The Effect of Addition of Plastic Waste in Porous Asphalt
Concrete on Permeability and Properties Marshall
Eko Wiyono, Anni Susilowati, Pratikto
Department of Civil Engineering, Politeknik Negeri Jakarta, Jln. Prof. Dr. GA Siwabessy,
UI Depok 16425, New Campus, Depok, Indonesia
Keywords: Porous Asphalt Concrete, Plastic Waste, Permeability
Abstract: Porous asphalt mixture has low stability but high permeability due to the cavities in the mixture. For this
reason, it is necessary to add other materials in order to increase the stability of pavement mixture. The
purpose of this study was to obtain the Marshall property value of the porous asphalt concrete mixture. This
study is also analyze the effect of plastic waste in the porous asphalt concrete mixture on the permeability
and properties of Marshall. This research used is the experimental method in the laboratory. The Optimum
Asphalt Content (KAO) made with asphalt content 4.5%; 5%; 5.5%; 6%; and 6.5% without variation of
plastic waste. Furthermore, it is also made by KAO and the addition of plastic waste by 0%; 5%, 10%, 15%,
20% and 25% and tested with Marshall test and permeability. The results of the research with 5,5% KA0,
that the addition of plastic waste in the porous asphalt mixture can increase the value of stability, flow, and
marshall quotient. with an average value of 25% plastic waste content of 1296.71 kg; 3.62 mm and 353.19
kg / mm. However, the VIM and permeability values decreased, respectively, with an average value 20.65%
and 0.188 cm / s. The mixture of porous asphalt with plastic waste, for all parameters Marshall satisfied the
specifications required by the Australian Asphalt Pavement Association (2004) for moderate traffic
1 INTRODUCTION
One of the pavement types currently being
developed as a cover layer is porous asphalt
concrete. This mixture has low stability but high
permeability of cavities in the mixture. For this
reason, it is necessary to add other materials to
increase the stability value of the pavement mixture
(Arlia, Sofyan, Renni, 2018). The porous asphalt
mixture also contains a large percentage of coarse
aggregate, a small percentage of fine aggregate, thus
providing a large air cavity that can drain water
from the surface into the soil. The large cavity
makes porous asphalt has a low stability value. To
increase stability, added materials are needed
(Supriyadi, 2018 dan Ghulam, 2017). The high
cavity content results in a larger oxidized asphalt
surface which reduces the ability of the binder to
maintain the aggregate position, therefore an asphalt
with strong durable, and high viscosity binding
capacity is required. The porous asphalt mixture is a
mixture of hot asphalt between open-graded
aggregate and modified asphalt with a certain ratio
(Affan, 2006).
Plastic is a commodity that is often used in
everyday life. The most possible way to handle
plastic waste is to reuse plastic (reuse), reduce
plastic consumption (reduce), and recycle (Anonim,
2018). Recycling plastics can be used as a mixture
of asphalt concrete. Asphalt concrete plastic has
been developed in several areas such as Bekasi and
Bali. Asphalt Concrete plastics has several
advantages, namely having a high level of pavement
better, it is not easy to leave a trail of wheels when
wet asphalt is traversed vehicle, and its durability
also increases when compared to ordinary asphalt
(Sumadilaga, 2017). According to (Zulfiani,2012)
that plastic flakes can dissolve in 60/70 penetration
asphalt at a temperature of 1540C. The substitution
of plastic flakes for 60/70 penetration asphalt can
save the use of asphalt by 2.5% of the weight of
asphalt used in the mixture asphalt concrete AC-
WC. With the percentage of PE and HDPE as an
asphalt mixture of 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% of the
weight of the asphalt tends to increase the value of
stability, flow, and VFA but tends to decrease the
values of VIM, VMA, and MQ. The effect of adding
HDPE on the application of asphalt mixture
Wiyono, E., Susilowati, A. and Pratikto, .
The Effect of Addition of Plastic Waste in Porous Asphalt Concrete on Permeability and Properties Marshall.
DOI: 10.5220/0010560201270132
In Proceedings of the 9th Annual Southeast Asian International Seminar (ASAIS 2020), pages 127-132
ISBN: 978-989-758-518-0
Copyright
c
2021 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
127
Marshall characterization value is better than the
mixture of asphalt with PE (Rahmawati, 2015).
According to Veranita, 2016) with an optimum
asphalt content of 5.88%, a permeability of 0.28%
was obtained and the higher the retona blend content
of 55 in the porous asphalt mixture, the stability,
and durability values increased while the
permeability and cavity levels continued to
decrease. (Novrianto, 2016) that the use of LDPE
plastic values for density, stability, and Marshall
Quotient (QM) all meet the requirements (General
Specifications of Bina Marga 2018). According to
(Ismayalomi, 2019) the addition of PET plastic:
LGA can increase the stability value due to the same
PET properties as asphalt and the presence of
bitumen content in the LGA granules, an increase
also occurs in the value flow because the more PET:
LGA content can make the mixture more flexible.
HDPE plastic waste as bitumen binder provides
better resistance to permanent deformation due to its
high stability and high Marshall Quotient and
contributes to the recirculation of plastic waste for
environmental protection.
There are several advantages of porous asphalt,
according to Kraemer, (1997) in (Falderika, 2004);
Greater slip resistance; Rapid drainage of water
from the pavement surface which reduces wet time
from the surface; and Flexibility without fatigue or
rutting. Apart from these advantages, there are
several disadvantages of porous asphalt mixtures,
including (Falderika, 2004): Low stability; Requires
a high cost; Has low durability so that the service
life of the pavement ranges from 7 to 10 years.
(Hendrastianto, 2019) Plastic waste is a waste
material made of plastic that is no longer used and is
no longer useful for human life. Plastic waste can
become useful again after being recycled. As for PP
plastic (polypropylene) seeds, it is a seed plastic
made of propylene monomer which has rigid,
odorless, and properties resistant to chemical
solvents, acids, and alkalis.The process of recycling
plastic waste into plastic pellets (pellets).
(Veranita. 2016) The addition of 2% -4% UF
on KAO, shows that the permeability coefficient
value of the open-graded asphalt concrete mixture is
increasing, this indicates that the greater the addition
of UF, the greater the cavities produced by the
mixture and the faster the water flow time from the
surface to the bottom of the concrete asphalt. this
addition of UF will provide stiffness and reduce the
elasticity of the asphalt.
Typical mean values of
porous asphalt aggregate grading for a maximum
diameter of 10 mm, 14 mm and 20 mm are quoted
from AAPA (2004).One of the aggregates grading
for porous asphalt according to (Australian Asphalt
Pavement Association,2004) is as in Table 1 below.
Table 1. Aggregate Grading Limits for Porous Asphalt
Mixtures, (According to Australian Asphalt Pavement
Association, 2004)
Sieve
Size
(mm)
Filter Pass Specifications
(
%
)
Range Ideal
19,0 100 100
12,7 85
100 92,5
9,5 45
70 57,5
4,75 10
25 17,5
2,36 7
15 11
1.18 6
12 9
0.6 5
10 7,5
0.3 4
86
0.15 3
75
0.075 2
53,5
The specifications of porous asphalt concrete
mixture according to
(According to Australian
Asphalt Pavement Association, 2004) as shown in
Table 2
Table 2. Specifications of mix concrete asphalt Porus
,according to (According to Australian Asphalt Pavement
Association, 2004)
No
Planning
Criteria
Unit Value
1. Cantabro loss % Mak 20
2.
A
sphalt flow down % Mak 0,3
3. Stability Marshall Kg Min.
500
4. Flow Mm 2
6
5. Voids % 10
28
6. Marshall Quotient Kg/mm Maks.
400
7. Densit
y
g
r/cm3 Min. 2
8. Durabilit
y
% ≥75
9. Permeability cm/dt 0.187-
0.844
(Suhardi, 2013) The addition of variations of
PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) to the AC-BC
(Asphalt Concrete-Binder Course) mixture affect on
Marshall characteristics, the higher the level of
addition of PET (Polyethylene) Terephthalate) then
the stability value will increase but for the value of
the cavity content in the mixture the higher the
percentage. Meanwhile, (Ali, 2013) a mixture of
porous asphalt based on asbuton using Japanese
grading has a permeability value of 0.143 cm / s,
and a marshall stability value of 952.92 kg. These
results indicate a sufficient of potential feasibility in
ASAIS 2020 - Annual Southeast Asian International Seminar
128
using Asbuton-based porous asphalt mixtures. The
purpose of this research was to obtain the properties
Marshall of porous asphalt concrete mixtures with
variations of plastic waste and to analyze the effects
of plastic bag waste on the properties Marshall of
asphalt concrete mixtures
2 RESEARCH METHOD
This research was carried out in the Laboratory of
Civil Engineering Material Testing, State
Polytechnic of Jakarta. The materials used in this
study were Esso asphalt, coarse-aggregate of
crushed stone, rock ash, and plastic waste. This
research was conducted at the Laboratory of Civil
Engineering Material Testing, State Polytechnic of
Jakarta. The materials used in this study were Esso
asphalt, coarse-aggregate of crushed stone, rock ash,
and plastic waste.
The main research method used is an
experimental method by making a specimen of
porous hot asphalt concrete mixture. To determine
the optimum asphalt content, a mixture of porous
asphalt and plastic waste tannin was made with an
asphalt content of 4.5; 5; 5.5; 6; and 6.5%. After
obtaining KAO, then making the test object by
adding variations of plastic waste of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20
and 25% to KAO. For each variation of asphalt
content and variations in plastic waste, 3 test objects
were made for each type of test. The total number of
specimens in need in this study was 105 pieces, as
shown in Table 3 as follows:
Table 3. Variation of plastic waste in Mixture Concrete
asphalt Porous
Number
of
Variation of plastic waste (%) Totta
l
Objec
Test
5 10 15 20 25
Marshall
Standart
3 3 3 3 3 15
Cantabr
o Loss
3 3 3 3 3 15
Asphalt
Flow
Down
3 3 3 3 3 15
Permeab
ilit
y
3
3
3 3 3 15
Total
12
12
12 12 12
60
60
3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1 Aggregates and Test Results
Asphalt
From the test results of the physical properties of
aggregates, each of them fine aggregate and coarse
aggregate meet the specifications. The test results
with a specific gravity greater than 2.5 indicate that
the aggregate can be used for roads with high traffic
volume. The results of the examination physical
properties of aggregate and asphalt are presented in
Table 4.
Table 4. Results of Aggregate and Asphalt Inspection
Tests Unit
Results
of
Testing
Requirement
Bina Marga
2018
Min Max
FINE
AGGREGATE
-Bulk Specific
Gravit
y
2.57 2.5 -
-Apparent
Specific Gravit
y
2.68 2.5 -
Water Absor
p
tion % 1.59 - 3
COARSE
AGGREGATE
- Bulk Specific
Gravit
y
2.56 2.5 -
-Apparent
Specific Gravit
y
2.7 2.5 -
Water Absor
p
tion % 2.15 - 3
ASPHALT
Penetration m
m
65 60 79
Specific Gravit
y
1,02 0,92 1,06
Softenin
g
Point ⁰C 48,5 45 -
Ductilit
y
m
m
101 100 -
3.2 Test Marshall Asphalt Concrete
Mixtures
Results for Porous Marshall test results for porous
asphalt concrete mixtures without plastic waste
obtained KAO 5.5%. Furthermore, with KAO 5.5%,
and variations of plastic waste 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and
25%, the recapitulation is presented in Figures 1 to
7.
3.2.1 VMA
Based on the results of statistical tests, the
significance value is 0.002 <0.05, so it can be
concluded that the variation of plastic waste has a
significant effect on VMA and the value of R square
The Effect of Addition of Plastic Waste in Porous Asphalt Concrete on Permeability and Properties Marshall
129
is 0.930 which means that the variation of plastic
waste has an effect of 93.0% on VMA. The test
results also showed that the VMA value tended to
decrease with the increase in plastic waste, although
the decrease was small. (As in Figure 1).
Figure 1. VMA Graph
3.2.2 VFB
The significance value of the statistical result tests
was 0.0025 <0.050, so it can be concluded that the
variation of plastic waste has a significant effect on
VFB. The value of R square is 0.755 which means
that the variation of plastic waste has an effect of
75.5% on VFB. The test results also show that the
VFB value tends to increase with the addition of
variations in plastic waste(as in Figure 2).
Figure 2. VFB Graph
3.2.3 VIM
The significance value of the result test was 0.001
<0.05, so it can be concluded that the variation of
plastic waste has a significant effect on VIM. The
value of R square is 0.959%, which means that the
variation of plastic waste has an effect of 95.9% on
VIM. The relationship between plastic waste and
VIM shows a tendency for the cavity value to
continue to decrease according to the addition of
plastic waste because fills the mixed cavity. The
VIM value was suitable to the required in the 2004
AAPA specifications, namely 10 - 28% ( Figure 3)
Figure 3. VIM Graph
3.2.4 Stability
The significance value of the result test was
obtained a value of 0.001 <0.05, so it can be
concluded that the variation of plastic waste has a
significant effect on stability. This can be seen from
the R square value of 0.963 which means that the
variation of plastic waste has an effect of 96.3% on
stability. The value of the stability of the mixture is
higher along with the increasing variation of plastic
waste in the mixture. This is because plastic waste is
mixed with 60/70 penetration asphalt in the mixture,
where this mixing causes the adhesion of the asphalt
to be better so that the value of the stability of the
mixture increases. The value of stability value was
suitable to the required in the 2004 AAPA
specifications, which is a minimum of 500 kg (As in
Figure 4).
Figure 4. Stability Graph
3.2.5 Flow
The significance value of the result test, it is found
that a significance value of 0.004 <0.05, so it can be
concluded that the variation of plastic waste has a
significant effect on melting.. This can be seen
from the value of R square is 0.893, which means
that the variation of plastic waste has an effect of
89.3% on melting. Meltability continues to increase
with an increasing variety of plastic waste, as the
asphalt blanket increases. The melting value was
suitable to the required in the 2004 AAPA
specifications, namely 2 - 6 mm ( Figure 5).
24,00
25,00
26,00
27,00
28,00
0 5 10 15 20 25
VMA(%)
PLASTICWASTE(%)
30,00
40,00
50,00
60,00
0 5 10 15 20 25
VFB(%)
PLASTICWASTE(%)
5,00
15,00
25,00
0 5 10 15 20 25
VIM(%)
PLASTICWASTE(%)
250,00
750,00
1250,00
1750,00
0 5 10 15 20 25
Stability (Kg)
PLASTICWASTE(%)
ASAIS 2020 - Annual Southeast Asian International Seminar
130
Figure 5. Flow Graph
3.2.6 Marshall Quotient
The significance value of the result test was
obtained a value of 0.001 <0.05, so it can be
concluded that the variation of plastic waste has a
significant effect on the Marshall Quotient. This can
be seen from the R square value of 0.866, which
means that the variation of plastic waste has an
effect of 86.6% on the Marshall Quotient. More and
more plastic waste increases the Masrshall Quotient
(MQ). The MQ value was suitable to the required
in the 1997 AAPA specifications is a maximum of
400 kg / mm (as in Figure 6)
Figure 6. Marshall Quotient Graph
3.2.7 Permeability
The significance value of the result test was
obtained a value of 0.001 <0.05, so it can be
concluded that the variation of plastic waste has a
significant effect on permeability. This can be seen
from the R square value of 0.946, which means that
the variation of plastic waste has an effect of 94.6%
on permeability. The results test shows that the
relationship between plastic waste and the
permeability coefficient where the increase in
plastic waste, the permeability coefficient value of
the porous asphalt concrete object will decrease, this
is because the increase in plastic waste, the volume
of cavities inside the test object decreases due to the
closure of the cavity. by the asphalt film so that the
time to drain water from the surface will be longer.
(as in Figure 7)
Figure 7. Permeability Graph
4 CONCLUSION
The results of this research shows that: The
variation of plastic waste from 0 to 25% of the
optimal asphalt content has a significant effect to the
VIM, Stability, Meltness, and values Marshall
Quotient, and permeability but did not significantly
influence the VFB and VMA values because the
significance value> 0.05.
In addition, the addition of plastic waste
increases the% cavity filled with asphalt, stability,
Melt, Marshall Quotient and melt and lower%
cavity in the mixture, % voids between aggregates,
and permeability.
As for the addition of plastic waste up to 25% to
KAO for all parameters of Marshall has met the
specifications required by the Australian Asphalt
Pavement Association (2004) for moderate traffic
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