Potential of Photovoltaic Technology in Indonesia
based on Latitude Coordinate
Muchlishah
Politeknik Negeri Jakarta, Depok, Indonesia
Keywords: DASI, Latitude, LCOE, Meteonorm, Photovoltaic, SAM.
Abstract: Based on previous research, solar radiation at every latitude is different. Indonesia is one of the few countries
that is located on the equator furthermore in the tropical region, which is between 23.5° north latitude and
23.5° south latitude, where the sun will continue to move as if it were perpendicular, so tropical areas will
receive more sunlight than other regions in the earth. With a lot of potential solar energy in Indonesia, the use
of solar energy for electricity at 34 capital of the province in Indonesia can be considered. Climate data in this
research obtained from Meteonorm than executed in SAM (System Advisor Model) then generated Daily
Average Solar Irradiance (DASI), Annual System Output (ASO) in Alternating Current (AC), and Levelized
cost of Electricity (LCOE). The highest DASI value is 5.26 kWh/m2/day in Kupang and the lowest at Bandung
with value 4.12 kWh/m2/day. The highest LCOE value 35.43 $cents/kWh in the city of Pontianak at 0.08°
south latitude coordinates, and the lowest in the city of Kupang at 28.16 $cents/kWh at 10.183° south latitude
coordinates.
1 INTRODUCTION
Indonesia is an archipelago country with centralized
system of electricity on one transmission and
distribution network with a large capacity where ever
the majority of power plants using energy from fossil
fuel. This condition become an obstacle in meeting
evenly electricity need. Solar energy is expected to
become a solution to produce electricity that more
environmentally friendly with energy production can
be carried out directly by the energy users.
Figure 1 Indonesian Map (World Atlas, 2020)
Based on calculations from PLN (Perusahaan
Listrik Negara) statistical data for 2019, total of PLN
customers from the household sector are 91.96%
(Statistik PLN, 2019). This means that the use of
electricity in Indonesia is dominated for consumption,
not production. In addition, the load of household
sector is not the biggest contributor in PLN's revenue
because it is still lower than industrial sector revenue.
From previous study, Stieven and Setiawan
obtained formulation for optimum tilt angle
especially in tropical area. Djamal and Setiawan
obtained PV-performance thin film generates greater
energy than crystalline PV in the tropical area. Danar
and Setiawan have obtained the formulation for
optimum tilt angle only in Indonesia that produce
maximum potential economic benefit to be gained
from the installation of solar panels. Isdawimah and
Ismujianto obtained monitoring system to control
environmental protection in PV system. Pratama and
Kumara obtained that PLTS installed on the north
side of the building's roof is capable of producing the
largest amount of electricity using SAM.
From the facts above, the use of solar energy to
meet the electricity needs of household consumers is
expected to be a solution to improve the reliability of
the electrical power system in Indonesia and
simultaneously reduce dependence on fossil energy
which is decreasing in number and has a negative
impact on environmental sustainability.
Muchlishah, .
Potential of Photovoltaic Technology in Indonesia based on Latitude Coordinate.
DOI: 10.5220/0010507800090012
In Proceedings of the 9th Annual Southeast Asian International Seminar (ASAIS 2020), pages 9-12
ISBN: 978-989-758-518-0
Copyright
c
2021 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
9
To encourage the use of solar energy in Indonesia,
it is necessary to do research on the potential of solar
energy in 34 capitals of the province in Indonesia, so
it can be seen the effect of geographic location
(latitude coordinates) on the amount of electrical
energy produced. Furthermore, from this research, the
LCOE (Levelized Cost of Electricity) value is
obtained so that it is possible to do electricity
purchase from the public or solar generation owners
to PLN to meet the unmet load of electrical energy
from existing PLN generators, and at the end it can
help to improve the reliability of electrical energy
system in the territory of Indonesia and also to
encourage the further development of the renewable
energy industry, especially from solar energy.
2 METHODOLOGY
Table 1 Latitude Coordinate of 34 capital of the province in
Indonesia
Province
Capital of The
Province
Latitude
Aceh Banda Aceh 5.55
Sumatera Utara Medan 3.58
Kalimantan
Utara
Tanjung Selor 2.83
Sulawesi Utara Manado 1.53
Kep. Riau Batam 1.03
Maluku Utara Ternate 0.783
Gorontalo Gorontalo 0.55
Riau Pekanbaru 0.482
Kalimantan
Bara
t
Pontianak -0.08
Kalimantan
Timu
r
Samarinda -0.5
Papua Bara
t
Soron
g
-0.867
Sulawesi
Ten
g
ah
Palu -0.9
Sumatera Bara
t
Padan
g
-1
Jambi Jambi -1.63
Kep. Bangka
Belitun
Pangkal Pinang -2.08
Kalimantan
Ten
g
ah
Palangkaraya -2.2
Papua Ja
y
apura -2.53
Sulawesi Bara
t
Mamu
j
u -2.669
Sumatera
Selatan
Palembang -2.98
Kalimantan
Selatan
Banjarmasin -3.31
Maluku Ambon -3.64
Ben
g
kulu Ben
g
kulu -3.8
Sulawasi
Ten
gg
ara
Kendari -3.967
Sulawesi
Selatan
Makassar -5.15
Lampung
Bandar
Lampun
g
-5.43
Banten Seran
g
-6.11
DKI Jakarta Jakarta -6.13
Jawa Bara
t
Bandun
g
-6.95
Jawa Ten
g
ah Semaran
g
-6.97
Jawa Timu
r
Suraba
y
a -7.23
DI Yo
gy
akarta Yo
gy
akarta -7.8
N
TB Matara
m
-8.6
Bali Denpasa
r
-8.65
N
TT Kupan
g
-10.183
In this research, household consumers are limited
to consumers that located in 34 capital of the province
in Indonesia with assumption that all of consumers
have been connected to PLN network. It is assumed
that all of consumers are economically capable to
investing in photovoltaic technology. This research is
limited by collecting and processing of several
secondary data variables for solar power generation
with installed power capacity from PLN 2200VA or
above.
Meteonorm data input used in this research is
latitude and longitude coordinates for 34 capital of the
province in Indonesia. For latitude coordinate which
located above the equator the input value is positive
and for latitude coordinate which located below the
equator the input value is negative. Afterwards,
because of Indonesia is located in the eastern
hemisphere, which is located between 95˚ east
longitude to 141˚ east longitude, the value input is
always positive. Table 1 shown 34 capital of the
province in Indonesia that sorted based on latitude
coordinate.
Figure 2 Methodology
Hereafter, climate data from Meteonorm will
process using System Advisor Model (SAM).
Besides climate data, tilt and azimuth optimum
(Rumokoy, 2015) of the panel and component prices
also added as input in SAM to generate Daily
Input
Meteonorm
Latitude and
Longitude
Coordinate
from34capital
oftheprovince
inIndonesia
Output
Meteonorm
Hourlyclimate
datainoneyear
InputSAM
Output
Meteonorm,
Tilt &
Azimuth,
Component
prices
Output
SAM
DASI,
Annual
System
Output,
LCOE
ASAIS 2020 - Annual Southeast Asian International Seminar
10
Average Solar Irradiance (DASI), Annual System
Output (ASO) and LCOE from the system. Figure 2
show the process of this research.
3 RESEARCH RESULT AND
DISCUSSION
Daily average solar irradiance is the amount of solar
radiation that measured in terms of electrical energy
in units of kWh per square meter in a day. DASI in
this research is seen from the average data in one year.
From 34 capital of the province in Indonesia, Kupang
is the city with the highest DASI, which is 5.26
kWh/m
2
/day where Kupang is a city that is farthest
from the equator at 10,183 latitude south side of the
equator. The lowest DASI value of 34 capital of the
province in Indonesia is Bandung, which is 4.12
kWh/m
2
/day. If Bandung compared with other city
nearby, the climate differences is quite extreme from
the other city, so based on this condition Bandung
data can temporarily ignore in order to see the true
pattern of DASI.
By ignoring the city of Bandung, Pontianak is the
city with the lowest DASI, which is 4.14
kWh/m
2
/day. When viewed from the position of
Pontianak at latitude coordinates, it is known that
Pontianak is the capital of the province which closest
to the equator at 0.08 to the south of the equator.
The annual AC system output is the average value
in one year of the inverter power output that will
distributed to PLN grid or to be used directly by the
producer. The value of power is already in the form
of Alternating Current (AC), not Direct Current (DC)
that produced by solar panel.
Figure 3 Latitude Coordinate from 34 Capital of The
Province in Indonesia
The northernmost city is located in the Sumatra
area, namely Banda Aceh at the coordinates of 5.55˚
north latitude and the southernmost city is Kupang,
which is located in Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) area
at 10,183˚ south latitude. There are eight cities that
are located above the equator and 26 cities that are
located below the equator. More details can see at
figure 3.
Figure 4 DASI from 34 capital of the province in
kWh/m
2
/day
From the discussion above it is known that if
latitude coordinate closer to the equator, DASI will be
smaller and if latitude coordinate farther from the
equator, DASI will be greater. An exception occurs if
at some point have significant differences in climate
from surrounding area because it will affect the value
of DASI.
From figure shown below, Annual AC System
Output for 34 capital of the province in Indonesia
with the highest value is Kupang as well as the value
of DASI. For the city of Pontianak, annual AC system
output remain at the lowest value because the position
of Pontianak latitude coordinate is closest to the
equator compared to the other city.
Figure 5 Annual AC System Output of 34 Capital of The
Province in kWh
‐12
‐10
‐8
‐6
‐4
‐2
0
2
4
6
8
Kupang
Mataram
Surabaya
Bandung
Serang
Makassar
Bengkulu
Banjarmasin
Mamuju
Palangkaraya
Jambi
Palu
Samarinda
Pekanbaru
Ternate
Manado
Medan
5,26
5,26
5,19
4,98
4,94
4,94
4,90
4,89
4,81
4,77
4,76
4,75
4,74
4,74
4,72
4,68
4,61
4,55
4,54
4,50
4,46
4,44
4,44
4,39
4,37
4,36
4,35
4,35
4,30
4,21
4,17
4,14
4,12
KUPANG
SORONG
TERNATE
KENDARI
AMBON
YOGYAKARTA
MATARAM
BENGKULU
JAKARTA
BANDAACEH
BATAM
PALANGKARA…
PEKANBARU
PADANG
JAMBI
SAMARINDA
BANDUNG
1388,95
1385,25
1382,7
1357,78
1316,17
1308,79
1300,81
1296,67
1283,99
1266,41
1259,48
1258,37
1255,41
1255,15
1254,53
1245,04
1231,7
1221,24
1216,47
1200,38
1193,95
1190,03
1175,16
1169,83
1168,28
1158,26
1152,92
1151,34
1143,89
1131,34
1130,53
1115,79
1107,37
1103,89
KUPANG
DENPASAR
TERNATE
JAYAPURA
KENDARI
YOGYAKARTA
BENGKULU
MATARAM
JAKARTA
BANDAACEH
BATAM
PANGKAL
TANJUNGSELOR
BANDAR
PEKANBARU
BANDUNG
SAMARINDA
Potential of Photovoltaic Technology in Indonesia based on Latitude Coordinate
11
Kupang is the city with the lowest LCOE from 34
capital of the province in Indonesia at 28.16
$cents/kWh. Meanwhile, Pontianak is the city with
the highest LCOE value at 35.43 $cents/kWh. This
condition is inversely proportional to the value of
DASI and annual AC system output where the LCOE
value in the city with the farthest latitude coordinates
from the equator will get the smallest value and the
city with the closest latitude coordinate from the
equator will get the largest value.
The value of LCOE in this research depends on
price of the components that used. With different
components, energy prices will also be different.
Therefore, the LCOE value in this research is only
used as a reference for obtaining the LCOE pattern
from 34 capital of the province in Indonesia with the
same components are used in the photovoltaic
system.
Figure 6 LCOE of 34 Capital of The Province in
$cents/kWh
4 CONCLUSIONS
The shift in longitude has no effect on the resulting
LCOE value. A coordinate that closer to the equator
or zero degrees of latitude have the higher of LCOE
value, and the farther from the equator have the
smaller of LCOE value.
The LCOE value in a geographic coordinate point
is inversely proportional to the daily average solar
irradiance and annual AC system output values.
The lowest LCOE value of 34 provinces in
Indonesia is in the city of Kupang with a value of
28.16 $cents/kWh where the city of Kupang is a city
located at coordinates 10,183˚ south latitude that
farthest province in Indonesia from the equator. The
highest LCOE value of 34 provinces in Indonesia is
in the city of Pontianak, at 35.43 $cents/kWh that also
the closest capital of the province in Indonesia from
the equator at 0.08˚ south latitude.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research was supported by Tropical Renewable
Energy Center, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas
Indonesia.
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31,15
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TERNATE
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YOGYAKARTA
BENGKULU
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JAKARTA
BANDAACEH
BATAM
PANGKAL
TANJUNG
BANDAR
PEKANBARU
BANDUNG
SAMARINDA
ASAIS 2020 - Annual Southeast Asian International Seminar
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