Design and Prototype Mold of Carbon Composite Electrode for
Synthesis Graphene with Electrochemical Exfoliation Method
Isnanda Nuriskasari, Agus Edy Pramono, Hamdi and Dendy Arista
Mechanical Engineering, Politeknik Negeri Jakarta, Jl. Prof. G. A. Siwabessy, Depok, Indonesia
Keywords: Graphene, Electrode, Mold, Carbon Composite, Electrochemical Exfoliation.
Abstract: Graphene is a new material that has special electrical, thermal, magnetic, optical, mechanical and chemical
properties. The method for synthesis graphene that is currently being developed is through the electrochemical
exfoliation because it has the advantages of a fast, environmentally friendly manufacturing process, and low
costs in the production process, and the resulting low defect value of the graphene material. One of the most
important component for syhnthesis graphene with this method is electrodes. Electrodes at this method act as
a source of carbon for synthesis graphene. Most of the researcher use graphite (sheet, rod, and flakes) as a
electrodes for this method. This research aims to synthesis graphene with electrochemical exfoliation with
carbon composite as a electrode. This paper is the first stage at this research to design and create a mold of
carbon composite electrode. The result of the first stage of this research is using material ST 37 that have
thick 5mm to create mold of carbon composite electrode, the shapes of this electrodes is block with dimension
15 x 1 x1 [cm].
1 INTRODUCTION
The advantages of graphene material properties
because of it is a thin sheet (nanoparticle scale), but
have high strength and electrical and thermal
conductivity. The thermal conductivity of graphene is
five times greater than copper, but the weight of the
graphene material is four times lower than copper and
the electrical conductivity of graphene is equivalent
to copper. Graphene has a lower density than steel,
but the strength of graphene can reach up to fifty
times that of steel. In addition, graphene has a very
high surface area of up to 2,500 m
2
/ g (Liu et al.,
2019). Therefore, many researcher have research on
graphene materials for application in the energy
sector, one of which is to store energy such as
batteries, solar cells and supercapacitors.
Nowdays, a graphene synthesis method that is
more environmentally friendly is being developed,
namely the electrochemical exfoliation method. The
electrochemical exfoliation method has advantages in
terms of a fast, environmentally friendly, and low cost
manufacturing process in the production process
(Ramadhan et al., 2019). This method produces
graphene flakes that have a smaller defect value
because the electrochemical removal of the graphite
layer requires a lower agitation intensity to disperse
the graphene compared to other liquid phase methods
(Mir & Shukla, 2018). The synthesis of graphene with
the electrochemical exfoliation method requires 3
components, there are an electrolyte solution, an
electrode as well as a carbon source, and an electric
current.
One of the most important component for
synthesis graphene with electrochemical exfoliation
method is electrodes. This research aims to synthesis
graphene with electrochemical exfoliation with
carbon composite electrode. (Pramono et al., 2012)
have researched on the electrical conductivity of
carbon-carbon composites from coal tar and coconut
shell waste. The results showed that the increase in
density of the carbon-carbon composite material had
an effect on the increase in the conductivity of the
electrical material.
Based on those explanation, in this paper, the
research focuses on design and create a mold of
carbon composite electrode. The shapes of electrodes
that will use for synthesis graphene is a block with
dimension 15 x 1 x1 [cm]. This research will also tests
on the molds that have been created to produce carbon
composite electrodes for graphene synthesis, then the
electrodes will be tested on initial test for act as a
source of carbon to synthesis graphene with
electrochemical exfoliation method.
Nuriskasari, I., Pramono, A., Hamdi, . and Arista, D.
Design and Prototype Mold of Carbon Composite Electrode for Synthesis Graphene with Electrochemical Exfoliation Method.
DOI: 10.5220/0010508200130017
In Proceedings of the 9th Annual Southeast Asian International Seminar (ASAIS 2020), pages 13-17
ISBN: 978-989-758-518-0
Copyright
c
2021 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
13
2 RESEARCH METHOD
This research begin by design the mold of carbon
composite electrode that will produce electrode with
block shapes 15 x 1 x1 [cm]. One of the most
important things to design this mold is procedures to
produce this carbon composite electrode. Refer to
(Pramono et al., 2012), procedures to produce carbon
composites electrode are :
1. Prepare the basic material of carbon 300 mesh and
tar with a ratio of 5: 7
2. Melt the tar for the first before mixture with 300
mesh of carbon, and then mix the tar that has been
melted with 300 mesh of carbon.
3. Put the mixture into the mold of carbon composite
electrode, and giving the pressure at 200 bar.
4. The carbon-carbon composite mixture at the mold
of electrode was heating/curing at a temperature of
200
0
C.
5. Furthermore, the carbon composite electrode is
remove from the mold. To optimize the electrical
conductivity of the electrodes, a re-curing process
was carried out without mold at a temperature 950
0
C.
Based on those explanation about procedure to
produce carbon composite electrode, we must create
the mold of carbon composite electrode that have
specification to easy remove the carbon composite
electrode after curing 200
0
C. On the other side, the
material for the mold must good in mechanical and
thermal properties, such as have a good strength,
good a conductivity thermal, and good a resistant
corrosion, because the mold will be pressed at 200 bar
and curing at 200
0
C. ST 37 with the thick 5 mm is the
best material for this mold. Table 1 showed the
mechanical properties of ST 37 and Table 2 showed
the chemical composition of ST 37.
Table 1 Mechanical Properties of ST.37
Grade Tensile
strength
(Mpa)
Yield strength
(Mpa) not less
than
Elongati
on (%)
not less
than
= 16
mm
>16 mm
St37 350-480 235 225 25
Table 2 Chemical Composition of ST 37
Gr
ad
e
C Si Mn P S Cr Ni Cu
St37 0.17 0.17-
0.37
0.35-
0.65
0.0
25
0.02 0.25 0.25 0.25
3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
To create the mold of carbon composite electrode that
have specification easy to remove the electrode after
curing at 200
0
C and produce the carbon composite
electrodes that have a good conductivity, design the
mold is important thing for the first step. Figure 1
showed the design for the part of the base of the mold.
The design for this mold is to produce 4 electrodes
that each electrode have dimension 15 x 1x 1 [cm].
The method to create this part is by the welding the
material ST 37 refer to the design. The mold have
length and width 230 x 140 [mm]. There is a part like
a fin at the mold base that act as a holder with
dimension 10 x 20 [mm], this part will be welded on
the mold base. The number of fins on the one of the
side at the mold base is 6, the distance between the
fins is 10 mm.
Figure 1: Part of the Mold base
Figure 2 showed the design for part of the mold
base that act as a holder that will put into the part
between the fins, this material is amuntit. This part is
not welded to the mold base because of the molding
must have spesification easy to remove the electrodes
after the curing at 200
0
C. The dimension of this part
is 200 x 10 x 20 [mm].
ASAIS 2020 - Annual Southeast Asian International Seminar
14
Figure 2: Holder of the Mold Base
Figure 3 showed the final mold base of carbon
composite electrode that will produce 4 electrodes,
combination figure 3 and 4.
Figure 3: Mold Base of Carbon Composite Electrode
Figure 4 showed the design for the mold top that
have part to press the material electrode. The material
for this part is ST 37, same to the material for the
mold base. The method to create this part is by the
welding the material ST 37 refer to the design. The
length and width of the mold top is 230 x 140 [mm],
there are 4 parts that act as a press the material
electrode. The dimension for this part is 150 x 10 x 5
[mm]. The final result of the mold of carbon
composite electrode can be seen at figure 5.
Figure 4: Mold Top of Carbon Composite Electrode
Figure 5: Mold of Carbon Composite Electrode
After that, the mold will be tested to produce
electrodes from carbon composite that can be seen on
figure 6 and figure 7.
Figure 6: Carbon Composite Electrode at The Mold
Design and Prototype Mold of Carbon Composite Electrode for Synthesis Graphene with Electrochemical Exfoliation Method
15
Figure 7: Carbon Composite Electrodes
Figure 8: Conductivity Test for The Carbon Composite
Electrode
Figure 9: Electrochemical Exfoliation with Carbon
Composite Electrodes
Figure 10: The Result of Electrochemical Exfoliation with
Carbon Composite Electrodes
Figure 8 show the result of the conductivity test
carbon composite electrode that can turn on the lamp,
so this electrode have electrical conductivity. The
result of initial test that using carbon composite
electrode for synthesis graphene with electrochemical
exfoliation method can be seen at figure 9 and figure
10. It was proven that the carbon-carbon composite
made of coconut shell and tar was successful in acting
as anode and cathode, and the exfoliating carbon layer
on the anode and cathode succeeded in forming
graphene.
4 CONCLUSION
Mold of the composites carbon electrode can be made
from material ST 37 which have thick 5 mm. The
mold prove can produce 4 electrodes, each electrode
have dimension 15x1x1 [cm]. The carbon-carbon
composite made of coconut shell and tar was
successful in acting as anode and cathode, and the
exfoliating carbon layer on the anode and cathode
succeeded in forming graphene.
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Design and Prototype Mold of Carbon Composite Electrode for Synthesis Graphene with Electrochemical Exfoliation Method
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