Augusto E. Bernuy
Facultad de Ingeniería Industrial y de Sistemas, Universidad Tecnológica del Perú, Lima, Perú
Facultad de Ingeniería y Arquitectura, Universidad de San Martin de Porres, La Molina, Lima, Perú
Keywords: Knowledge Management, Collaborative System, Collaborative process.
Abstract: The goal of the research is to design the concept and architecture for new collaborative e-business model in
order to join knowledge management and intellectual capital under the approach of engineering systems. A
collaborative system is designed as a part of new assets, called intellectual capital. We build a supply
design to understand the collaboration among people, processes and systems inside a holistic approach. To
do that the paper presents two models: the first model is the integration among intellectual capital,
collaborative systems and e-business; and then the second model is designed to understand the behaviour of
software agents. Processes are analyzed on their value, for example we need to know if the results of a
process may be important for someone in order to resolve a specific problem. This concept will be used in
one controlled environment and to do that we need some functions of the software agents to complete one
specific process and evaluate some alternatives for the best solution. As a result we get the new process of a
collaborative system, also we define the ability to collaborate and leverage the knowledge giving to
software agents some decisions that we take in a real problem. After the process has been completed we
have improve the design of collaborative e-business performance under the approach of intellectual capital
and knowledge management.
“Collaboration is a term that is often misused as a
technology and marketing ‘buzz word’. And the
most of tools do not support either collaboration or
coordination but often only different types of
communication or only the ability to access specific
data” (Coleman and Ward 2000). Now we know
three aspects of collaboration: content, context and
process (Coleman and Antila, 2006).
Now we introduce a new definition (Bernuy and
Joyanes, 2008):
1) We have a problem that needs one or more
process to resolve;
2) Theses processes have activities as a context and
the content. The information which will be
transformed is the content.
The main processes are (figure 1):
1) We need to do something, so we have an input
but we are not sure about the results and at the end
when we are expecting the output (process level
one). While the main process is doing we need to
pass through some sub processes (processes level
two), from the first to the last one, this is our
2) Then we have the ability to identify each different
process, but also to identify some alternative sub
process and then we do it. If we choose one or
another sub process the results will be different;
3) Now each sub process needs to analyze
something and it has its own rules and different steps
before to do any transformation.
Figure 1: Collaborations aspects. Source: Own.
For us collaboration is the main part of the
organization, if you do not have collaboration, any
process will fail.
If we think that in the business world the
collaborative processes are often highly negotiated,
E. Bernuy A..
DOI: 10.5220/0003647503370340
In Proceedings of the International Conference on Knowledge Management and Information Sharing (KMIS-2011), pages 337-340
ISBN: 978-989-8425-81-2
2011 SCITEPRESS (Science and Technology Publications, Lda.)
geographically distributed, and highly sensitive, and
they are more vulnerable to error in execution, then
the results consume more time, effort and resources;
so we need to think in a new way of collaboration.
Some collaborative tools help us to solve a very
difficult problem, but now we need to create a value
into the virtual space team or across a transaction-
based business system ((Coleman and Antila, 2006).
Also “Effective collaboration represents the most
value, top-line gain for organizations today. It can
unlock the potential of the collective knowledge and
intellectual capital of a given organization, as well as
its value network” (Coleman and Ward 2000).
The new system has two agents (Bernuy and
Joyanes, 2008):
1) The main software agent is designed in order to
look at the environment and identifies when a task is
started, then the agent will resolve the critical factors
for success to deploy the best solution for each
2) The second software agent is designed to
complete the process, its target is evaluates the best
alternative for each task based on the information
from the previous expertise and process rules
2.1 Knowledge Management as a New
The relation between intellectual capital and
knowledge management is:
1) Human capital is the source of knowledge;
2) An action over transformation process gives the
performance and new knowledge towards all the
3) The new knowledge is ready for be registered and
The relationship is started with human activity,
in any place where one need has been created. Each
activity may be registered in previous step, and
process rules are designed in workflow system. We
need to build an important result in transformation
process among different parts of intellectual capital,
this transformation process produce new knowledge
(Richert, 2006).
Agents are defined to:
a) Identifying status of the process, look for starting
and ending processes points;
b) Analyze previous and similar processes;
c) Analyze problems in previous processes;
d) Analyze new problems with available
e) Preparing recommendations and send to executor;
f) Registering the results of the process.
2.2 JADE Agent Platform
JADE (Java Agent DEvelopment Framework) is
fully implemented in Java language. It has the FIPA
specifications and through a set of tools that
supports the debugging and deployment phase.
The architecture offers flexible and efficient
messaging, where JADE creates and manages a
queue of incoming ACL messages, private to each
agent; agents can access their queue via a
combination of several modes: blocking, polling,
timeout and pattern matching based.
The full FIPA communication model has been
implemented and its components have been clearly
distincted and fully integrated: interaction protocols,
envelope, ACL, content languages, encoding
schemes, ontologies and, finally, transport protocols.
The transport mechanism, in particular, is like a
chameleon because it adapts to each situation, by
transparently choosing the best available protocol
(Laclavík, 2005).
The base line is the hide relationship among human
capital, structural capital and social capital. They are
working together and doing the transformation of the
resources in the organization.
It is happening in the day-by-day routine. This
transformation obtains good results when we have
collaboration, in otherwise the results normally fail.
3.1 Collaborative Process and
The new process based in intellectual capital is
defined as a collaborative system (figure 2). The
activities of the agents are:
1) The agent is searching for a new task, when it is
founded the agents obtains the specific context
and the information about the request and the
KMIS 2011 - International Conference on Knowledge Management and Information Sharing
Figure 2: Collaborative process framework. Source: Own.
process level 1 is related with;
2) The agent finds information about the main
objectives of business related to rules of the process
and obtains the sequence of the process from the
3) The agent looks for new information about
expertise or changes in previous rules;
4) The agent prepares a message and transfers the
control to process level 2.
These activities are an example for one process
that needs review information and evaluates
previous experience before take a decision. As not
always the results are goods, we need evaluate the
results and design a way to learn.
In process level 2 the second agent is designed to
evaluate and delivery the best solution:
1) The agent receives the control and information
from the process level 1, immediately the agent
analyzes the data and looks for common and
complex problems from the knowledge data base
2) The agent evaluates the best option and prepares
the recommended solution in order to follow politics
about the critical success factors;
3) The agent evaluates if exists new problems or
need more information and resolve the process;
4) The agent prepares action set to delivery and
generates results for learning.
The design has a better performance with non-
structured and complex decisions, where is not easy
to know the result, and the previous experience are
not enough. That is the reason to build a learning
process inside the system.
When the results are good, and the agent had to
choose among several options, also we have better
options to get good results again in future similar
situations. When a new element is registered in the
workflow rules we need to know which the impact
of the decision and the results is.
In the most of cases we are expecting results as
building source code and data processes by the new
systems, but now we have another kind of results.
This model to allow gives collaboration under
the approach of intellectual capital and software
If you remember the figure 1, we had defined to
levels of processes: process level 1 and processes
level 2. Then we defined the logical structure among
intellectual capital, the collaboration systems and e-
business process in figure 2.
These new processes give high efficiency and
additional competitive advantage in:
1) Real time process and synchronous work between
actors of the value chain;
2) Create a learning curve for rapid productivity;
3) A holistic approach to challenges of
collaboration, among people, processes and systems.
This is the moment to create intelligence in
collaborative e-business.
We propose to translate some human behaviour
to systems; we have better results across the
organization. It is possible when we are able to
produce rich information for decision-making and
capture best practices for future situations like the
Collaborative Project Portfolio Management (Smith,
1998), but now these functions will have the ability
for start to work in automatics ways.
As we showed (figure 2) we can to identify the
intellectual capital based on transformation
processes from human resources to structural capital
and relational capital. This is the challenge for the
next research will be find the transformation about
A new solution needs a new approach to understand
and run the knowledge management (figure 3).
Figure 3: Collaborative concepts for e-business. Source:
We can see the collaboration through the
organization. We can to share information, also
understand intellectual capital approach.
Each organization needs a specific database to
obtain its workflow structure. We need both,
common and complex problems and the expertise
that exists in the environment.
We want to improve the processes and some
problems like spending an inordinate amount of time
looking for information, or documents, or contents
or people expertise.
Knowledge management is present in each
activity of people, organizations, and its value is in
to obtain itself, to register itself, to analyze itself and
finally to give to others users.
People need to share knowledge, but in the most
of the cases they are not prepared to do that, because
they feel that their knowledge is the source to keep
their job and their reason to live.
We need a cultural change as new conditions for
the success, like ethic, transcendental motivation,
which ones will be joined and interchanged with e-
business processes. The system identifies
collaboration needs, and creates new ways for give
collaboration based on both, software agents and
information systems.
The system creates value while people put their
experiences and knowledge about different problems
and solutions, without fears, always having the main
goal on the organization.
The new concepts will be development into one
controlled environment in order to improve the
competitive advantage in the organization.
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KMIS 2011 - International Conference on Knowledge Management and Information Sharing