Deterioration Analysis of Rigid Pavement
using Roadroid based on PCI
Eva Azhra Latifa
, Christina Aprilia Heryes
, Nuzul Barkah Prihutomo
Civil Engineering Department, Politeknik Negeri Jakarta, Depok 16424, Indonesia
Keywords: International Roughness Index (IRI), Pavement Condition Index (PCI), Roadroid, Road Deterioration
Abstract: The Indonesian government’s limited funds mandate efficient budget planning based on accurate data.
However, the Central Government (General Directorate of Highways) has no measurable, accurate data on
district roads, which can be used as the basis of evaluating proposals from provincial, regent, and city
administrations. The purpose of this research is to analyze the value of rigid pavement conditions based on
the International Roughness Index (IRI) which was carried out using the Roadroid application. The type of
deterioration is determined based on the Pavement Condition Index (PCI). Data were collected from Jalan
Raya Babelan for 2 km. Assessment of rigid pavement conditions throughout Jalan Raya Babelan using the
IRI and conducted with the Roadroid application produced an IRI value between 6.31 (medium) and 33.81
(heavy deterioration). Road deterioration survey conducted using Pavement Condition Index (PCI) shows
several types of road deterioration, such as broken corners, split slabs, damaged joint mantles, sloping
roadsides, linear cracking, slippery aggregate, pop-outs, punch-outs, bent corners, and bent joints.
Circumstantial assessment utilizing the Pavement Condition Index (PCI) method produces PCI values in the
range of 0 (failed) to 22 (severe). Both methods demonstrate that Jalan Raya Babelan needs to be included
minor reconstruction program. Deteriorations need to be repaired by renewing the pavement layer. Actions
taken to repair deteriorations include sealing cracks, partial as well as full-scale depth patching, reconstructing
or replacing slabs, resealing joints, smoothing flows, and reinforcing layers.
Road maintenance is a series of strategic, technical
and operational decisions (Langevin,2016). Road
maintenance requires high costs, but it must still be
done by paying attention to relevant department
maintenance policies, material resources, competent
and experienced human resources, and appropriate
technology (Purboyo, H et al, 2017, Hadjidemetrieou,
2019, Siswanto et al., 2019). Road maintenance is
also a fulfillment of road user comfort requirements
(Yasuda, et al, 2018). The assessment of road
pavement conditions is an important aspect of
determining maintenance activities for road
improvement. In assessing pavement conditions the
first is to determine the type of deterioration, density
and severity (Setianingsih et al., 2017). Road
geometry, uneven surfaces, driving behavior, vehicle
characteristics, weather, also affect (Stachova, 2017,
Vignisdottir, et al, 2018, 2019, Yin, et al, 2020, Shi,
2018). Road maintenance management is needed that
takes all of these (Jokanovic, 2019, Thankgod, 2019).
The Ministry of PUPR's 2020-2024 Strategic Plan
data shows that there are 47,000 km of national roads
in active maintenance; 3,200 km with increased
capacity; and 3,800 km of new roads under
construction. The construction and maintenance of
national roads as of the end of 2019 increased stability
to 92.81% and accessibility to 87%. National roads
cost around 40 trillion rupiahs to operate. However,
only 22 km of regional roads are handled with a
budget of 10 billion rupiahs.
Indonesian government’s limited funds issue
requires optimization of budgeting based on accurate
data. On the other hand, the Central Government
(General Directorate of Highways) does not have
measurable and accurate data about the regency
roads, which can be used as the basis of evaluating
the Province/ Regency /City Governments’ proposal
(Rudjito et al., 2017).
Based on the background, this study was
conducted to analyze the rigid pavement condition of
Jalan Raya Babelan located in Bekasi Regency. The
analysis is based on International Roughness Index
Latifa, E., Heryes, C. and Prihutomo, N.
Deterioration Analysis of Rigid Pavement using Roadroid based on PCI.
DOI: 10.5220/0010510100310036
In Proceedings of the 9th Annual Southeast Asian International Seminar (ASAIS 2020), pages 31-36
ISBN: 978-989-758-518-0
2021 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
(IRI) using Roadroid application. Types of
deterioration were analyzed based on the Pavement
Condition Index (PCI). Rigid pavement condition
value and the type of deterioration will later be used
as a reference to determine the appropriate response
to the existing type of deterioration.
1.1 Prior Research
This study refers to previous research that discussed
the assessment and identification of factors that cause
road deterioration, as well as solutions for road
deterioration (Agustyawan and Hartantyo 2016). The
assessment of the functional condition of roads used
the International Roughness Index (IRI) method with
the application of Roadroid, Surface Distress Index
(SDI) and Pavement Condition Index (Tho’atin, dkk
2016). Assessment of road conditions and network
surveys in regions/cities on Java using Roadroid
(Widjajanto, 2017).
Subsequent research to determine the
performance of the road based on the function
obtained from the comparison of IRI values with the
level of road service (V/C ratio) and the physical
condition of the road obtained from the SDI survey
results and then used as a consideration in
determining priorities for handling road rehabilitation
(Achmadi, F, 2017). Evaluates the surface condition
that is deteriorated using the Pavement Condition
Index (PCI) method as well as local factors that
influence the deterioration (Mulyadi and Saleh,
1.2 Causes of Rigid Pavement Road
Rigid pavement is a construction with aggregate raw
materials and use of cement as a binding material
(Suryawan 2009). Rigid pavement consists of
Portland cement concrete slab which is laid directly
above the subgrade, or land base (Hardiyatmo, 2015).
Deterioration to rigid pavement construction can be
resulted from traffic, which can include increased
load (vehicle axis) that exceeds the design load, and
load repititions (vehicle volumes) that exceeds the
volume of the plan so that the age of the road plan is
not reached (Sukirman, 1999; Direktorat Jendral Bina
Marga 2017). Besides, the poor road drainage system
are predicted to cause water to get into the pavement
structure through cracks, joints, and the road sides,
will damp the soil base and reduce pavement strength,
resulting in rapid deterioration of pavement
(Hardiyatmo, 2015).
The nature of the pavement construction materials
or poor material processing system can also be the
caused this deterioration. Temperatures and
precipitation are generally high, unstable subgrade
conditions, poor soil properties, also, the bending of
the rod straightness or incorrect use of the dowel and
stressing caused by the expansion and shrinkage,
rupture of the corner of the slab, deterioration to
connections, and others conditions caused by reduced
quality due to the strength of the concrete pavement
(Hardiyatmo, 2007)
1.3 International Roughness Index (Iri)
International Roughness Index (IRI) is a parameter
used by the world banks in the process of assessment
of the pavement condition in 1980 (UMTRI. 1998).
Pavement roughness is measured by the longitudinal
profile which is a representation of the comfort of
driving on highways. The roughness quantitative
values are expressed in International Roughness
Index (IRI), which is the cumulative length of the
surface per unit length expressed in meters per
kilometers (Suherman, 2008)
1.4 PAvement Condition Index (PCI)
The PCI value is determined by calculating and
iterating the area and severity of the deterioration.
According to Shahin (1994), there are 17 distress
types to the rigid pavement, among others: blow-
up/buckling, corner breaks/corner cracks, divided
slab, durability "D" cracking, settlement or faulting,
seal joint damage, lane/shoulder drop-off, linear
cracking: longitudinal, transverse, and diagonal
crack, patching and utility cuts, polished aggregate,
popouts, pumping, punch-out, railroad crossing,
scaling, map cracking, crazing, shrinkage cracks, and
spalling. The damage level is expressed as light,
medium and heavy. After that, determine the density,
then determine the deduct value, reduce it, then
correct the deduct value. All of these calculation steps
use different formulas at each stage. PCI value is 100
- correction deduct value.
2.1 Research Design
The primary data were obtained by site survey, a
survey carried out with a car equipped with Roadroid
application to identify the type of deterioration by
walking along the research site. After collecting the
ASAIS 2020 - Annual Southeast Asian International Seminar
primary data, the data were analyzed. Road
deterioration data were analyzed using International
Roughness Index (IRI) method to obtain the value of
rigid pavement conditions and using Pavement
Condition Index (PCI) method to obtain the type of
2.2 Research Stage
Figure 1. Flowchart of Survey Implementation with
Roadroid Application
Figure 2. Flowchart of Visual Preliminary Survey
Implementation according to Sample Selection Analysis
Figure 3. Flowchart of Research
2.3 Maintenance Program Type
IRI value and maintenance program show in table 1
in appendix, table show PCI value with rigid
pavement condition, and table 3 show the corelation
of PCI value with maintenance program.
Rigid Pavement Condition Determination and
Maintenance Program
3.1 Using International Roughness
Index (IRI) Method
The results of rigid pavement condition assessment
obtained from the rigid pavement condition survey
results using Roadroid application show below. The
percentage using International Roughness Index (IRI)
method can be seen in Figure 4 appendix.
The data analyzed using IRI method indicated that
values obtained ranged from 6.31 (moderate) to 33.81
(heavy deterioration). At STA 1+500 - 1+520, the
largest IRI value (33.81) indicated the heaviest road
deterioration condition. This stated that most of the
Jalan Raya Babelan requires a minor reconstruction
program, by repairing the deterioration that occurred
in the form of the pavement overlay. Figure 5 and 6
in appendix shows IRI value at STA 1=500-1+520
3.2 Using Pavement Condition Index
(PCI) Method
Based on the analysis of road deterioration, the results
of the rigid pavement conditions value of the
Pavement Condition Index (PCI) method from
sample units 1 to 10 is gathered (see Figure 6). From
the data analyzed using PCI method, obtained
between 0 (failed) - 22 (serious. Sample unit 8 (STA
1+400 - 1+600) has the smallest PCI value of 0, which
stated that the sample unit 8 is on the heaviest
deterioration level. ) This stated that Jalan Raya
Babelan needs to be included in the minor
reconstruction program, by repairing the deterioration
that occurred in the form of the pavement overlay.
The correlation of PCI value and maintenance
program shows in fig.7 in appendix.
According to the two methods applied to the Jalan
Raya Babelan, a comprehensive maintenance
program can be recommended by re-coating the
pavement, commonly referred to as an overlay.
Deterioration Analysis of Rigid Pavement using Roadroid based on PCI
3.3 Deterioration Handling
From the research results, detailed deterioration
handling in the road segment can be seen in table 4 in
appendix. However, as described above, for
economical and efficiency, an overlay is a right step.
The results of condition assessment of Jalan Raya
Babelan based on the International Roughness Index
(IRI) and Pavement Condition Index (PCI) using
Roadroid application shown that the value of IRI
obtained between 6.31 (moderate) - 33.81 (heavy
deterioration) which is 90% heavy deterioration
According to the survey on Jalan Raya Babelan
Sta 0+000 to 2+000 using Pavement Conditions
Index (PCI), there are some types of deterioration
such as (corner breaks/corner cracks), divided slab,
seal joint damage, lane/shoulder drop-off, linear
cracking, polished aggregate, popouts, punch-out,
corner spalling, and joint spalling with high severity.
The deterioration handling that should be done to
the Jalan Raya Babelan are cracks seal, full-depth
patch, slab replacement/reconstruction, reseal joints,
grove surface, overlay and partial-depth patch
corresponding segments.
However, for economical and efficiency most of
the Jalan Raya Babelan needs to be included in the
minor reconstruction program, by repairing the
deterioration that occurred in the form of the
pavement overlay.
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Table 1: IRI Maintenance Program
(Source: General Directorate of Highways, 2011)
Table 2. PCI value
(Source: Management System)
Table 3 PCI Maintenance Program
(Source: Management System)
Table 4. Jalan Raya Babelan Deterioration
Figure 4. Rigid Pavement Condition Percentage Using IRI
Deterioration Analysis of Rigid Pavement using Roadroid based on PCI
Figure 5. IRI Value at STA 1+500-1+520
Figure 6. IRI Value at STA 1+500-1+520
ASAIS 2020 - Annual Southeast Asian International Seminar