Systematic Crowd Mobility Management to Avoid Catastrophic Disasters of Human Stampedes: The Case of Mina Hajj

Nisrine Ibadah, César Benavente-Peces, Khalid Minaoui, Mohammed Rziza, Mohammed Oumsis, Mohammed Oumsis


Every year, the Holy city of Makkah hosts more than two million Muslims for the pilgrimage ’Hajj’. During this event, a set of activities should be done by pilgrims. One of the rituals performed is throwing stones in al-Jamarat area of Mina at pillars target. The throwing Jamarat is a paradigm of stoning the devil, as done by the prophet Abraham. All pilgrims must reach the site at different times in specific hours of particular days. However, this stoning ritual represents the most bottleneck ceremony where the area becomes packed at routes and around pillars structure. The problem is that, unfortunately, humans cannot be controlled while they are in a crowd. That takes this place a high safety hazard by increasing accidents’ probably which cause death of many Muslims last few years. Inspired from this event, this paper presents a new human mobility models which simulates stoning in Hajj by adopting a new design to solve the safety problems. This suggests control huge crowds by conducting the relationship between the Jamarat basin, pilgrims, stoning performance, and the impact of organizing the pilgrims in three rows around the Jamarat basin. This experiment estimate the throwing time at each pillar in order to manage the temporal and spatial human movement inside the Jamarat area. The simulation outcomes encourage adopting the new design to prevent crowd panic and disasters.


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