Ethnobotany Production of Coconut Oil using Wet and Dry Methods
Handayani Nurma
, Nurhayati Nurhayati
*, Yuli Wibowo
and Dedy Eko Rahmanto
Graduate School of Master Agro-industrial Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, University of Jember,
Jember 68121, Indonesia
Department of Agricultural Products Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, University of Jember,
Jember 68121, Indonesia
Department of Renewable Energy Engineering, Jember Polytechnic 68101, Indonesia
Keywords: Blondo, Coconut Oil, Density, Medium Chain Fatty Acid.
Abstract: Ethnobotany mentioned that coconut oil have been a part of traditional medicine from ancient times and was
used as oilment in all kinds of illness. Athletes, body builders and dieting person used coconut oil. That is
because coconut oil contains less calories than other oils, and is easily converted in to energy and no lead to
accumulation of fat in the heart and arteries. Beside that, coconut oil can be boost energy and endurance to
enhances the performance of athletes. The material for making oil is mature coconut fruit was obtained from
the Agropolitan market at Senduro Lumajang Regency. This study determined the ethnobotany production of
coconut oil use wet and dry method. Wet method was conducted by extraction of coconut milk then cooking
the milk to evaporate the water so the oil was extracted from coconut protein cake (was called “blondo”). Dry
method was conducted by drying the grated coconut until less than 5% (3.37%) of water content, then pressure
dried coconut using hydraulic press (39-427 bar). The results showed that ripe mature coconut produced the
higher oil yield. Producing coconut oil used wet method have to use stainless steel or cast iron frying pan.
Characteristics of coconut oil were i.eclear colour, typical coconut aroma. Producing of coconut oil used wet
method can result 15.77%w/w of yield, 11.67% w/w of protein cake (blondo), 0.06% of water content and
of oil density. While producing of coconut oil used dry method can result 21.56% w/w of oil
yield, 33.24% w/w of bagasse cake, 0.04% of water content and 0.9191 g/cm
of oil density.
Ethnobotany studies show that coconut oil has many
uses. Coconut oil not only as vegetable oil, but also
for the world of medicine such as massage oil, hair
fertility oil, oil consumed to smooth the birth process,
skin moisturizing oil etc. Coconut oil is composed of
medium chain fatty acids (MCFA). The medium
chain in coconut oil is good for the body's health for
the digestive system.
Ethnobotany study of the coconut oil production
process of the ancestors also used two methods,
namely the wet method and the dry method. The wet
method of coconut oil production is the manufacture
of coconut oil from the extraction of the coconut milk,
while the dry method if the oil is extracted from dry
coconut is good without the process of refining,
bleaching and deodorizing.
Coconut oil production business claims without
the use of RBD (Refined Bleached Deodorized) are
advantages that must be communicated and
introduced properly. Conventionally, coconut oil
production is done by drying the coconut meat and
pressing it using thick, strong and sturdy wooden
Ketaren (2012) explains that the oil production
process can be done using the wet or dry method. The
wet method of making coconut oil is done by
extracting coconut milk and heating it until the water
evaporates and the oil and “blondo” cake remain. The
method of making dry coconut oil is done by drying
the coconut flesh in the sun and pressing it
Nurma, H., Nurhayati, N., Wibowo, Y. and Rahmanto, D.
Ethnobotany Production of Coconut Oil using Wet and Dry Methods.
DOI: 10.5220/0010529400003108
In Proceedings of the 6th Food Ingredient Asia Conference (6th FiAC 2020) - Food Science, Nutrition and Health, pages 75-78
ISBN: 978-989-758-540-1
2022 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
Rumah Kelapa NHP is a household unit that
produces coconut oil. The business unit is located in
Lumajang Regency, East Java Province, which
produces coconut oil using wet and dry methods. This
study aims to determined ethnobotany of coconut oil
production using wet and dry methods to contribute
to the proper processing of coconut oil for the NHP
home industry.
2.1 Materials
The tools used to produce coconut oil include a
coconut peeler, a coconut grater, a coconut milk press
(spinner), a drying rack, a heating pan, a pressing
device (WIPRO), and microfiber filters. The tools for
analysis include a 10 ml pycnometer (IWAKI), an
analytic digital scale (Ohaus), and a caliper. The main
ingredient for this research is coconut fruit obtained
from the Agropolitan market "Seroja", Lumajang
Regency. Old coconut trees are harvested at the age
of 13 months from the flowering period (Muis, 2016).
Complementary /auxiliary materials, namely clean
2.2 Research Stages
2.2.1 Raw Material Preparation
The coconut fruit is peeled and grated and stirred until
evenly distributed. Grated coconut is divided into two
parts, one part for the wet extraction process and one
part for the dry extraction process and setting the
stove for the wet method. The dry method of
extraction process conditions is carried out using a
hydraulic press with a pressure of 39-427 bar.
2.2.2 Coconut Oil Extraction by Wet
Wet coconut oil extraction is carried out by adding
water in a ratio of 1: 3, technically 1 part grated
coconut is extracted with 1 part water then filtered
and repeated three times. The filtering process
produces coconut milk and coconut dregs. Coconut
milk was heated using the optimum stove fire until
the water evaporates and oil and “blondo” cake are
2.2.3 Dry Coconut Oil Extraction
The production of coconut oil using the dry method is
carried out by shredding fresh old coconut, then
reducing the size by grating it and then drying it in the
sun until it is dry (about 5% moisture content).
Furthermore, pressing is carried out using a hydraulic
press at a pressure of 39-427 bar with each press using
200g of dry grated coconut. The results of the dry
extraction method are coconut oil and coconut dregs
2.2.4 Experimental Design
This study used a one-factor completely randomized
design (CRD) method, namely the extraction method
(wet and dry). Data were analyzed using descriptive
methods presented with an error bar.
2.2.5 Parameter Analysis
Analysis of physical properties parameters include
yield, moisture content and specific gravity (Ketaren,
3.1 Ethnobotany Coconut Oil
Extraction Process by Wet and Dry
Ethnobotany study reported that coconut oil
extraction process used wet and dry methods. Wet
coconut oil extraction (Figure 1) requires heating that
can use a “tomang”, a gas stove or an electric stove.
Wet-dry coconut oil extraction requires both
traditional and semi-modern conventional presses
(Figure 2).
Figure 1: Processing of coconut oil wet with heating
“tomang” (, 2020).
The extraction of ethnobotany coconut oil by
wet method was carried out by squeezing the
coconut milk. Then it is heated with optimal stove
flame, which takes about 45-55 minutes).
Ethnobotany coconut oil extraction by dry method
was carried out by shredding the coconut meat then
drying it using sunlight. If the grated coconut is dry
then it is continued by pressing it using both
6th FiAC 2020 - The Food Ingredient Asia Conference (FiAC)
traditional tools (wood press) and semi-modern
conventional ones (hydraulic press).
a b
c d
Figure 2: Ethnobotany coconut oil press (peuneurah pliek u
in Acehnese regional language) (a, b) and pressurized
hydraulic press (c, d) (, 2020).
Processing of coconut oil with the wet heating
method produces blondo, while the processing of
coconut oil using the dry method by pressing
produces cake / dry pulp.
3.2 The Yield of Coconut Oil
The calculation of the yield of coconut oil from the
extraction using the dry method and the wet method
is based on the ratio of the amount of oil obtained
divided by the weight of fresh raw materials (grated
old coconut meat). Rahadian (2013) reported that the
oil content in old coconut meat was 35%.
The yield of coconut oil and cake produced from
these two methods can be seen in Table 1.
Table 1: The yield of coconut oil and cake produced using
wet and dry methods.
Coconut oil
ield of oil (% w/w)
Weight of cake “blondo” /
et method 15.77 ± 0.59 11.58 ± 0.47
ry method 21.56 ± 0.39 33.24± 0.02
The yield of coconut oil using the wet heating
method was 15.77% and from Blondo 11.58%. The
dry method produces more oil yields than the wet
method. The dry extraction process depends on the
tool used, such as the amount of pressure and the use
of the tool. The amount of pressure on the hydraulic
press used is 39-427 bar with coconut oil starting to
come out at a pressure of 70 bar.
Karauw & Santoso (2014) reported that the dry
method extraction process is more effective than the
wet method. The level of effectiveness can reach
70%. This study resulted in a higher level of
effectiveness that was 73%. The extraction of coconut
oil using the wet heating method resulted in lower
yields than the dry method. This is presumably
because in the wet method the critical point occurs in
pressing the coconut milk. If coconut milk is not
optimally squeezed, it can reduce the yield. In
addition, the critical point is also the oil involved in
the “blondo” cake. Therefore it is necessary to
separate the oil from "blondo" using a spinner.
3.3 Coconut Oil Water Content
Water content is an important parameter of oil quality
in order to minimize the risk of rancidity. The water
content of the coconut oil obtained was compared
with the moisture content of commercial coconut oil
(Table 2).
Table 2: Water content of ethnobotany coconut oil and
commercial coconut oil.
Coconut oil
ater content (%) Specific Gravity
Commercial “Barco” 0.05 ± 0.03 0.9214 ± 0.0005
Commercial “Dorang” 0.03 ± 0.02 0.9187 ± 0.0006
VCO (virgin coconut
0.09 ± 0.04 0.9196 ± 0.0001
Wet method 0.11 ± 0.02 0.9191 ± 0.0001
Dry method 0.04 ± 0.01 0.9195 ± 0.0002
The water content of the wet method is higher than
the dry method. The water content of coconut oil can
be reduced by heating the oil longer when heating the
stove. However, you have to be careful because it can
cause further damage to the oil due to excess heat
(burning). The coconut oil quality standard states that
the water content of coconut oil ranges from 0.1-
3.4 Specific Gravity
The specific gravity of the oil was determined using a
10 ml pycnometer which was converted to the
specific gravity of pure water at 20
C. The principle
of this method is based on determining the mass of
Ethnobotany Production of Coconut Oil using Wet and Dry Methods
the liquid and determining the space occupied by this
liquid with a volume measured container
(pycnometer) (Ahmad et. Al, 2014). The density of
ethnobotany coconut oil with the wet extraction
method was higher (0.9195) than the ethnobotany
coconut oil with the dry extraction method. (0.9191).
According to SNI 3741-1995, the maximum density
for coconut oil is 0.921.
Herlina et al., (2017) reported that the specific
gravity of coconut oil that has been used for frying
RBC (banana chip ripe) is 0.9193. Sani et al. (2010)
reported that the density of materials is affected by
viscosity, mass of substances and dissolved solids.
Density is related (directly proportional) to viscosity.
The greater the viscosity of a substance, the greater
its density. Coconut oil which has high dissolved
solids can affect specific gravity. This results in
higher friction between particles so that the viscosity
is also higher (Sani et al., 2010).
The production of coconut oil using the dry method
produces more yields. The wet method yielded a yield
of 15.77% w / w, cake "blondo" of 11.67%, a
moisture content of 0.06%, and an oil specific gravity
of 0.9195. The dry method with hydraulic pressing
works at a pressure of 39-427 bar with an oil yield of
21.56% w / w, cake "coconut dregs cake of 33.24% w
/ w, water content of 0.04% and a specific gravity of
Thanks to the University of Jember for supporting
this research through the Innovation-Based Startup
Enterprise Grant Programme 2018/2019.
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