Performance of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) with Precious Slag
Ball as Fine Aggregate Substitute
Amalia
1
and Muhtarom Riyadi
1
1
Department of Civil Engineering, State Polytechnic of Jakarta, Jalan Prof. Dr. G. A. Siwabessy, Kampus Baru UI, Depok,
Indonesia
Keywords: Self Compacting Concrete, PS Ball, Compressive Strength.
Abstract: Precisious slag ball (PS Ball) is a waste of residual steel processing which was originally liquid and then
recycled using Slag Atomizing Technology (SAT) technology into small, compact granules. . PS ball has a
grain size of 0.1-4.5 mm with a higher specific gravity and hardness than sand. The PS ball's granular structure
is very powerful, weather resistant, and not easy to wear, so it can be used in SCC concrete as a replacement
for fine aggregate. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of SCC concrete with a PS ball
as a substitute for some of the fine aggregate. The concrete performance of SCC studied consisted of fresh
concrete performance and concrete mechanical performance. Concrete performance includes filling ability
and passing ability, while concrete mechanical performance consists of compressive strength and concrete
tensile strength. The specimens of 4 variations were obtained in PS Ball quantity, namely 0%, 10%, 20%, and
30% of the fine aggregate weight. The findings showed that the use of the PS ball as a fine aggregate would
enhance SCC concrete's filling and passing abilities. The use of the PS ball as a replacement for fine aggregate
will improve concrete's compressive strength and tensile strength by up to 20%.
1 INTRODUCTION
Precisious slag ball (PS Ball) is a steel processing
residual waste which is originally liquid is then
recycled to thetechnology slag atomizingTechnology
(SAT) into small granules are solid. PS ball has a
grain size of 0.1-4.5 mm with a higher specific gravity
and hardness than sand. The PS ball grain structure is
very strong, weather resistant, and not easy to wear.
The chemical composition of this waste consists of:
Fe (20.83%), SiO2 (12.69%), CaO (40.30%) and
other elements up to 100% (PT. Purna Baja Harsco,
2020). The amount of this waste is approximately 150
million tonnes / year worldwide. The amount of PS
Ball waste at Krakatau Steel that is processed by a
subsidiary of PT Purna Baja Harsco is 5000 tons per
month. With this large amount of waste, it is
necessary to handle it so that the waste can be used
optimally. Judging from the physical and chemical
properties, PS Ball waste can replace sand in high
performance concrete.
The results of research using PS Ball up to 40% in
normal concrete can increase compressive strength
and make concrete more durable (e.g. S. Sharath,
BC., Gayana, Krishna, R., Reddy & K. Ram Chandar
Chia, Lau, & Tan, 2019). Similar research conducted
by Avinash. H. Talkeri and AU Ravi Shankar (2019)
led to a rise in concrete compressive strength and
resistance to fatigue using PS Ball as a fine aggregate
in normal concrete compared to concrete using sand.
In both of these studies, the concrete studied is
conventional concrete which still uses a vibrating
device to compact it, which causes noise, is difficult
to implement on dense reinforced concrete, has the
potential to disrupt the location of the reinforcement
during compaction which can result in lowering the
strength of the structure. Furthermore, the two studies
have not examined concrete performance, especially
the concrete tensile strength, flexural strength. and its
ductility, so that the resulting concrete tends to be
brittle and suddenly collapses. It can be seen that PS
Ball has the ability to replace sand in concrete as a
fine aggregate. The problems discussed in this paper
are the performance of SCC concrete using PS Ball as
a partial substitution material for SCC concrete.
Concrete performance discussed includes the
performance of fresh concrete consisting of filling
ability and passing ability, while hard concrete work
consists of compressive strength and tensile strength
of concrete.
108
Amalia, . and Riyadi, M.
Performance of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) with Precious Slag Ball as Fine Aggregate Substitute.
DOI: 10.5220/0010541201080115
In Proceedings of the 9th Annual Southeast Asian International Seminar (ASAIS 2020), pages 108-115
ISBN: 978-989-758-518-0
Copyright
c
 2021 by SCITEPRESS – Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
2 LITERATURE REVIEW
Precious Slag Ball (PS Ball) is a steel processing
waste which was originally liquid form processed by
Slag Atomizing Technology (technology SAT) into
granules of 0.1 mm - 4.5 mm in diameter. This waste
chemical composition is made up of Fe (20.83%),
SiO2 (12.69%), CaO (40.30%) and other elements up
to 100% (PT. Purna Baja Harsco, 2020). The granular
structure of the PS ball is very strong, weather
resistant, not easy to wear, with a specific gravity of
3.45 and a hardness of 739.8 HVC. The value of
specific gravity and hardness of PS Ball is higher than
natural sand. With its high density and hardness, PS
Ball can be used as fine aggregate in high
performance concrete.
Research on the performance of conventional
concrete using PS Ball as a fine aggregate substitution
of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%, findings of this
research suggest that the optimum composition of PS
Ball of 40% produces the maximim compressive
strength of 62.89 MPa at 28 days age. Judging from
the permeability of concrete, the use of a PS Ball of
40% and 100% results in a more durable
/concretedurable (Sharath, Gayana, Krishna and Ram
Chandar, 2019).
The use of GGBS as an added material and PS
Ball as an aggregate in conventional concrete applied
to rigid pavement roads showed that the PS Ball use
in concrete for rigid pavement may increase the
concrete compressive strength and 41-64 MPa is the
resulting concrete compressive strength. In addition,
the use of the PS Ball can also raise the concrete's
resistance to fatigue (Avinash and Ravi Shankar,
2019).
The use of PS Ball as fine aggregate with a GGBS
binder mixture of 443 kg / m3, Na2SiO3 / NaOH ratio
(1,1.5,2 and 2.5) resulted in a higher slump value of
25 mm versus slump cones conventional. The
compressive strength of concrete produced with these
materials is 24-58 MPa under conditions of exposure
to temperature. The use of PS Ball in concrete can
also increase the fatigue life (Avinash and Ravi
Shankar, 2018).
3 METHOD
The study was conducted by making SCC concrete
specimens with the percentage of PS Ball as a
substitute for fine aggregate of 0%, 10%, 20%, and
30% of the weight of fine aggregate and steel scrap
waste fibers of 1% of the weight of Portland cement
for all types test object. Fresh SCC concrete
performance studied consisted of flowability, Passing
Ability, Segregation Ressistance, and when tied
concrete. To test the properties Flowability tool
Slump flow T50cm is used, while to test the nature of
Passing Ability and Segregation Ressistance
usingtool L-Box. The method of testing the properties
of fresh SCC refers to the EFNARC standard in 2002.
The performance of the hard concrete consists of:
the concrete's weight, compressive strength and
tensile strength. A Ø15 cm concrete cylinder with 30
cm high is the test sample to test the compressive
strength and tensile strength. Each test was repeated
3 times. Tests were conducted at the ages of 3, 7, 14,
and 28 days to assess the growth of the compressive
strength of concrete. The tensile strength of the
concrete was tested at the age of 28 days. All
specimens were cured before measuring the
properties of hard SCC concrete by immersing them
in water at room temperature before the test was
performed.
4 RESULTS
4.1 Properties of the Constituent
Materials of Self Compacting
Concrete
Table 1 presents the properties of the SCC concrete
constituent components. The results presented in
Table 1, the test results of SCC concrete constituent
materials, it can be seen that all materials used meet
the requirements for making SCC concrete.
Performance of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) with Precious Slag Ball as Fine Aggregate Substitute
109
Table 1. SCC Constituent Materials Properties
Material Properties
Value
fine aggregates coarse aggregates
Precious Slag
Ball
Specific gravity 2.48 2.28 3.67
SSD Specific gravity 2.53 2.30 3.67
apparent Specific gravity 2.62 2.33 3.67
Loose Unit Weight (kg/m3) 1565.10 1337.82 2481.33
Solid Unit Weight (kg/m3) 1702.55 1482.11 2557.98
water absorption (%) 2.19 0.92 0.05
Water content (%) 0.06 0.01 0.27
Fine Modulus 0.03 6.25 2.35
sieve analysis Zona 2
maximum aggregate
diameter 10 mm
Zona 2 (BS)
Sludge content (%) 1.10 0.17 0.15
4.2 Properties Fresh SCC Concrete
Workability
Workability is the property of fresh concrete to
demonstrate the ease with which concrete is stirred,
poured, molded, and compacted. The fatigue, water
retention and plasticity of the fresh concrete mix,
which is inseparable from the material's properties
and the fineness of the aggregates, affect this
property. The fresh SCC concrete mixture must have
the following characteristics: filling capacity, passing
capacity, and segregation resistance or segregation
resistance. In this study, the filling ability of the SCC
concrete was tested by means of thetested using the
T50cm Slump Flow Test, while the properties of the
Passing Ability were tool L-Box. Results of SCC
concrete PS Ball filling and passing abilities, shown
in Figures 1 and 2.
Filling ability is the ability of fresh concrete
mixers to fill spaces or voids. From Figure 1, it can
be shown that the use of PS Ball in SCC concrete as
a replacement for fine aggregate causes the SCC
concrete to decrease fluidity. This can be seen from
the longer it takes for the concrete flow to reach a
diameter of 50 cm. However, using PS Ball up to
30%, the filling ability concrete still meets the
requirements set by EFNARC, which is 2-5 seconds.
The homogeneity of the concrete was also seen in the
T50cm Slump Flow test. In fresh concrete, the use of
the PS Ball on SCC concrete does not cause
segregation and bleeding. Stir can be evenly and
homogeneous.
Passing ability is the ability of the fresh concrete
mixture to pass through reinforcement. This property
is required when the concrete mix is used to create
structures with tight reinforcement spacing. SCC
concrete, which has good passing ability, can pass
through tight reinforcement gaps without segregation.
The results of the research on SCC concrete using PS
Ball as a substitute for fine aggregate by 10% resulted
in higher passing ability and segregation resistance
values compared to SCC concrete without PS Ball.
This condition can be seen from the h2 / h1 value of
the L-Box test results that have increased (Figure 2).
This means that the ability of SCC concrete with PS
Ball aggregate to pass through tight reinforcement
gaps is higher than that of concrete without PS ball.
The concrete mix for all variations meets the
requirements of concrete as SCC concrete as in the
EFNARC provisions which require an h2 / h1 value
of 0.8 - 1.0
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Figure 1. Filling Ability (Slump Flow TestT50) Concrete SCC PS Ball
Figure 2. Passing Ability (L-Box) Concrete SCC PS Ball
4.3 Time of Initial Bonding of Concrete
Bonding time is the condition in which the concrete
begins to harden. The initial bonding time needs to be
known to determine how long it takes for the concrete
to harden from the plastic state. It is important to
know the initial bonding time in order to determine
how long the concrete can be worked. The initial
binding time of SCC PS Ball concrete with steel scrap
waste fibers is presented in Table 2. binding time.
It can be seen from Table 2 that the initial binding
time of concrete appears to be the same for all variants
of the specimen. This means that the use of PS Ball
on SCC concrete does not affect the initial bonding
time of the concrete.
Table 2. Time of Initial bonding of SCC PS Ball
Percentage of
Time (minutes)
Fiber Binding
0.00% 320
0.25% 320
0.50% 320
0.75% 310
1.00% 310
Performance of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) with Precious Slag Ball as Fine Aggregate Substitute
111
4.4 Unit Weight of Hard Concrete
Unit weight is used to calculate the structure's own
weight. The greater the value of the weight, the larger
the weight of the structure itself. The results of this
study are shown in Figure 3.
Unit weight is a value that states the ratio between
the weight and volume of concrete in a hard state. The
weight of the concrete contents serves to calculate the
structure's own weight. The greater the weight value,
the larger the structure has its own weight. Concrete
load weight is closely related to the concrete density,
which will influence the concrete strength. It can be
seen from Figure 3 that the use of the PS Ball on
concrete can raise the concrete's weight. However, at
30% PS Ball content, the weight of the concrete
content decreased. This happens because the use of
the PS Ball is 30%, the concrete looks segregated and
bleeding, so that the density of the concrete also
decreases.
Figure 3. Unit Weight of SCC PS Ball Concrete Content
4.5 Compressive Strength of Concrete
Compressive strength was measured at the ages of 3,
7, 14, and 28 days to assess the development of
concrete strength. At this age, the purpose of the
compressive strength test is to assess the development
of the concrete strength, so that it can be determined
when the formwork/concrete mold can be opened, the
structure can be installed, or the load can be accepted
by the structure. Table 3 and Figure 4 summarizes the
findings of the study on the compressive strength of
PS Ball concrete.
Concrete compressive strength is the amount of
load per unit area that causes the concrete sample to
crumble when filled with a certain compressive force
that the compression testing machine generates. The
concrete compressive strength is the ability of
concrete to bear loads that act on the structure. In
comparison with other concrete properties, the
compressive strength of concrete is the most
significant and dominant feature of concrete.
Concrete compression strength is highly affected by
the quality of the aggregate, the quality of the
adhesive and the composition of the mixture, and the
level of density of the concrete.
It can be seen from table 3 that the use of PS Ball
as a fine aggregate at the age of 3,7,14, and 28 days
can increase the compressive strength of concrete. At
the age of 28 days, consecutively concrete with a 10%
PS Ball content had an increase in compressive
strength by 1.27%, a 20% PS Ball level compressive
strength increased by 13.22%, and a 30% PS Ball
content increased compressive strength by 8.11%.
The biggest increase in compressive strength
occurred in concrete with a content of 20% PS Ball.
SCC concrete's compressive strength is closely
linked to workability, where SCC concrete with high
slump flow value and high filling ability can easily
allow SCC concrete flow to fill the voids between the
reinforcement and solidify itself easily. In this study,
SCC concrete with fine aggregate PS Ball at 10% and
20% levels hasvalues which slump flow and filling
ability tend to be the same as SCC concrete without
PS Ball.
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Table 3. Development of Compressive Strength SCC PS Ball
PS Ball
percentage
Average Compressive Strength (Mpa)
% increased strength at
28 days
3 days 7 days 14 days 28 days
0% 10.65 12.53 16.36 24.43
10% 11.35 13.19 16.76 24.74 1.27%
20% 12.6 14.23 19.53 27.61 13.02%
30% 10.44 11.57 13.33 26.41 8.11%
Figure 4. Development of Compressive Strength of SCC PS Ball
4.6 Tensile Strength of SCC PS Ball
Concrete
Table 4 shows the reliability test results of concrete
tensile strength. The concrete's tensile strength is the
ability of the concrete to withstand the concrete's
tensile stress. Concrete is a type of brittle material that
has high compressive strength but low tensile
strength. The tensile strength of concrete is usually
10%-15% of its compressive strength. The tensile
strength of this concrete is therefore neglected in the
design of reinforced concrete structures, in particular
in order to quantify the need for reinforcement, and
the concrete is deemed unable to withstand tensile
strength. Concrete only functions to hold pressure,
while the tensile area is held by reinforcement.
However, the concrete must have a minimum tensile
strength as required by SNI T 12 2005 article
4.4.1.1.2, which is equal to 0.33
ξΆ₯
𝑓′𝑐
.
The tensile strength of the concrete serves to
prevent cracks due to shrinkage, but it is not taken
into consideration. If there is shrinkage, concrete with
high tensile strength is not susceptible to cracking. It
can be seen from table 4 that the use of PS Ball as a
fine aggregate in SCC concrete causes the concrete's
tensile strength to raise at levels of 20%. In general,
however, the use of the PS Ball as a fine aggregate in
concrete causes the concrete to decrease its tensile
strength. Concrete tensile strength is not directly
proportional to its compressive strength, but concrete
tensile strength is directly proportional to the square
root of its compressive strength. The SCC concrete
tensile strength with a 20 percent PS Ball content is
greater than the tensile strength required by SNI 2847
2002, which is equal to 0.33
ξΆ₯
𝑓′𝑐
.
Performance of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) with Precious Slag Ball as Fine Aggregate Substitute
113
Table 4. Tensile Strength of SCC PS Ball
Percentage
of PS Ball
Average Tensile
Strength (MPa)
Tensile Strength
Formula SNI =
0.33.Ρ΄fc '(MPa )
% increase in
Tensile
Strength
0% 1.69 1.63
10% 1.31 1.64 -22.70%
20% 2.29 1.73 34.96%
30% 1.48 1.7 -12.81%
5 CONCLUSIONS
Several conclusions can be reached as follows, based
on the findings of analysis and discussion, show that
(1) Up to 30 percent of SCC concrete with PS Ball as
a substitute for fine aggregate results in the filling and
passing abilities of SCC concrete that meets the
criteria of EFNARC standards for SCC concrete and
(2) The initial bonding time of the concrete with the
PS Ball was not much different from the initial
bonding time of the SCC concrete without the PS
Ball. Properties of hard concrete show that (1) The
weight of the concrete with the PS Ball substitution is
10% and 20% higher than the weight of the concrete
without the PS Ball and (2) Using up to 30% of PS
Ball as a replacement for fine aggregate can raise the
concrete's compressive strength. At 20% PS Ball
content, the highest increase in the compressive
strength of concrete and (3) The highest tensile
strength of concrete is produced by concrete with a
level of 20% PS Ball.
From the results of this study, it is suggested (1)
Further research on the use of the PS Ball for beam
and plate structural elements needs to be carried out
and (2)
 Further research was carried out on other
concrete properties required for the design of
structural elements.
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