foreign Languages Teachers in Ukrainian Higher Education Institutions: Empirical Data
creative work, etc.) components. The individ-
ual psychological (perfectionism, self-esteem, etc.)
and organizational-professional (creative environ-
ment, professional workload, communication, com-
pression, etc.) factors promote the development of
the creative potential of foreign language teachers is
In addition, contrary to common beliefs, creativity
is not only for exceptional people but it is a develop-
mental thing for all people (Kaufman and Sternberg,
2007; Sternberg and Williams, 1996).
Presently, there are many different technologies to
measure the personality’s creativity and creative po-
To study the components of creativity of for-
eign language teachers, we used: M. Rokeach’s
method “Value orientations” (Rokeach, 1968), K.
Ryffs questionnaire “Scales of psychological well-
being” (Ryff, 1989), test “Diagnosis of the creative
potential and creativity” (Rogov, 1999), scale As-
piration to be an independent person” test “Creativ-
ity” (Nikiforov et al., 2003), V. Boyko’s method “Di-
agnosis of communicative tolerance” (Boyko, 1998),
method of reflexivity by A. Karpov (Karpov, 2003),
method “Scale of self-efficacy” by R. Schwarzer and
M. Jerusalem (Topolov, 2011), O. Filatova’s method-
ology “Passive Perfectionism Scale” (Filatova, 2016),
S. Budassi’s “Personality Self-Assessment Method”
(Chudnovskiy, 2006), P. Spector and S. Jex’s “Profes-
sional Stress Scales” (Topolov, 2011), P. Spector and
S. Jex’s “Professional Workload Scales” (Topolov,
2011), P. Spector and S. Fox’s (in the adaptation
by E. Topolov) method “Factual Autonomy Scale
(FAS)” (Topolov, 2011), constructive resistance scale
(Topolov, 2011), method of incomplete sentences in
author’s modification.
The research was conducted among the foreign
languages teachers of higher education institutions.
The total size is 208 foreign languages teachers of
higher education from different regions of Ukraine
(Chernivtsi 53% of respondents and Kyiv 47%
respectively). The test includes eight indicators: cu-
riosity, self-belief, resilience and persuasiveness, am-
bition, auditory memory, visual memory, the desire
to be an independent person, the ability to think ab-
stractly and, the last one, the ability to focus on busi-
ness. Accordingly, we identified the levels of creativ-
low creative potential is limited, there is a lack
of faith in own strength, self-underestimation;
average – indicates the ability to improve the cre-
ative potential by destroying the fear of failure and
public condemnation;
high creative potential is enough high and
broadens the creative opportunities.
The respondents were grouped by:
gender (male – 39.4% and female – 60.6%);
age 1 - up to 30 years (22.1%), 2 – 30-40 years
(28.8%), 3 – 40-50 years (26.9%) and 4 – over 50
years (22.1%).
We processed the data and made the presentation
of results with the statistical software package SPSS
First of all, we were interested in the system of gen-
eral and special knowledge of foreign language teach-
ers about the essence of creativity, understanding and
awareness of the features of creative potential, the
specifics of creativity in the professional activities of
higher education institutions, their ability to reflect
and more.
After all, there is a growing need for people with
non-standard thinking, ready to show a creative ap-
proach to solving various problems, able to adapt to
rapidly changing socio-economic conditions, compet-
itive in the European labour market. Creativity is a
formidable factor in the development of personality,
its ability to abandon stereotypical ways of thinking,
to bring something new to the experience (Barron,
1969), “the ability to reflect the individual’s ability to
create new concepts and develop new skills, i.e. the
ability to create” (Morozov and Chernilevskiy, 2004).
The cognitive component of teachers’ creativity in
foreign language teaching should be based on men-
tal processes and actions, the basis of which is the
understanding and use of this phenomenon in speech
(Hodovanets and Lehan, 2016).
According to Kolesnikova and Dolgina
(Kolesnikova and Dolgina, 2001), in the acqui-
sition of cognition the following components play a
significant role: the performance of speech actions
according to rules (level of rules); awareness and
understanding of meanings of lexical units (level of
meanings); peculiarities of formulation of utterances,
their structure (level of speech activity); awareness
of utterance function (requests, advice, objections,
etc.) (social level); awareness of the conformity of
AET 2020 - Symposium on Advances in Educational Technology
the reported information to the cultural norms of
native speakers (cultural level); awareness of higher
education students of the peculiarities of education
(techniques, methods, tools, etc.); evaluation of their
effectiveness, and also self-assessments of the level
of language learning (students’ cognitive style of
Teaching foreign languages involves not only
mastering the actual linguistic knowledge but also the
translation of knowledge about the world. After all,
mastering a foreign language, we “learn the image of
the world inherent in the relevant people, a vision of
the world through the prism of national culture, one
of the most important components of which is lan-
According to Leontyev (Leontyev, 2017), the
main task of mastering a foreign language is to
“learn to orientate as a native speaker does”. This
forces teachers to ensure the appropriate context in
the classroom by regularly creating tasks following
new modern needs and challenges (problem situa-
tions, active communication, active participation in
dialogues, seminars, workshops, conferences, cre-
ative tasks, projects, etc.), initiative and the develop-
ment of interactive teaching skills.
The study of the features of creativity of foreign
language teachers in higher education institutions was
conducted by the indicators and criteria of value, cog-
nitive and behavioural indicators of the components
presented in the author’s model. First of all, we were
interested in the value attitude of foreign language
teachers to the constructive transformation of reality.
After all, the study of foreign languages involves
not only direct modelling of the person’s value be-
haviour and actions but also (Topolov, 2011):
involves students in socio-cultural relations;
promotes a person’s ability to be tolerant of an-
other nationalities and cultures;
pays attention to their own culture.
According to the results of empirical research, we
revealed an insufficient level of development of value,
cognitive and behavioural indicators of the compo-
nents of creativity of a foreign language teacher.
Thus, table 1 shows that the vast majority of re-
searchers are characterized by a low level of need
for interesting (creative) classes (76%), which prob-
ably leads to a lack of motivation to create innova-
tive methods and techniques (75.5%), designed to im-
prove the quality of activities, its effectiveness. It is
worth remembering that needs are the primary source
of motivation to implement interesting (creative) ac-
Besides, motivation is related to attitude, in par-
ticular, a high level of positive attitude to the forma-
tion and development of creative abilities was found
in 75.5%) researched teachers.
However, the value of creativity in the transfor-
mation of reality characterizes about half of the re-
spondents (49%), and the desire for self-development
(27.9%), freedom (individual independence) (38.5%)
– in about a third of respondents. In our opinion, this
may cause problems in the implementation of creative
thinking and the development of abilities, motivating,
directing and regulating functions in teaching foreign
languages to students.
Analysis of the value component of the creativity
of foreign language teachers shows a certain inconsis-
tency of their values with the purpose and objectives
of professional activity, however, without a value ap-
proach, “neither activity nor human life as a being
with different needs, interests and goals is impossi-
ble” (Tugarinov, 1988, p. 256).
Therefore, in our opinion, special attention should
be paid to promoting the development of motivation,
values, the interest of teachers in creative teaching
of foreign languages, reducing the influence of var-
ious demotivators of their professional activities (low
wages, lack of opportunities to improve skills, de-
velop their creativity, develop and implement inno-
vations, etc.).
Table 2 shows an insufficient level of the cogni-
tive component indicators of creativity of foreign lan-
guage teachers. Thus, most of the respondents are
characterized by low (clear ideas about creativity and
features of foreign language teaching) (77.9%), the
ability to produce non-trivial ideas (original) (69.2%)
ability to understand and accept the individuality
of another (46.2%)) and average (an initiative of
teachers in the organization and conduct of creative
classes (57.2%), self-belief (80.2%), critical thinking
(59.6%)) levels.
The value of a person, in general, and teachers of
foreign languages is determined by their ability and
experience to meet their own needs, motivate them-
selves to achieve goals and desires. In other words,
it means to take responsibility for your privacy. Ac-
cording to the study, most teachers are characterized
by an average level of self-belief, their strengths and
abilities, their self-worth as a teacher of foreign lan-
guages (80.2%). It may be due to various reasons and
indicates problems in accepting oneself as a person,
a teacher, dissatisfaction with oneself, destructive be-
haviour etc.
According to Dostovalov (Dostovalov, 2004),
faith serves as a three-component social attitude,
which, depending on the consistency of its compo-
Creativity of Foreign Languages Teachers in Ukrainian Higher Education Institutions: Empirical Data
Table 1: Levels of the value component of creativity of foreign language teachers.
Creative potential indicators
Levels number of
(respondents in %)
Low Average High
Value component
the value of creativity in the transformation of reality 49.0 34.6 16.3
desire for self-development 26.9 45.2 27.9
motivation to create innovative methods and techniques 75.5 19.2 5.3
positive attitude to the formation and development of creative abilities 2.4 22.1 75.5
the need to implement interesting (creative) classes 76.0 18.3 5.8
desire to be an independent person (desire for freedom) 22.1 39.4 38.5
Table 2: Levels of the cognitive component of creativity of foreign language teachers.
Creative potential indicators
Levels number of
(respondents in %)
Low Average High
Cognitive component
clear ideas about creativity and features of foreign language teaching 77.9 15.9 6.3
ability to produce non-trivial ideas (original) 69.2 21.2 9.6
initiative 26.4 57.2 16.3
the ability to understand and accept the individuality of another 46.2 46.2 7.2
Self-belief 14.4 80.2 4.8
Ability to understand and reflect 20.2 59.6 20.2
Critical thinking 23.1 59.6 17.3
nents (operational and reflexive), requires sufficient
maturity and focuses on internal mental processes.
After all, “self-confidence may not always be
reflected in a particular life situation or area due
to lack of time or self-interest, a tendency to self-
knowledg”. The scientist notes that the individual’s
awareness of self-worth, the cognitive component of
self-confidence is manifested first at the operational,
more superficial level, and later at the reflexive
level. The ability to understand and reflect on most
teachers is developed at an average level (59.6%).
The obtained results testify to the existing prob-
lems not only of knowledge and understanding of
oneself but also awareness of how others understand
and perceive the teacher’s personality: emotional re-
actions and cognitive representations of personality.
Only the one-fifth of the respondents (20.2%) has a
high level of reflexivity, which, in turn, ensures the
direction of their activity on the development of them-
selves as a whole, as a “system of systems” (Kostiuk,
1989); and on their characteristics on the possibilities
of self-construction, self-cause, self-development and
The obtained results show that the respondents are
insufficiently aware of the essence, the content of cre-
ativity, innovative methods and forms of foreign lan-
guage teaching. Likewise, this complicates the ability
of teachers to implement creativity, accept and cre-
ate new, non-standard thinking, generate original and
useful ideas. After all, it is the creativity of a foreign
language teacher that determines their “readiness for
change, rejection of stereotypes, and search for orig-
inal solutions to complex problems in a situation of
uncertainty” (Yakovenko, 2012).
Exploring the ability to implement creativity in the
professional activities of foreign language teachers,
we studied the features of the behavioural component.
The obtained results 3 showed a low level of ability
to take creative solutions (84.6%), to create new cre-
ative products (76.4%), to introduce innovative meth-
ods and forms (83.2%), ability to innovate, ingenuity
(87%), despite the average level of self-organization
of creative work (66.3%) and a high level of focus on
business (70.2%) (table 3).
Thus, the behavioural component requires a sig-
nificant expansion of teachers’ behaviour through
awareness of some common ways of teaching foreign
languages, creating conditions for the effective for-
mation and development of creative competence.
The effectiveness of professional activity of teach-
ers relies on several individual psychological and
organizational-professional factors that provide sig-
nificant conditions and factors influencing foreign
language teaching success.
Success factors are based on the structure of the
professional activity. It allows identifying them with
AET 2020 - Symposium on Advances in Educational Technology
Table 3: Levels of manifestation of the behavioural component of creativity of foreign language teachers.
Creative potential indicators
Levels number of
(respondents in %)
Low Average High
Behavioural component
The ability to take creative solutions 84.6 13.0 2.4
The ability to create new creative products 76.4 16.8 6.7
The ability to introduce innovative methods and forms 83.2 10.1 6.7
The ability to self-organize creative work 17.3 66.3 16.3
Focus on business 27.9 1.9 70.2
The capacity for innovation, creativity 87.0 10.6 2.4
The ability to manage a professional environment 31.7 42.3 26.0
its structural components, creating conditions for the
development of internal motivation to generate and
implement creativity, improving the educational pro-
cess by creating innovative methods and techniques
of teaching foreign languages.
We are impressed by the opinion of Buchatska
(Buchatska, 2005) on the importance of creating such
conditions under which the student would be a sub-
ject of educational activity, its active participant and
Given the importance of individual psychological
factors that contribute to the successful learning of
foreign languages, it is necessary to teach students
how to:
work independently;
act thoughtfully, consistently, systematically;
build self-confidence;
develop their professional competence;
promote personal development, and so forth.
According to the results of the study of individ-
ual psychological factors of creativity of foreign lan-
guage teachers (table 4), we revealed a low level of
perfectionism (39.4%), which complicates a respon-
sible attitude to foreign language teaching, following
internal patterns and high standards. Only 39.4% of
respondents strive to be the best, perfect, and unsur-
passed, grow personally and professionally, motivat-
ing oneself to successful creative activity (table 4).
Besides, more than half of the teachers displayed
low inadequate self-esteem (65.4%). Only 4.6% of
teachers have an adequate attitude to themselves, their
abilities, capabilities, orientation, activity and social
significance. That is just self-esteem is a vital internal
mechanism of self-regulation of behaviour and func-
tioning, which may change in the process of operation
and interaction of a foreign language teacher with the
Almost half of the respondents (49%) showed the
low level of adaptive abilities in interaction with peo-
ple, which complicates the creating positive motiva-
tion to form innovative methods and techniques of
teaching foreign languages and acceptance by teach-
ers of norms and values of creative professional activ-
ity. Adaptive abilities register that 3.8% of respon-
dents have convenient and modifying opportunities
to interact while learning foreign languages, hence,
which contribute to:
the growth of internal motivation;
positive changes in the value, cognitive, emotional
They display in behaviour, creativity, generation
and implementation of innovative methods and forms
of foreign language teaching.
Autonomy (self-government) is a personal quality
insufficiently developed (39.4% - the average level),
which characterizes: independence; and the ability to
self-determination in decision-making and actions of
the teacher to learn foreign languages based on their
principles, views, values, strategies, goals, available
resources and motives, etc.
According to the Vinogradova (Vinogradova,
2002), this is “the main quality of personality, which
is manifested in tolerability, non-conflict, as well as
resilience, trust and the ability to calmly and without
irritation to accept the individuality of others”. Com-
municative tolerance is relevant to foreign language
Thus, communication is one of the essential tools
of their professional activity, based on a friendly atti-
tude to others and a desire to interact based on con-
structive dialogue in foreign language learning.
So, it is necessary to realize creativity, energy, ac-
tivity, diligence and purposefulness, ability to trans-
form the reality (Balakhtar, 2019a).
We established the average level of development
of communicative tolerance (67.8%) as the most typ-
ical for foreign language teachers. This indicates
the ability to not fully interactively use language and
Creativity of Foreign Languages Teachers in Ukrainian Higher Education Institutions: Empirical Data
Table 4: Levels of manifestation of individual psychological factors of creativity of foreign language teachers.
Creative potential indicators
Levels number of
(respondents in %)
Low Average High
Individual psychological factors
perfectionism 39.4 21.2 39.4
self-esteem 65.4 34.6 -
adaptive abilities in interaction with people 49.0 47.1 3.8
Autonomy (self-government) 24.0 39.4 36.5
Communicative tolerance 32.2 67.8 -
other means of communication (a range of interac-
tive technologies, skills and abilities to function in
socially heterogeneous groups). Thus, the results in-
dicate the probability of not always successful inter-
action, cooperation in teaching foreign languages (ta-
ble 4).
In our opinion, the development of creativity of
foreign language teachers is influenced not only by
individual psychological factors but also by organi-
zational and professional ones, namely: professional
workload, professional compression, ability to con-
structive resistance.
Thus, 20% of the studied teachers showed a high
level of professional workload; 25% of people expe-
rience professional stress while teaching foreign lan-
guages; 27.9% of respondents are capable of con-
structive resistance (table 5).
Summarizing the results of the empirical study
of value, cognitive and behavioural components, the
following levels of creativity of foreign language
teachers, in general, were identified: above average
(10.6%), average (42.3%), below average (37.0%)
and low (10.1%) (table 6).
At the ascertaining stage of the empirical study,
there were no foreign language teachers with a high
level of creativity. At the same time, the results of
ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences
in the manifestations of creativity of foreign language
teachers depending on their gender and age (figure 1,
p < 0.05) and organizational and professional charac-
teristics (figure 2, p < 0.01). Thus, teachers of foreign
languages, both female and male, have a tendency by
creativity at the level to increase in (p < 0.05).
We suppose that the increase of creativity of
foreign language teachers with age comprehends
through: holding a higher position; obtaining a degree
and academic title; respectively higher pay; higher so-
cial status; more opportunities to meet the needs of
teachers, i.e. a more inclusive balance between con-
tributions efforts and benefits, although not enough.
We may assume that the insufficient level of cre-
ativity is due to the introduction of mass distance
teaching in a pandemic of the COVID-19 in higher
education institutions. It has led to an increase in
the working teacher’s load upon digitalization of ed-
ucation (Tkachuk et al., 2021; Velykodna, 2021; Ve-
lykodna and Frankova, 2021).
The teacher is forced, in addition to teaching for-
eign languages, to master: new digital tools by the
model of digitization chosen by the institution of
higher education; ICT and learning tools; new roles,
tasks and activities; new methods, forms and tech-
niques of distance teaching; and to establish effec-
tive communication of all participants in the educa-
tional process on network platforms, etc. (Areshon-
kov, 2020).
Besides, the peculiarities of the creativity of teach-
ers of foreign languages, depending on the position,
show that, in general, creativity grows with increas-
ing professional status (figure 2, p < 0.01).
This is probably due to different requirements for
the professionalism of teachers (assistant, senior lec-
turer, associate professor, professor), as well as “the
urgent need for a radical change of emphasis on pro-
fessional competencies of teachers in the transition to
digital universities and distance education in particu-
lar” (Areshonkov, 2020, p. 3).
The results are consistent with the JD-R model,
in which professional activities include requirements
and resources (Demerouti et al., 2001, p. 501).
Authors defined the Job requirements as “aspects
of the job that require sustained physical or mental
effort and are therefore associated with certain physi-
ological and psychological costs”.
The higher the status of the teacher, the presence
of a scientific title, scientific degree diversify the op-
portunities of teachers in the implementation of cre-
ative activities, the higher the level of autonomy, in-
teraction. At the same time, the lower the status of
the teacher, the fewer opportunities he/she has and the
more work overload. This, in turn, causes stress, con-
flict and insecurity and can lead to burnout. Accord-
ing to the JD-R model, stresses arise due to an imbal-
ance between the requirements of professional activ-
AET 2020 - Symposium on Advances in Educational Technology
Table 5: Levels of manifestation of organizational and professional factors of creativity of foreign language teachers.
Creative potential indicators
Levels number of
(respondents in %)
Low Average High
Organizational and professional factors
Professional workload 30.8 49.0 20.2
Professional stress 40.4 34.6 25.0
Ability to constructive resistance 34.6 37.5 27.9
Table 6: Levels of manifestation of components and factors of creativity of foreign language teachers.
Components and factors
Levels of manifestation of components of creativity, in %
low below average average above average high
Value component 6.3 47.1 34.1 12.5
Cognitive component 0.5 41.8 51.9 5.8
Behavioural component 10.1 62.0 23.6 4.3
Individual psychological factors 11.5 25.0 54.3 9.1
Organizational and professional factors 26.0 3.8 39.4 28.8 1.9
ity and the resources that the teacher invests to meet
these requirements (Schaufeli and Salanova, 2011).
We established statistically significant differences
in the creativity of foreign language teachers lean-
ing on the language of teaching. Thus, the study
results of teachers’ creativity while teaching English
showed lower rates than teachers of other foreign lan-
guages, including French. So, teachers may imple-
ment the creative approach in the teaching of foreign
languages; and language is a means of communica-
tion that is studied through the personal activities of
students. Typical tasks are search and creative, for
filling information gaps;
role-playing games;
solving problems, and so on.
Typical forms of work are group and pair work,
which contribute to the formation of a creative per-
sonality of both student and teacher. After all, it is
impossible to teach something if you do not own it
yourself. The use of interactive forms and methods of
work helps to form a positive interdependence and in-
dividual responsibility. Face-to-face interaction cre-
ates a collective and friendly skill. The process of
working in groups or pairs is always creative and ex-
ploratory: the task is set before the group, and ev-
eryone has an incentive to excel and make a contri-
bution. The use of group forms of work creates con-
ditions for both the development of thinking and for
We assumed that the creativity of foreign language
teachers affects their life satisfaction and subjective
well-being in general. Hence, teachers of higher ed-
ucational institutions have to achieve subjective and
psychological well-being, “strive to develop their per-
sonal potential, to create positive relationships, to en-
gage in productive and creative activity, to use their
creative abilities to generate innovative ideas, im-
prove their well-being and satisfaction with life, work
and self-develop” (Androshchuk et al., 2020). Ac-
cording to the results of ANOVA, we found statisti-
cally significant differences in subjective well-being
depending on the level of development of creativity
of foreign language teachers (figure 4, p < 0.01).
Figure 4 shows that teachers with a higher level of
creative potential development show higher indicators
of subjective well-being. This means that:
they feel happy and confident;
they are able to adapt to changing the professional
they are motivated to implement creative meth-
ods and techniques for the development of value,
cognitive and behavioural components of individ-
ual psychological and organizational-professional
factors of creativity of foreign language teachers.
In our opinion, it is impossible to achieve subjec-
tive well-being without enthusiasm for one’s work,
without motivating oneself to achieve success, profes-
sional growth, positive attitude to oneself as a teacher,
a person. Therefore, in our opinion, it is expedient
to develop a training program for the development of
creativity of foreign language teachers to achieve their
subjective well-being and success in professional cre-
ative activity.
The training program “Development of creativ-
ity of a foreign language teacher as a factor of their
subjective well-being” consists of 5 sessions aimed at
the development of value, cognitive and behavioural
Creativity of Foreign Languages Teachers in Ukrainian Higher Education Institutions: Empirical Data
Figure 1: The peculiarities of psychological safety of the educational environment of participants in the educational process
depending on gender and professional status (p < 0.05).
components and individual psychological and organi-
zational and professional factors. Each session con-
tains informational, diagnostic, developmental and
creative stages. Each stage involves tasks of different
types and kinds of complexity (interactive lectures,
thematic discussions, use of questionnaires, surveys,
methods (“Creativity” (Nikiforov et al., 2003), “Your
creative potential” (Rogov, 1999), “Diagnosis of
communicative tolerance” (Boyko, 1998), methods
of measuring reflexivity (Karpov, 2003), etc.), the
method of incomplete sentences, developmental ex-
ercises (“Creativity”, “Creative qualities of a teacher
of foreign languages”, “Believe in their creative abili-
ties”, “16 associations”, Alphabet”, “Creative life”,
“Suitcase, basket, meat grinder”, “Teacher’s cre-
ative personality”, “Life situations”, “Visualisation”,
“Drawing of professional “I”, “Realization of pro-
fessional skills”, “To be a teacher”, “Experience of
my mistakes”, “Who we are in a changing world”,
etc.), conducting organizational and activity games,
performing creative tasks, etc.
The first session aims at forming a value attitude
to the constructive transformation of reality and pro-
motes the development of the value of creativity for
the individual; striving for self-development and be-
ing an independent person; the development of mo-
tivation to create innovative methods and techniques;
positive attitude to the formation and development of
creative abilities; needs for the implementation of in-
teresting (creative) classes.
The second session involves the formation of
knowledge, awareness and understanding of the pe-
culiarities of teaching foreign languages through the
use of creative technologies: expanding ideas about
creativity, innovative methods and forms of teaching
foreign languages; ability to produce non-trivial ideas
(original); to show initiative in the organization of
creative activity; ability to understand and accept the
individuality of another person; self-believe and the
ability to understand and reflect; think critically.
The third session promotes the creative effective-
ness of teaching foreign languages, namely the ability
to make non-standard decisions, create new creative
products, self-organization of creative work; to intro-
duce innovative methods and forms; focus on busi-
ness; be capable of innovation, ingenuity, manage-
ment of the professional environment.
The fourth and fifth sessions aim at the develop-
ment of individual psychological and organizational-
professional factors, which promote the development
of creativity and motivate foreign language teachers
to achieve subjective well-being and success in pro-
fessional creative activity.
Thus, the results of the study revealed an insuffi-
cient level of formation of cognitive, value and be-
havioural components and individual-psychological
AET 2020 - Symposium on Advances in Educational Technology
Figure 2: Features of creativity of foreign language teachers depending on the position (p < 0.01).
Figure 3: Features of creativity of foreign language teachers
depending on the language of instruction (p < 0.01).
and organizational-professional factors of creativity
of language teachers. According to the results of an
empirical study of the value component of creativity,
we have identified a low level of development of the
value of creativity, the transformation of reality, mo-
tivation to create innovative methods and techniques,
the need to implement interesting (creative) activities.
The high level is revealed only by the indicator of a
positive attitude to the formation and development of
creative abilities.
We revealed an insufficient level of development
of the cognitive component of creativity of foreign
language teachers, namely: low level of clear ideas
about creativity and peculiarities of foreign language
teaching, ability to produce non-trivial ideas (origi-
nal), ability to understand and accept the individual-
Figure 4: Features of creativity of foreign language teachers
depending on the subjective well-being (p < 0.01).
ity of another. The study revealed the average level of
the initiative of teachers in the implementation of cre-
ative activities, self-belief, and ability to understand
and reflect, critical thinking. The low level was char-
acteristic of the relevant behavioural component of
the creativity of foreign language teachers, namely:
the ability to make non-standard decisions, create new
creative products, implement innovative methods and
forms, be innovators, and show ingenuity. The results
showed an insufficient level of manifestation of the
development of creativity of foreign language teach-
ers depends to a large extent on individual psycholog-
ical factors (perfectionism, adaptive abilities in inter-
action with people, autonomy) and organizational and
professional factors (professional workload, profes-
sional compression, communicative tolerance, ability
Creativity of Foreign Languages Teachers in Ukrainian Higher Education Institutions: Empirical Data
to constructive resistance).
We consider the development and testing of the
program an urgent need for their psychological sup-
port and additional support in the development of the
components of creative potential, the ability to think
critically, establish contacts and interact, be creative,
creative individuals.
Besides, we came up with the following way of
solving the current problem in the future, i.e. to test
and develop the program to promote the creativity of
teachers of foreign languages.
We offer the structure of the program of develop-
ment of creativity of the foreign languages teacher
consisting of 5 sessions directed on the develop-
ment of value, cognitive and behavioural components
and individual-psychological and organizational-
professional factors. The program contains informa-
tional, diagnostic, developmental and creative stages
that promote the development of creativity and moti-
vate foreign language teachers to achieve subjective
well-being and success in professional creative activ-
Prospects for further research on this issue are the
extension of the criteria and methods for studying the
effectiveness of the training program “The develop-
ment of creativity of foreign language teachers as a
factor in their subjective well-being”.
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