Towards Enabling Emerging Named Entity Recognition as a Clinical
Information and Argumentation Support
Christian Nawroth, Felix Engel, Tobias Eljasik-Swoboda and Matthias L. Hemmje
Lehrgebiet Multimedia und Internetanwendungen, FernUniversität in Hagen, Universitätsstraße 47, Hagen, Germany
Keywords: Emerging Named Entity Recognition, Data Science, Natural Language Processing, Information Retrieval,
Clinical Argumentation Support.
Abstract: In this paper we discuss the challenges of growing amounts of clinical literature for medical staff. We
introduce our concepts emerging Named Entity (eNE) and emerging Named Entity Recognition (eNER) and
show the results of an empirical study on the incidence of eNEs in the PubMed document set, which is the
main contribution of this article. We discuss how emerging Named Entities can be used for Argumentation
Support, Information Retrieval (IR) Support and Trend Analysis in Clinical Virtual Research Environments
(VREs) dealing with large amounts of medical literature. Based on the empirical study and the discussion
we derive use cases and a data science and user-feedback based architecture for the detection and the use of
eNEs for IR and Argumentation Support in clinical VREs, like the related project RecomRatio.
The amount of medical literature is growing,
following the global trend of information explosion
(Huth, 1989) and Information Overload (Bawden
and Robinson, 2009): While in 1980 279.692
citations were added to PubMed / MEDLINE, in
2016 1.178.360 were added, which means that the
yearly growth rate increased by the factor 3.6 within
35 years (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2017).
In parallel not only the amount of literature is
growing but also the extend of medical vocabularies
like Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (U.S.
National Library of Medicine, 1999), which grew by
12226 entries within 10 years from 2007 till 2016.
Each of these new entries typically identifies a new
medical concept or represents at least a new name
for an existing concept. This growth of textual
medical data in literature as well as the increase of
the medical vocabulary is one major challenge for
medical staff today. The sheer amount of new
textual data and medical literature cannot be
overseen manually for example when recent
literature should be used to argument for or against a
therapy (individual use case) or when actual trends
in public health should be used to support generic
planning or argumentation processes in health
systems (comprehensive use case). So acquiring and
assimilating evidence for decision making is
difficult for clinicians and researchers (Hunter and
Williams, 2015). This coincides with the observation
that (clinical) text data is most pervasive in
electronic health records (EHR) (Jensen et al., 2012)
while there is a lack of training [of scientists] on
processing large unstructured text data (Garmire et
al., 2016). The objectives of combining data
scientists work with medical experts’ knowledge and
experience are to a) identify individual recent
medical concepts represented by new vocabulary to
make them available for daily individual patient-
related work of physicians and in nursing (individual
use case) and b) identify trends represented by
recent vocabulary to be used in health management
(comprehensive use case). In this article we present
our approach which covers both use cases. To
outline the approach, we first define our concept of
emerging Named Entities (eNEs) and present
experimental results on the incidence of eNEs in
medical literature to show the (statistical) relation
between eNEs and emerging clinical knowledge.
The definition and the experiments are the main
contribution of this article. Based on both we then
introduce a first approach for a framework for the
semi-automated eNE recognition (eNER) for further
use in clinical Virtual Research Environments
(VREs). Our framework implements the BDMCube
Framework to be able to process large amounts of
textual data. A related project that utilizes both the
Nawroth, C., Engel, F., Eljasik-Swoboda, T. and Hemmje, M.
Towards Enabling Emerging Named Entity Recognition as a Clinical Information and Argumentation Support.
DOI: 10.5220/0006853200470055
In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Data Science, Technology and Applications (DATA 2018), pages 47-55
ISBN: 978-989-758-318-6
Copyright © 2018 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All r ights reserved
individual as well as the comprehensive use cases is
RecomRatio, a VRE to support argumentation
processes of medical staff in clinical decisions.
RecomRatio which is part of the DFG
Schwerpunktprogramm “Robust Argumentation
Machines“ (SPP 1999) (DFG, 2016) primarily is
intended to support individual argumentations for
individual clinical cases, e.g. for or against a therapy
of an individual patient. For this individual use case
our approach extracts textual data and related
context representing recent medical knowledge
based on an individual query from a physician for
argumentative support. The aim is to provide the
physician the latest medical knowledge to raise
awareness for more recent and alternative
argumentations beyond his actual individual query.
For the comprehensive use case our approach
provides a graphical visualization of ongoing trends
and emerging concepts represented by emerging
within RecomRatio without an individual query but
regarding more general information needs e.g. in
argumentation processes within clinical planning.
Our work is based on the technique of Named Entity
Recognition (NER) (Nadeau and Sekine, 2007),
which is a subtask of Natural Language Processing
(NLP). Named Entity Recognition is used for
Information Extraction (IE) (Sang et al., 2003) and
thus for discovering knowledge from free-text
(Piskorski and Yangarber, 2013). Amongst others -
like Part of Speech (POS) one feature of textual data
is the information, whether a text token identifies a
name e.g. of a person, a location or in the medical
domain of a disease or a drug. Jurafsky and Martin
(2009) define the task of Named Entity Recognition
(NER) as “the combined task of finding spans of text
that constitute proper names and then classifying the
entities being referred to according to their type”.
This is a common definition of NER which is
referenced in multiple works analogously such as
Grishman (1995). Earlier works also refer to Named
Entity Recognition and Classification (NERC)
(Nadeau and Sekine, 2007). A more specialized use
case for NER is decision making and argumentation
mining, in which Named Entities (NEs) besides
others are used for argumentation boundary
detection (Lippi and Torroni, 2016), which is also
addressed by our work. We try to recognize and
classify Named Entities that are characteristic for
arguments for clinical decisions and provide them
for an argumentation support system in our project
RecomRatio and identify trends represented by
Named Entities. When trying to address this use
cases in VREs – like RecomRatio – which contain
emerging knowledge (Patel and Ghoneim, 2011)
there is a major challenge: Emerging knowledge
“arises suddenly and unexpectedly and it cannot be
planned and predicted” (Patel and Ghoneim, 2011).
Figure 1: Graphical Definition of eNE.
Although there exist NER methods based on ML
that can detect yet unknown NEs in highly
specialized fields (like genes) when it comes to
broader and interdisciplinary domains, learning-
based approaches fail due to the lack of appropriate
training data, which creation is resource intensive
and often requires know how of both the respective
domain and linguistic or Natural Language
Processing knowledge. The idea is to utilize user
feedback for improving Information Retrieval (IR)
processes is not new: User Relevance Feedback
(Rocchio, 1971) for a long time is a well-known
Information Retrieval (IR) technique for improving
IR search result. While traditional User Relevance
Feedback refers to IR tasks, Finin et al., (2010)
present an approach in which they successfully use
feedback through crowdsourcing (Amazon MTurk)
for Named Entity Recognition in Twitter messages.
They show that crowdsourcing can be used to
identify NEs of the traditional categories Person,
Organization and Location. We extend their
approach to address the specific needs of our
project: As the (e)NEs to be identified in VREs are
too specific we do not use anonymous annotators via
a generic crowdsourcing but domain experts from
the respective VREs. Although this leads to a much
smaller number of annotators we benefit from their
higher domain specific confidence. We also do not
limit our approach to the three categories but use
categories depending on domain specific needs, for
example based on existing taxonomies, like the
MeSH tree structure. To the best of our knowledge
there do not exist approaches to use user feedback or
crowdsourcing approaches to improve the quality of
NER models on emerging knowledge in a clinical
setup. Upstream to the user feedback we use
statistical pattern recognition and classification
based on ML. Besides recent Deep Learning based
DATA 2018 - 7th International Conference on Data Science, Technology and Applications
Table 1: Number of Terms from MSHNEW per year.
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 SUM
397 740 2147 1426 1913 2279 2489 232 241 335 12199
methods as shown by (LeCun et al., 2015), Support
Vector Machines (SVM), are still recognized as
robust and efficient ML based methods for
classification tasks (Hearst et al., 1998; Joachims,
1998). A related classifier-based approach which
focuses on document classification (instead of term
classification) but deals with similar challenges (lack
of gold-standards) is introduced by (Eljasik-
Swoboda et al., 2018). The authors describe a text
categorization classifier that does not require a target
function to bootstrap text categorization (TC). This
way, the need for training examples and gold
standards, which are time- and expert work-intensive
to create and maintain, is eliminated. Their approach
overcomes the supervised learning pattern and
provides quick, tangible classification results based
on vector space semantics. Besides user feedback
and statistical pattern recognition as described our
approach also utilizes state of the art NLP
techniques. Regarding that, Stanford Core NLP is
considered to be one state of the art framework
(Manning et al., 2014). It provides a set of generic
NLP functions, such as tokenizing and part of
speech tagging, which we use for baseline NLP. For
NER (Chang and Manning, 2014) propose to
complement statistical / supervised learning based
NER methods with rule-based approaches,
especially when there is no appropriate training data
available. That’s why our approach for recognizing
eNE-candidates combines Conditional Random
Field (CRF) based Stanford NER (Finkel et al.,
2005) and Stanford TokensRegex for rule based
NER. A recent application-example for domain
specific adoption of Stanford CRF-NER for
smartphone related use case is given by Deubzer et
al., (2016). There exist several systems for applying
Natural Language Processing and Named Entity
Recognition to the clinical sector, such as MetaMap
(Aronson, 2001; Aronson and Lang, 2010) and
cTakes (Savova et al., 2010). These systems use
dictionary-based approaches to identify existing
Named Entities, while our approach relies on a
combination of user feedback, statistics and rule
based / machine learning based NER. The idea of
utilizing Named Entities for Information Retrieval
support in the clinical domain is already
implemented through the MeSH on demand
platform. MeSH on demand recognizes NEs from
the MeSH vocabulary within user queries, provides
additional context for them, uses them to provide
related articles and shows related MeSH terms. Our
approach goes beyond MeSH on demand by not
only identifying and using existing NEs but
emerging NEs, collecting user feedback on them and
visualize them. For evaluation of (e)NER
performance. we use standard metrics Recall,
Precision and F-Measure as proposed in CONLL
2003 (Sang et al., 2003) using gold standard corpora
lie the GENIA (Ohta, Tateisi and Kim, 2002) and
CRAFT (Bada et al., 2012). Our approach
implements the BDMCube meta model for big data
management (Kaufmann et al., 2017). As related
work in the field of clinical argumentation support
Hunter and Williams present a framework for the
aggregation of clinical evidence using argumentation
(Hunter and Williams, 2015). While their approach
focuses on combining already extracted evidence
from clinical trials, our approach is going to detect
evidence in textual document represented through
eNEs, which may later be processed through a
similar framework like Hunter and Williams
3.1 Definition
We extend the concept of Named Entities and
Named Entity Recognition as defined above and
define emerging Named Entity (eNE) as follows:
A term, that is in use in domain specific
literature since the time t_USE and which is
afterwards acknowledged as a Named Entity by
respective expert community (e.g. through adding
the term to a domain specific vocabulary) at the time
t_ACK is defined as an emerging Named Entity
(eNE) for the time interval [t_USE, t_ACK[. The aim
of emerging Named Entity Recognition(eNER) is to
recognize eNEs during the time interval [t_USE,
3.2 Experimental Setup
The generic aim of the experiments is to find out, if
there exists a relation between emerging knowledge
in clinical VREs and eNEs as defined before.
To investigate this possible relation we relied on two
well-known and trusted sources: The Medical
Towards Enabling Emerging Named Entity Recognition as a Clinical Information and Argumentation Support
Subject Headings (MeSH) Vocabulary and the
PubMed Central document set (U.S. National
Library of Medicine, 1996). Each year MeSH
provides a list of terms that are added to the MeSH
vocabulary in the respective year
(mshnewYYYY.txt), which is supposed to be our
source of eNEs for the respective year YYYY. For
us the adoption of a term by MeSH proves that a
term has been acknowledged by the medical
community as a medical Named Entity and it also
indicates the time t_ACK. In our study we extracted
terms from the MSHNEW lists from the years 2007
to 2016, which respective numbers are shown in
Table 1. For each term in a years’ MSHNEW-list we
performed a search query against the PubMed
Central document set through the public PubMed
search engine and counted the number of result
documents per year given back by the PubMed
Search engine dating back to 1980. For example, a
search engine query of the term “Sofosbuvir” gives a
total result count of 1136 documents, which were
published starting in 2010. Before 2010 no
document with this term was published and therefore
no results were returned by the search for 1980 –
2010. The considered time frame for the result
document counts is intentionally longer than the
time frame from which the MSHNEW lists were
taken. The different time frames are necessary as by
definition eNEs are used before t_ACK and so we
must consider documents older than t_ACK to find
out when and to which extend eNEs are used before
t_ACK. Our analysis of the document counts
comprises three levels: In a first level we compared
the counts and the distribution of selected single
terms from MSHNEW2016. In the second level we
performed a statistical analysis on all query results
of the complete MSHNEW2016 vocabulary. To
normalize the results and make them comparable we
calculated the median of the derived document
counts for each year and then calculated the
 of a years’
median regarding the sum of all medians from 1980
– 2016. We chose the median instead of the average
to reduce the impact of single terms that produced a
very high count of result documents, because these
terms were quite generic and thus are used in a lot of
articles although not being discriminative for each of
the articles (e.g. “eeking Behavior” from MSHNEW
2016, which creates very “noisy” search results).
For the chosen vocabulary MSHNEW2016 for
example there is a median count
as a
query with a term from MSHNEW2016 in median
returns 40 result documents from PubMed published
in the year 2010. In relation to the sum of all median
counts between 1980 and 2016 – which is 702 – this
leads to a percentage
0.057. To compare with the overall growth of the
PubMed document set we also calculated the
of the counts of all
documents in the PubMed document set per year
in relation to the total number of documents in
PubMed from 1980 – 2016. Thus, the second
formula provides a generic picture of the relative
growth of the PubMed corpus from 1980 – 2016.
The third level of our analysis summarizes the
median results of the yearly analyses described
before. For each of the MSHNEW-years considered
[2007 – 2016] we extracted the respective medians
of a 20-year time interval [t_ACK-20, t_ACK]. For
example, for t_ACK = 2007 this interval covers
We finally calculated the median for each of the
generic years [t_ACK-20, t_ACK]. To compare, we
also calculated a graph showing the median growth
rate of the overall PubMed Collection in the
respective years.
Table 2: Example Terms of the MSHNEW 2016 vocabulary.
Term # of Docs 1980 - 2016
Relative Distribution
1980 - 2016
Adalimumab 5539 14
Neuroprotection 18505 29
Imatinib Mesylate 9773 20
Cobicistat 225 6
Rheumatism (comparative, non 2016)
DATA 2018 - 7th International Conference on Data Science, Technology and Applications
3.3 Experimental Results
Equivalent to our experimental setup, our
presentation of results follows the three levels
“term”, “year” and “overall”. Table 2 shows a
selection of example terms from the MSHNEW
2016 vocabulary and one comparative term. The
table shows the number of documents returned by a
query of the respective term from the PubMed
document collection in the years 1980 – 2016
followed by the time interval in which the term has
been emergent and a graphical representation of the
relative distribution of documents represented by the
term from 1980 – 2016. Although the terms are all
considered to be emerging NEs according to our
definition it becomes clear that they differ in their
level of emergence. The examples “Adalimumab”
and “Neuroprotection” show a long lasting and
continuous development with thousands of
documents returned while the emergence-interval of
“Cobicistat” is relatively short as well as the number
of returned documents is significantly lower.
Compared to that the term “Imatinib Mesylate”
shows a different relative distribution which is not
typical for an eNE: After an initial increase of
documents the distribution drops again before being
acknowledged as a NE by the expert community.
After having a look on selected terms with
characteristic distributions the next step of the
analysis is the year-level of all MSHEWN terms
from 2016. Figure 2 shows the relative median
growth of PubMed Documents returned by queries
from the MSHNEW 2016 vocabulary. As a
comparison the overall relative growth of PubMed is
plotted. It becomes clear that the gradient (1
derivation) of the eNE-graph becomes higher than
the gradient of the PubMed overall graph already
approximately 1999. In approximately 2005 both the
gradient and the growth rate of the eNE-graph
become higher than the overall growth with an again
significantly growing gradient approximately
starting in 2011. Extending the view to ten years, the
graph showing the median relative increase of the
Years 2007 – 2016. Figure 3 shows a similar
gradient as the one of 2016, although it is a bit less
distinct than the one from 2016. This is probably the
result of applying the medians of ten years which
filters out single extreme values. Just as in the 2016
graph it again becomes clear that the gradient (1
derivation) of the eNE graph becomes bigger than
the gradient of the overall PubMed relative growth
at the time t_ACK – 15. Again at approx. t_ACK- 5
we see both an increase of the gradient, as well as a
relative growth rate that becomes bigger than the
one of the PubMed document corpus.
Figure 2: Median Relative growth of PubMed Documents
represented by eNE-Queries from MSHNEW 2016.
Figure 3: Summarized median relative growth of PubMed
Documents represented by eNE-Queries from MSHNEW
2007 – 2016.
In this section we discuss our approach for an eNER
framework based on statistical methods and expert
user feedback. The framework is still in an early
status and has not been implemented yet. Our
experiments showed main results which are
addressed in our derived system architecture. The
first result is the fact that the absolute number of
documents represented by an eNE differs
enormously (compare the examples Neuroprotection
and Cobicistat). As our approach must cover the
individual use case – in which highly specified
knowledge may be needed for an individual therapy
– eNEs with a low absolute number must be
identified confidently as well as those with high
numbers for discovering trends in the
comprehensive use case. The second result is that
Towards Enabling Emerging Named Entity Recognition as a Clinical Information and Argumentation Support
Figure 4: eNE Recognition Cycle.
Figure 5: BDMCube Integration.
the timeframe between t_ACK and t_USE is very
different as well as the relative distribution of the
documents within this timeframe. This leads to the
conclusion that the statistical patterns to identify
eNEs must be flexible and differentiated. Coming
back to our individual use case even patterns as the
one shown for Imatinib Mesylate must be
considered. This may be an indicator in the
argumentation process that the topic was emergent
but is not state of the art anymore, which may be a
strong argument against a certain therapy. The third
relevant result is that statistical features that identify
eNEs already appear quite early. The slight increase
in the median derivation at t_ACK – 15 shows that
our architecture must be able to identify small
statistical deviations to recognize eNEs as early as
possible. The primary goal of our architecture is to
identify eNEs as early as possible and make them
usable for individual and comprehensive use cases.
4.1 eNE-Recognition-Cycle
With the empirical study we showed that domain
specific eNEs in the medical domain have been used
in literature years before they are acknowledged by
the expert community. We identified a time frame of
about five years before acknowledgement as
important, as particularly within this time frame
there is a significant increase of documents
containing eNEs compared to the general increase of
documents in the respective corpus. In this chapter
we propose an architecture which addresses the
challenge of early detection of eNEs in medical
literature through both statistical analysis as well as
feedback from medical experts.
Figure 4 shows the principle architecture and
feedback workflow which is described in the
following. The workflow starts with a collection of
clinical textual literature, which is relevant for the
eNE Visualisation
eNER Update
candidate recognition
Indexing (Argumentation
emerging topic
DATA 2018 - 7th International Conference on Data Science, Technology and Applications
respective VRE, the clinical document corpus. As a
first processing step Baseline NLP is done through a
State of the Art NLP framework and consists of the
generic NLP tasks tokenization, sentence splitting,
Part of Speech tagging and generic Named Entity
Recognition (Person, Location, Organization). It
also comprises the tagging with a domain specific
vocabulary (if applicable), like MeSH to distinguish
between already existing domain specific NEs and
eNE candidates. NLP features created within the
Baseline NLP step are needed in the later eNER
detection cycle as input for both rule- and ML-based
eNER. The second step Baseline eNER is done
through a hand-crafted set of Regular Expression
(RegExp) rules to detect candidates which could be
eNEs based on textual features derived in the
baseline NLP step. The rules in this step are quite
lenient to achieve a high recall in connection with a
low precision to cover a high percentage of eNE
candidates in a first row. The following step
“Statistical Analysis” is the entry point for the actual
detection cycle. This is the step where data scientist
method of classification is applied first. As a
classification technique for this step we intend to use
Support Vector Machine based pattern learning and
recognition on the distributional patterns. The aim is
to identify those eNE-candidates that have a
distribution and increase patterns similar as those
demonstrated in the experimental results. The
objective is to preserve a high recall from the prior
eNE-candidate recognition while increasing the
precision compared with the step before. The next
step is the visualization of eNE-candidates in a
Graphical User Interface (GUI). It will comprise
textual visualization of identified eNEs and an
integrated visualization of the emergence of them
through sparklines, which have been already
discussed for displaying data in clinical
environments (Radecki and Medow, 2007). An
example for the sparklines is shown in Table 2.
Based on the visualization the expert users are asked
to give feedback on eNE-candidates presented in
connection with a search query of a user. It is
intended to create a GUI that allows the users an
“on-the-fly”-feedback which is integrated strongly
into the GUI of the actual VRE. The feedback of the
users covers two major questions: a) Is the eNE-
candidate a term that is a relevant named entity for
your domain and therefore probably acknowledged
in the future? b) If yes, please give an estimation
about the classification of the eNE-candidate in the
classification scheme of your domain (e.g. MeSH
tree). b) is intended to collect users’ knowledge
about the structural context of a term for use in
argumentation support tasks. After a defined number
of user feedbacks is collected they are consolidated
towards one common user feedback which has a
high degree of confidence due to the input of several
different expert users (User Feedback Analysis
component). Based on the consolidated user
feedback in the following step an eNER Update is
performed which comprises a re-building of
Regular-Expressions for the rule-based approach
(Whitelisting of Terms that have been identified as
eNEs and blacklisting of eNE-candidates which
have been discarded through the users.). In parallel
an internal training corpus for Machine Based
learning NER-approaches is created. For the corpus
the sentences containing identified eNEs are
extracted from the literature and the eNEs are tagged
in these sentences. Beyond the eNE-tagging the
corpus comprises the textual features derived in the
baseline NLP step. The corpus than is used to re-
train a ML based NER-algorithm like CRF to detect
yet unknown eNE-candidates. The feedback is also
used to evaluate the statistical pattern that relates to
the eNE-candidate and update the statistical analysis
step. After rebuilding and re-training rule-based and
ML-based NE algorithms they are re-applied on the
initial clinical document corpus to extract a) eNE-
candidates with a higher quality compared to the
initial baseline eNE-candidate-recognition and b) to
identify eNEs which are no candidates anymore but
have been identified by the expert community with a
high degree of confidence. From this step in the
cycle the candidates are fed to the statistical analysis
where the feedback cycle starts again while the
identified eNEs with the context information from
the users’ feedback are indexed for further use in
argumentation – and IR support in the VRE.
4.2 BDMCube Integration
The component model implements the BDMCube
and follows the design of the eNE recognition cycle.
The BDMCube is intended to create data
intelligence on Big Data through the layers
Datafication, Integration, Analysis, Interaction and
Effectuation sources. In our system design the
Datafication layer is implemented through a
feedback collection engine, which gathers and stores
users’ feedback on eNE-candidates. The layer
Integration is implemented through the consolidation
engine and the corpus creation which are the both
integration tasks in our eNE recognition cycle. Most
tasks of our approach you find the analytics layer,
which reflects the analytical and data science-
oriented focus of our work. The Analytics layer
Towards Enabling Emerging Named Entity Recognition as a Clinical Information and Argumentation Support
covers the engines for the RegExp rebuilding, the
eNER retraining (for the ML based eNER), the re-
application of the eNER (both ML and RegExp
based) and finally the statistical analysis of the
newly detected eNE-candidates. On the interaction
layer you find the interactive visualization of the
statistical results, of identified eNEs and the
integrated GUI for collecting feedback and context
on the eNE-candidates. The Effectuation layer of the
BDMCube is intended to create added value for the
user by providing the intelligence for supporting the
underlying use cases. In our project this layer
contains the interfaces to RecomRatio. It provides
the functionalities for the individual and the
comprehensive use cases to be integrated into the
both projects’ IR GUIs.
In this paper we introduced our concept of emerging
Named Entities, eNEs. With the experiments we
were able to show how eNEs can represent emerging
knowledge in clinical VREs and hence may be used
to support IR and Argumentation Support in clinical
VREs for both individual and comprehensive use
cases. Following these two main contributions –
definition of eNEs and the results of the experiments
– we discussed our proposal for a framework which
can recognize eNEs by combining NLP, statistical
methods, ML and expert user feedback and make
eNEs usable for individual and comprehensive use
cases in clinical VREs. The next steps in our work
are the prototypical implementation and evaluation
of the proposed framework, including the
visualization component, the design of the core
component, the development of statistical patterns to
identify eNE-candidates and foremost a user survey
about search practice of medical staff in clinical
VREs. The objective of the user survey is to find
typical search patterns used by clinicians when
searching for arguments as well as to figure out their
expected outcome of the search (ranking and
visualization). In addition, with the survey we want
to investigate whether clinicians use recent
(emergent) vocabulary for search and argumentation
or whether they rely on traditional wording. The
results of the survey are intended to optimize
baseline eNER (“seed”) and statistical patterns as
well as aligning visualization and ranking principles
in the IR GUI based on the expert users’ actual
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