Analysis of Precast Hybrid Concrete Beam with Lightweight
Concrete at Tension Maximum
A. Rudi Hermawan
1
, Eka Sasmita Mulya
2
, Sarito
2
1
Teknik Sipil,Teknik Konstruksi Gedung,Politeknik Negeri Jakarta
2
Teknik Sipil, Konstruksi Gedung,Politeknik Negeri Jakarta
Keywords: Delivery, Manoeuvre, Aggregate,Lightweight Concrete
Abstract: For several cases of delivery of beam is location for install such as location for manoeuvre. Another case is
available of material for mixing concrete as fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. For that cases research about
segmental girder was needed and was done with lightweight concrete as material for reduce weight of its
beam and called precast hybrid concrete beam. Question of this research is how about strength of flexural
hybrid beam if any load were applied and how about deflection occur. Aim of this research was investigated
of strength of flexural hybrid beam and deflection occur if compared with conventional beam. This research
consist of two types of precast beam that was hybrid beam (BU227 and BU 228) and conventional beam
(BU226). Result of precast hybrid concrete beam BU227 and BU228 and conventional beam BU226 were
strength of flexural beam at ultimate and deflection of beam at ultimate. For strength of flexural conventional
beam BU 226 at ultimate was achieved 10,48 T at deflection 29,6 mm. For strength of flexural precast beam
BU 227 at ultimate was achieved 10,15 T at deflection 23,43 mm and for strength of flexural precast beam
BU 228 at ultimate was achieved 10,33 T at deflection 27,19 mm. Average compressive strength of
lightweight concrete was achieved 49,58 kg/cm2.Conclusion of this research is both of precast hybrid beam
are having good performance and can be applied at location with difficult to manouevre and difficult for
availability of materials for mixing concrete.
1 INTRODUCTION
This research was investigated of strength of flexural
and deflection of precast hybrid concrete beam.
Precast hybrid concrete beam was explained about
using of diversification two materials as normal
concrete and lightweight concrete.
The benefit of using precast hybrid concrete beam
is more effective for construction than conventional
beam (cast in site) and minimize cost of construction.
Research of strength of flexural and deflection
between diversification of two materials was
investigated, Apparao and Bing Li (2009), Sebastián
et al. (2013), Baharudin et al. (2006), Sneed et al.
(2016), Farnoud et al. (2017),explained of influence
of roughness at surface of floor concrete will be
connected with topping system using steel fiber
reinforce concrete (SFRC). Question of this research
is how about strength of flexural hybrid beam if any
load were applicated and how about deflection occur.
Aim of this research was investigated of strength of
flexural hybrid beam and deflection occur if
compared with conventional beam
1.1 Lightweight Concrete
Refer to SNI 03-3449-2002,lightweight concrete
structure have fine aggregate or mixing fine aggregate
and coarse aggregate and determine of density not
more than 1850 kg/m3 (Royce et al, 2015).
This research was used mixing only fine
aggregate, cement with water and additive foam agent
(ADT) and additive foam concrete (ADT).
1.2 Shear Horizontal
Code of ACI 318-2011 at chapter 17.5 and SNI 03-
2847-2013 was explained for shear horizontal Vnh
have to meet a demand:
Vu ≤Vnh 
Vnh 1 = 80.Bv.d 
v = Av / Bv.S
Vnh 2 = ( 260 + 0,6.v. fy ) ..Bv.d 
Hermawan, A., Mulya, E. and Sarito, .
Analysis of Precast Hybrid Concrete Beam with Lightweight Concrete at Tension Maximum.
DOI: 10.5220/0010507500050008
In Proceedings of the 9th Annual Southeast Asian International Seminar (ASAIS 2020), pages 5-8
ISBN: 978-989-758-518-0
Copyright
c
2021 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
5
Vnh 3 = 500.Bv.d 
Bv.d < Vu < . 500.Bv.d < ( 260 + 0,6.v. fy
) .Bv.d (5)
Av min = 0,75.(fc')^0,5 .Bw.S / fyt (6)
 for normal condrete and 0.75 for ligthweigth
concrete
2 RESEARCH METHOD
Testing elements were used location at Bina Teknik
Permukiman dan Perumahan Direktorat Jenderal
Cipta Karya Kementerian PUPR Jl. Panyaungan,
Cileunyi Wetan Kab. Bandung. This research have 2
samples precast hybrid concrete beam and 1 sample
precast conventional beam. All of samples would be
tested flexural tensile strength dan 5 samples for
tested tensile strength reinforced bars. Reinforced
bars used D12,59 mm. Figure 1a and 1b was
showing prototype element precast hybrid concrete
beam and conventional beam.. Figure 2 was showing
element precast hybrid beam BU227 will be tested
and Figure 3 was showing element precast hybrid
beam BU228 will be tested also figure 4 was showing
element conventional beam BU226 will be tested.
Figure 5 was showing element precast hybrid
beam BU227 has tested and Figure 6 was showing
element precast hybrid beam BU228 has tested also
figure 7 was showing element conventional beam
BU226 has tested. For method of loading test, can
refer to figure 2,figure 3 and figure 4.
Figure 1a: Prototype element precast hybrid concrete beam
and conventional beam
Figure 1b: Cross Section beam
Figure 2: Element precast hybrid beam BU227
Figure 3: Element precast hybrid beam BU228
Figure 4: Element precast conv. beam BU226
Figure 5: Element precast hybrid beam BU227 has tested
Figure 6: Element precast hybrid beam BU228 has tested
Main Reiforcement 3D13
Main Reinforcement 2D13
Reinforce Beam
Stirup d8-100
L
i
g
thwei
g
th Concrete
N
ormal Concrete
Cross Section Beam
A
B
C
L
igthweigth
Concrete
N
ormal
Concret
2D13
3
d8-100
N
ormal
Concrete
L
igthweigth
Concrete
2D13
3D13
N
ormal
Concrete
3D13
2D13
20 cm
30 cm
Sec.A
Sec.B
Sec.C
ASAIS 2020 - Annual Southeast Asian International Seminar
6
Figure 7: Element precast hybrid beam BU226 has tested
3 RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Research of precast hybrid concrete beam for all
specimen indicate that precast hybrid concrete beam
was capable for resistance under loading same as with
precast conventional beam, accordingly all specimen
indicate of strength of flexural and deflection was not
different respectively and will be explained at below.
For pattern of crack, all of specimens have pattern of
crack were same crack due of moment, indicate that
all specimen have same behavior. Average
compression strength of lightweight concrete was
49,58 kg/cm2 and average density is 1842 kg/m3.
For strength of flexural conventional of beam BU
226 at ultimate was achieved 10,48 T at deflection
29,6 mm. For strength of flexural precast beam BU
227 at ultimate was achieved 10,15 T at deflection
23,43 mm and for strength of flexural precast beam
BU 228 at ultimate was achieved 10,33 T at
deflection 27,19 mm. Table 1 showing result of
loading test and deflection also figure 8 showing
chart of loading versus average of deflection.
Table 1: Result of Flexural Test
No Element
Range Load Range Defl.
T m
m
1 BU 226 0,00 - 1,02 0,00 - 0,85
Conventional 1,18 - 2,00 0,90 - 1,53
2,12 - 2,95 1,60 - 2,13
3,10 - 4,02 2,24 -2,86
4,15 - 4,98 2,91 - 3,49
5,11 - 5,95 3,53 - 4,18
6,10 - 7,08 4,25 - 5,11
7,20 - 8,01 5,19 - 5,79
8,15 - 9,00 5,84 - 6,58
9,08 - 10,48 6,65 - 29,6
2 BU 227 0,00 - 1,08 0,00 - 1,45
Precast 1 1,22 - 2,08 1,50 - 2,19
2,18 - 3,05 2,28 - 2,90
3,17 - 4,02 3,05 - 3,90
4,12 - 5,05 3,98 - 4,71
5,16 - 5,91 4,78 - 5,33
6,15 - 6,98 5,66 - 6,39
7,11 - 8,05 6,46 - 7,19
8,16 - 9,00 7,44 - 10,34
9,01 - 10,15 10,44 - 23,43
2 BU 228 0,00 - 0,98 0,00 - 0,67
Precast 2 1,10 - 1,98 0,71 - 1,20
2,18 - 2,78 1,53- 1,88
3,12 - 3,95 2,13 - 2,73
4,15 - 4,96 2,86 - 3,43
5,18 - 6,00 3,68 - 4,22
6,26 - 7,00 4,53 - 5,11
7,18 - 8,03 5,17 - 5,96
8,15 - 9,00 5,99 - 10,51
9,03 - 10,33 10,62 - 27,19
Table 1 explain result of loading test specimen
BU226,BU227 and BU228. It is clear that result all of
specimen indicate have same performance.
Diversification strength of flexural among BU226
and BU227 was not far only 3,15% and
Diversification strength of flexural among BU227
and BU228 was not far only 1,74% and
diversification of deflection among BU227 and
BU228 was 3,66 mm. If average strength of flexural
BU227 and BU228 was value 10,48 T that by
interpolation has result of deflection 30,32 mm is not
far from value deflection 29,60 mm only has
diversification 0,72 mm or 2,4%.
Figure 8: Result of BU226,BU227,BU228
Shear connector for prevent of effect of shear
horizontal was not influenced. Result for shear
horizontal have been explained that using stirrup
diameter d8 was enough to arrest effect of Vu occur
at edge of beam.
For pattern of crack all of specimen have same as
pattern of crack, crack cause of moment, indicate that
all specimen have same behavior. Therefore for
precast hybrid concrete beam if using lightweight
concrete then have to put normal concrete at right and
left of element of hybrid concrete beam.
The benefit of using precast hybrid concrete beam
is more effective for construction than conventional
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 20406080
Load,Ton
Deflection,mm
LOAD VS DEFLECTION
BU226
BU227
BU228
Analysis of Precast Hybrid Concrete Beam with Lightweight Concrete at Tension Maximum
7
beam (cast in site) and minimize cost of construction,
cost of all element will be cheaper and can be
applicated at location with difficult to manouevre and
difficult for availability of materials for mixing
concrete.
4 CONCLUSION
Result of precast hybrid concrete beam BU227 and
BU 228 were strength of flexural beam at ultimate
and deflection of beam at ultimate. For strength of
flexural conventional beam BU 226 at ultimate was
value 10,48 T at deflection 29,6 mm. For strength of
flexural precast beam BU 227 at ultimate was value
10,15 T at deflection 23,43 mm and for strength of
flexural precast beam BU 228 at ultimate was value
10,33 T at deflection 27,19 mm. Diversification
strength of flexural among BU226 and BU227 was
not far only 3,15% and Diversification strength of
flexural among BU227 and BU228 was not far only
1,74% and diversification of deflection among
BU227 and BU228 was 3,66 mm. If average strength
of flexural BU227 and BU228 was value 10,48 T that
by interpolation has result of deflection 30,32 mm is
not far from value deflection 29,60 mm only has
diversification 0,72 mm or 2,4%. Result all of
specimen indicate have sam.e as performance.
REFERENCES
Apparao S., Bing Li, K., 2009. Investigations of seismic
behavior of hybrid connections. PCI Journal
Paper.Volume: 54. Issue: 1,Page number: 67-87.
Sebastián, F., Vaquero, Damián, R., Correa, Sergio, F.,
Wolkomirski, 2013. Precast concrete, steel-braced,
hybrid pipe rack structures. PCI Journal Paper.
Volume: 58,Issue: 4.Page number: 55-67.
Baharudin, A., Rahman, A., Chan, D., Azis, A., Hanim , M.,
2006. Hybrid Beam to Column Connections for Precast
Concrete Frames Proceeding of the Asia-Pasific
Structural Engineering and Construction Conference
(APSEC 2006). PCI Journal Paper. 5-6 September
2006, Kuala Lumpur,Malaysia.
Rahimi, F., Abu Bakar, S., Vafaei, M., Sophia, C., 2017.
Effect of substrate surface roughness on the flexural
performance of concrete slabs strengthened with a
steel-fiber-reinforced concrete layer, PCI Journal
Paper, January-February.Volume: 62. Issue: 1.Page
Numbers: 78-89.
Sneed, L., Kristian, K., Wermager, S., Meinheit, D., 2016.
Interface shear transfer of lightweight-aggregate
concretes with different lightweight aggregates. PCI
Journal Paper. March-April.Volume: 61.Issue: 2.Page
Number: 38-55
Royce, W., Floyd, W., Hale, M., Michael, B.,
Howland,2015. Measured transfer length of 0.6 in.
prestressing strands cast in lightweight self-
consolidating concrete. PCI Journal Paper. May - June
.Volume: 60,Issue: 3.Page number: 84 – 98.
Nadim, M., and Manaser, A., 2008. Structural Concrete :
Theory and Design , John Wiley and Sons, USA.
SNI 03-3449-2002,Standar Nasional Indonesia ,Tata Cara
Rencana Pembuatan Campuran Beton Ringan Dengan
Agregat Ringan , Bandung, 2002
ACI Committee 318, 2011, Building Code Requirments for
Structure and Commentary,American Concrete
Institute, Detroit
SNI 03-2847-2013,Standar Nasional Indonesia ,Tata Cara
Perhitungan Struktur Beton Untuk Bangunan Gedung,
Bandung, 2013
ASAIS 2020 - Annual Southeast Asian International Seminar
8