An Effective Way How to Manage Business Process Deployment
in the Crisis Management
Tomáš Ludík, Jaroslav Ráček and Lucie Pekárková
Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, Brno, Czech Republic
Keywords: Process management, Crisis management, Process oriented methodology, Recommendations, Case study,
Business process management suite.
Abstract: The paper focuses on identification and software support processes in the field of crisis management. The
paper aims to describe a process methodology for crisis management. The methodology consists of five
main phases, being Identifying, Modelling, Configuration, Execution/Monitoring and Optimization of
processes. Each phase is described in terms of individual activities, input and output artefacts, and user
roles. The next part of the paper recommends the use of particular technologies, tools and resources that
have been successfully proved in the analysis of crisis situations in the Czech Republic. Established process
methodology and practical recommendations create the foundation for the full methodology deployment in
practice. Throughout this paper the emphasis is on practical demonstration of results on a case study that
applies a process methodology and hereof related recommendations in the crisis situation.
The crisis management requires considerable effort.
To manage crisis situations, it is necessary to spend
human resources and technical resources. It is useful
if there are available some best practices in solving
the crisis and also specified responsibilities for
particular activities. To capture such information it
is appropriate to use the process management, which
has been approved in the private and public sector
(Kubíček et al., 2010).
Identification and subsequent automation of the
process is a challenging issue. At present, there are
primarily two different approaches to the business
process deployment. One is based on the business
process life-cycle, the second one on the overall
architecture which supports the business process
deployment. It is convenient to integrate the
mentioned approaches to the process management
for effective process deployment and create an
unified view of the process deployment. Such a view
is defined by Process Framework for Crisis
Management (Ludík and Ráček, 2011).
The Process Framework for Crisis Management
provides a basic view of the process deployment
from the methodology and architecture point of
view. For this reason, this paper aims to describe the
process-oriented methodology, which is an essential
part of the framework. The paper also contains a
case study that illustrates the use of process-oriented
methodology in practise and its adequate support by
Business Process Management Suite.
There are many methodologies that lead the user
through the process deployment, e.g. Object Process
Methodology, Rational Unified Process or Business
Driven Development. The business process analysis
is the principle of these methodologies, but the
process automation does not follow the process
management ideology.
1.1 Object Process Methodology
Object Process Methodology (OPM) (Dori, 2000) is
an approach to design information system by
representing it by object models and process models.
OPM combines a minimal set of building blocks
with a dual graphic-textual representation in a single
diagram type.
The disadvantage is the non-standard diagram
notation, which has similar properties to the Data
Ludík T., Rá
cek J. and Pekárková L..
METHODOLOGY AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CRISIS PROCESSES - An Effective Way How to Manage Business Process Deployment in the
Crisis Management.
DOI: 10.5220/0003600803330338
In Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications (SIMULTECH-2011), pages
ISBN: 978-989-8425-78-2
2011 SCITEPRESS (Science and Technology Publications, Lda.)
Flow Diagram. Another disadvantage is a low
correlation between modelled process diagrams and
their subsequent implementation.
1.2 Rational Unified Process
The Rational Unified Process (RUP) (Shuja and
Krebs, 2008) is an iterative software development
process framework created by IBM in 2003. RUP is
not a single concrete prescriptive process, but rather
an adaptable process framework, intended to be
tailored by the development organizations and
software project teams that will select the process
elements that are appropriate for their needs.
The disadvantage of RUP methodology is that
business process analysis is used only at the
beginning in order to create business requirements.
The final application reflects the business processes,
but there is not created a closer bond with them.
Therefore, even a small change of business process
leads to a fundamental change of the created
information system.
1.3 Business Driven Development
Services-Oriented Architecture (SOA) provides an
IT framework along with a set of principles and
guidelines to create IT solutions as a set of reusable,
and configurable services that are independent of
applications and runtime platforms. Transitioning an
enterprise to SOA requires a Business Driven
Development (BDD) approach that uses business
goals and requirements to drive downstream design,
development, and testing (Mitra, 2005).
It is the best of so far described methodologies
from the view of the close interdependence to
business processes. But there is missing the
application of a workflow reference model that
allows to deploy the modelled process instance
directly to the workflow engine.
The created process-oriented methodology is based
on the above mentioned methodologies but also
eliminates their disadvantages. This innovative
methodology is described in terms of different
phases, from which it is composed, as well as in
terms of user roles and work products generated by
this methodology.
2.1 Phases
The first phase of the methodology is Identifying
(Figure 1). In this phase the strategic objectives of
the organization are defined. In accordance with
them there are also identified processes that bring
added value to the organization. These processes can
be divided into primary, support and management
processes (Fiala and Ministr, 2007). It is also
appropriate to assign responsibility for individual
processes and particular activities as well. It is
appropriate to use the Use Case Diagram to integrate
processes and user roles. The output of the phase is a
list of business requirements. It is convenient to
define the Glossary to better understand the area of
interest, which facilitates communication between
user roles. The last tasks of the phase are verification
and validation of business requirements.
In the Modelling phase, the business process is
modelled in detail and decomposed into several
levels, depending on its complexity (Weske, 2007).
During this phase the emphasis is on the correct data
flow in processes. Decision-making in processes is
solved by using business rules, which could be
changed during the process runtime. Designed
processes should be simulated in this phase.
Simulation can reveal bottlenecks in the process and
also visualize the process functions. The outcome of
this phase is the system requirements determination.
System requirements should be verified and
approved by the user-validation. Key outcome is the
appropriate automation level determination.
Figure 1: Identifying phase of Process Oriented Methodology.
SIMULTECH 2011 - 1st International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and
The Configuration phase deals with detailed set
up of business processes. Processes are transformed
into the configuration phase mostly in Business
Process Execution Language (BPEL). In this form
they are accompanied by the necessary functionality
build on service-oriented architecture. Processes
consist of already existing services or of the brand
new ones that need to be programmed. In this phase
are created the key performance indicators (KPI)
that are intended for the process performance control
during the runtime. In such way the comprehensive
application is built on business process. Its instances
can be deployed on the workflow engine. The
created system is set to the end customer. The
service and process testing, as well as system
validation, belong to the control mechanisms.
The Execution/Monitoring phase provides
primarily two activities. First it is an administration
of running process instances in the workflow engine,
which allows the end users to work with the
processes. Created applications can be set up and
configured during the runtime. Business rules enable
the configuration of the branching in processes,
which enables better response to possible changes in
a company. Setting of the user rights and roles is
another option. Roles and rights can be assigned or
removed for the current or new users, according to
their current responsibilities. This phase is also
responsible for process monitoring and for gathering
data about the process run. Based on this
information, it is possible to evaluate the process
progress and partly adapt the process on the flow.
Defined KPIs have a great impact. They enable
overall control of the process and therefore also a
rapid response to sudden changes.
The last phase is Optimization. This phase is
crucial for continuous process improvement. During
the monitoring phase the data about process
instances are collected, which may result in some
gaps in the modelled process. There are some
advanced techniques of mathematical statistics or
process mining available for the process instances
analysis. Based on the results it is possible to choose
two different approaches to process improvement. It
is a Business Process Reengineering (BPR) or a
Total Quality Management (TQM) (Řepa, 2007).
TQM is focused on the consequent improvement of
processes, BPR focuses on radical changes.
2.2 Roles
Stakeholder represents interest groups whose needs
must be satisfied by the project. It is a role that may
be played by anyone who is (or potentially will be)
materially affected by the project outcome.
Business analyst is a high-level role responsible
for the business analysis and BPM work activities.
The business analyst performs process modelling
and creates functional specifications for process.
Architect is a high-level role responsible for the
overall work effort of creating the architecture and
system design. More specialized roles, such as
enterprise architect, application architect, SOA
architect, and infrastructure architect, are actually
responsible for various architectural work efforts
that constitute the design phase of the project.
Developer is a high-level role responsible for the
implementation of the result (services).
Tester is a role responsible for performing
activities required to test the application before it is
deployed into a production environment.
Line Manager is a person who heads revenue
generating departments (manufacturing and selling)
and is responsible for achieving the organization's
main objectives by executing functions such as
policy making, target setting or decision making.
2.3 Work Products
This section describes the outputs generated by the
methodology. Thus outputs are quite a bit through
the methodology phases and therefore only main
outcomes of the various phases are described.
Business Requirements are based on customer's
wishes and their needs. They describe the principles
and functioning of a company as a whole, defining
its objectives (Shuja and Krebs, 2008). Identified
processes are part of these requirements.
System Requirements are the modelling phase
results. These are the requirements for creating an
information system built on business processes.
Detailed and hierarchically organized process
diagrams are part of this output. These requirements
also describe the level of process automation.
Information System is a result of the
configuration phase. Modelled processes are
configured and composed of individual services.
Thus created processes are deployed on a process
engine, which interprets them. The workflow engine
also allows interaction with users and external tools.
Monitoring data is an output of the monitoring
phase. It contains information about process
instances run, such as duration or cost of individual
processes. It also records the passing through the
business process, which can be useful in further
Strategic plans are the optimization phase
outputs. The overall technology improvement
(TQM, BPR) and strategic plans for further business
process improvement are chosen in strategic plans.
Business Process Deployment in the Crisis Management
In case the methodology is used in the field of crisis
management it is appropriate to consider certain
features that arise from this specific area. This
features are illustrated on crisis management in the
Czech Republic.
3.1 Organizational Structure
The Integrated Rescue System (IRS) is determined
for co-ordination of rescue and clean-up operations
in case, where a situation requires operation of
forces and means of several bodies, e.g. fire fighters,
police, medical rescue service and other bodies, or in
case, where the rescue and clean-up operation is
necessary to be co-ordinated from the Ministry of
Interior or by a leader of region’s level, or by
mayors of municipalities with extended
responsibilities (Rektořík, 2004). As the Integrated
Rescue System are therefore considered the co-
ordinated proceedings of its bodies during
preparations for crisis situations, and during rescue
and clean-up operations.
3.2 Legislation and Documentation
There are many laws dealing with crisis
management in the Czech Republic. Crisis
management elements are codified in the Law No.
240/2000 on crisis management and on modification
of certain codes (Crisis Code), in latter wording. The
other important Law is the Law No. 239/2000 on the
Integrated Rescue System and on amendment of
certain codes, in latter wording. It is the basic legal
frame describing situation around IRS.
Another feature of the crisis management is the
detailed documentation that defines how to proceed
in particular situations. The Contingency Plans
belong to the basic documents. They contain a set of
measures and procedures addressed to crisis
3.3 Different Types of Information
To successfully deal with critical situations, it is
inevitable to have all the necessary information at
disposal. It is often not trivial because the
information used in crisis management can have
three basic characteristics or dimensions: time, space
and aggregation. The time dimension of the data is
important in the crisis situation with dynamic
character. This information varies with time so it is a
relevant factor in dealing with the crisis situation.
Another important aspect of the information is that it
is bound to the intervention place. It is only the
limited area around the intervention place that is
important and it can be defined according to the
character of the crisis. The last dimension of the
information relevant to dealing with a crisis situation
is aggregation. The data is provided in aggregated
form, for example as specific maps or map layers.
However, they contain also specific data sets that
could be irrelevant to the character of a particular
intervention location or to the crisis itself. The way
to avoid unnecessary information is to use adaptive
mapping (Kubíček et al., 2010).
3.4 Psychological Aspects
There is a new belief that even despite the
devastating impact of disasters, substantial lack of
resources, and general chaos, there is still a
possibility of carrying out some actions that will
serve in maintaining at least the basic integrity of the
human society and its dignity. Psychological aspects
are usually very important for dealing with crises.
All activities of crisis management are performed
under substantial time and psychological pressure.
Intervention commanders work and make decisions
in fear of their possible failure. They often have
insufficient and inaccurate information. Other
problems arise from lack of necessary resources.
The basic requirements of life may sometimes be
restricted under the influence of all these factors.
3.5 Using of Standards
Unified Modelling Language (UML) is a
standardized modelling language used in the field of
software engineering. Two diagrams are especially
suitable for process modelling: Use Case Diagram
and Activity Diagram.
Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN)
(Silver, 2009) provides a notation that is readily
understandable by all business users. This way,
BPMN creates a standardized bridge over the gap
between the business process design and process
Web Services Business Process Execution
Language (WS-BPEL) defines a model and a
grammar for describing the behaviour of a business
process based on interactions between the process
and its partners (Jordan and Evdemon, 2007). WS-
BPEL introduces a mechanism to define how
individual or composite activities within a unit of
work are to be compensated in cases where
exceptions occur or a partner requests reversal.
SIMULTECH 2011 - 1st International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and
To demonstrate the practical use of the process-
oriented methodology in crisis management a typical
activity STC - 05/IZS called “Finding an object that
is suspicious to contain B-agents and toxins” is
chosen. Typical activities describe cooperation of
the Integrated Rescue System (IRS) components for
joint intervention (Kubíček et al., 2010). This group
of documents is released by the Directorate of Fire
Brigade of the Czech Republic.
4.1 Application of Methodology
At Identifying phase it is important to understand the
research problems and identify the individual
processes. The main output is a good theoretical
preparation for the next phase of the methodology.
Intervention from the perspective of the Intervention
commander begins when the commander arrives into
the site of finding a subject that is suspicious of the
presence of B-agents or toxins. The Intervention
commander immediately conducts an evaluation of
the situation. In case of a threat the intervention
commander decides about organization of the
intervention and future joint actions. Coordination
with emergency medical service (EMS) provides
medical assistance to affected civilians and rescue
teams. In parallel with this activity intervention units
carry out in the affected area disinfection and
medical examination of people and decontamination
of the area, especially suspicious object and location
findings. When all of these activities are finished,
the intervention commander ends the intervention.
At the moment ends a common intervention of IRS
Consecutively, there is the Modelling phase.
Based on the previous proposal the process model is
created (Figure 2). The diagram shows the order in
which activities are behind, what data streams flow
between them and what the outcomes of the process
are. The process is modelled in BPMN notation.
This phase also includes a simulation and process
optimization possibility. Simulation can show the
bottlenecks as well as lead the user through the
individual process steps to check whether the
process is modelled in accordance with the user’s
wishes. This phase results in verified, validated and
simulated processes (Mak et al., 1999).
To Configuration the process model means that
processes first need to be supplemented by specific
data types, especially in the simplified form. These
forms wander through processes and every activity
adds new information to them. This phase of the
process-oriented methodology also involves making
key performance indicators and the monitoring
model, which will monitor and evaluate the
deployed process. In order to implement instances of
automated processes, it is necessary to convert the
processes into a format that is computing
processable. For this purpose Business Process
Executive Language (BPEL) is used. The created
process is then deployed into a process server.
The Execution/Monitoring phase is essential to
execute and monitor processes and to visualize
conditions of the process instances. The monitoring
process is an important mechanism to provide
accurate and timely information on conditions of
process instances. Important modules are primarily
Sequence diagram of human work, Detailed activity
description and Key performance indicators.
The last phase is the Optimization. The basics for
this phase are data from processes monitoring that
are used to evaluate and optimize business process
models and their implementations. Execution logs
are evaluated by using business activity monitoring
and process mining techniques. These techniques
aim to identify the quality of business process
models and adequacy of the execution environment.
For instance, business activity monitoring might
reveal that a certain activity takes too long due to
shortage of resources required to conduct it.
Figure 2: Process model of typical activity STČ 05/IZS.
Business Process Deployment in the Crisis Management
4.2 Business Process Management Suite
The overall architecture is often composed of a set
of tools covering everything necessary to deploy
complex processes in the organization. Such a
software package is called Business Process
Management Suite (BPMS). Unlike the first
generation instrument, which was conceived as a
compilation of several separate programs, by far did
not cover the requirements of the complex
architecture necessary for the deployment of
processes. Current systems already offer
comprehensive and holistic options tools with an
intuitive user interface, which covers complex
architecture requirements.
For this case study IBM WebSphere software
was used. The software includes programs that cover
the elements of architecture describing the process
framework for crisis management (Ludík and Ráček,
2011). There are many other solutions, of course.
The primary contribution of this paper is the
innovative, process-oriented methodology. The
methodology is described in terms of phases, user
roles and work products. The paper also describes
set of recommendations, which should be applied
when methodology is used on crisis management
processes. These are based on practical experiences
when solving the research plan called Dynamic
Geovisualisation in Crises Management (Kubíček et
al., 2010; Ludík and Ráček, 2011). The paper also
illustrates the practical use of the methodology in
real situation called “Finding an object that is
suspicious to contain B-agents and toxins”.
It is appropriate to emphasis on adequate
software support during the use of methodology.
This support is provided by Business Process
Management Suite (BPMS), where different tools
support different methodology phases. In case of a
comprehensive crisis management system it is
necessary to take the close interoperability to GIS or
other systems used by the IRS into account.
Therefore it is recommended to add the global
architecture which will illustrate the overall
deployment of the system based on processes.
The subsequent objective of this research is to
define in detail the methodology phases in terms of
individual tasks and their links to each other. This is
related to the assignment of responsibilities for these
tasks. Similarly, detailed description of the role
associated with implementing the methodology in
terms of ICT and crisis management is needed. The
final aim is to describe the task inputs and outputs in
detail in terms of work products and determine
whether all information is available at the right time.
The contribution is a part of the research plan no.
MSM0021622418 and the research project no.
FRVS/1035/2011, both supported by the Czech
Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.
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SIMULTECH 2011 - 1st International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and