Andrea De Lucia, Rita Francese, Ignazio Passero and Genoveffa Tortora
Dipatimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università degli Studi di Salerno,via Ponte don Melillo 1, Fisciano (SA), Italy
Keywords: e-Learning, Learning Management Systems, Learning Object, Configuration Management, Content
management, SCORM.
Abstract: Learning Objects are stored in repositories and spread through Internet. The educational sector needs to
share good quality educational contents, which can be reused and adopted in several contexts. In this paper
we present CD-LOMAS (Collaborative Distributed Learning Object MAnagement System) to support the
sharing of contents and the collaboration on their development in a highly distributed environment.
Complex Learning Objects are decomposed into simpler Learning Objects that can be distributed at
different sites. In CD-LOMAS artifact management features, such as coordination of cooperative workers
and versioning, are integrated with context-awareness.
The growing of Internet has had as a result the rapid
development of the on-line distance learning. Many
faculties in the entire world are creating digital
contents which are stored in Content Management
Systems (CMSs) and spread through the servers of
the various educational organizations. These
contents are stored and handled in systems requiring
different access characteristics, usually with
different logins and differently structured. In this
way it is difficult to retrieve and exchange contents.
Today the main challenge in the e-learning research
sector concerns to let the digital contents more
accessible, usable and exploitable, as stated by the
European research program (eContentplus, 2005).
The actual trends is to create on-line contents which
are brief, last at most 20 minutes (ADL, 2006; IEEE
LTSC, 2006; IMS, 2006) and including (De Lucia et
Al., 2006):
text, graphics and movies
a navigational schema
assessment and self assessment.
This modularization of the contents has lead to the
Learning Objects (LOs), elementary members on the
technological and educational plan enabling the
modular composition and the reuse of the base units
in the various contexts. The vision of the content
fragmented in LOs requires specific units of content
providers, the Learning Object Repositories (LOR).
The essential functionalities of a repository are:
storing, searching and maintaining LOs. In order to
enable the search and the re-use of the LOs various
international organizations have contributed to the
definition of a standard for the Learning Object
metadata (ADL, 2006, IEEE LTSC, 2006, IMS,
2006). The Advanced Distance Learning group
(ADL, 2006), sponsored by the Department of the
Defense of the United States, has supplied a great
contribution to this objective creating a set of
specifications called Shareable Content Object
Reference Model (SCORM) with the aim to
standardize the contents of e-learning which can be
created using various programming languages and
can be placed in different computers, scattered in
various parts of the world. SCORM enables to
classify the Learning Objects by using LOM
metadata – Learning Object Metadata. In this way, it
is possible to create repository of multimedia
contents that can be searched through sophisticated
indexing systems and exchanged between the
An additional factor to consider is that LOs have
different granularity and can be aggregated until
composing entire courses. Consequently, they can be
the result of the cooperation of various individuals.
Thus, Configuration Management is also required to
handle LOs in a cooperative manner. Tools
De Lucia A., Francese R., Passero I. and Tortora G. (2007).
In Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems - SAIC, pages 34-41
DOI: 10.5220/0002380600340041
supporting Configuration Management for software
systems, such as (CVS, 2006, De Lucia et Al., 2004,
RCS, 2006, Perforce, 2006, Rational ClearCase,
2006) help to coordinate the activities of the
developers, supporting or avoiding the parallel
development through policies of locking or assisting
them in the conflict resolution through the merging.
The capability to add these functionalities to a
Learning Content Management System (LCMS)
enables organizations to cooperate in the repository
creation and in the sharing of LOs. If several
organizations need to cooperate in the creation of a
distributed repository, we have to manage the
versioning of LOs at different granularity levels and
support context awareness in such a way to know
who is using or changing a LO. These problems
grow together with the growing of the on-line
learning community which requires ever and ever
the management of the Learning Object Sharing. In
this way it is pursued the goal of avoiding the
duplication of the work by creating a unified content
strategy (Rockey, 2002).
In this paper we present CD-LOMAS
(Collaborative Distributed Learning Object
MAnagement System) an on-going research project
aiming at designing and developing a Web system
for the management of LOs distributed on several
sites. In particular, the aim is to enable the sharing of
contents represented using the standard SCORM and
the collaboration on their development, supporting
their reuse at different granularity level. The project
also aims at providing context awareness to content
authors that share the learning material, as in the
case when a course is articulated in two parts, such
as laboratory and theory, or implicitly in case of
teachers of parallel classes of the same university, of
different universities, or of course at different
didactic levels, such as in case of first and second
degree levels. Context awareness is granted by
notifying the interested people when an updating of
a LO occurs, without generating an overload of
messages. CD-LOMAS also supports the LO
revisions for granting that the produced material is
of the required quality.
The remainder of this paper is organized as
follows. Section 2 discusses related work. Section 3
presents an overview of CD-LOMAS, while Section
4 describes the proposed architecture. Section 5
presents how CD-LOMAS supports cooperation and
collaboration, while Section 6 discusses concluding
remarks and future work.
Many Learning Object repositories are available on
the Web. In particular, the Multimedia Educational
Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
(MERLOT, 2006) repository is one of the first
(1997) and famous management system of LOs. It is
managed from the University of the State of
California and has links with thousand of LOs of
several types, such as interactive applications,
presentations, and examples. The use of MERLOT is
free and the inclusion of a Learning Object is
subordinated to a peer review phase before being
accepted. MERLOT stores only the metadata
associated to a Learning Object and not its contents.
Another important repository is the Campus Alberta
Repository of Educational Objects (CAREO) created
by three American universities: the University of
Alberta, the University of Calgary and the
University of Athabasca. Differently from
MERLOT, it also stores the contents of LOs. Both
MERLOT and CAREO do not enable to recombine
Learning Object at various levels of granularity. The
(eduSource, 2006) project, currently ongoing, aims
at creating a net of interoperable learning object
repositories. It involves several universities,
governmental institutions and industries. The
repositories communicate through the eduSource
Communication Layer (ECL) (Eap et Al., 2004).
The initial phase has concerned the definition of the
Web services and of the protocols necessary to
enable the various institutions to communicate.
Features for generating and managing LOs in
SCORM compliant format are provided by two open
source tools, such as (RELOAD, 2006) and its web
version, (WELOAD, 2006). Both systems handle a
centralized repository.
(Hossain et Al., 2004) proposed a three-tier
architecture which enables the 3D navigation of
distributed learning object repositories. No
collaboration among multiple users is provided.
Single users can author LOs aggregating them in
SMIL format. LOs do not follow a specific standard.
(De Moura et Al., 2005) use Web Services for
integrating heterogeneous Learning Object
repositories. The proposed approach is based on
mediators and wrappers. Data sources are
autonomous and heterogeneous (RDBMS, OODB,
XMLDB, files, etc.). Ontologies are used to
represent the mapping rules between a global
common schema and the local schemas.
CD-LOMAS is a distributed environment supporting
the cooperative handling of learning objects. It
allows the distribution of LOs among different sites.
In this way it is possible to create a virtual
community which cooperates in the production of
the learning material and interact as all authors were
in the same place. In particular, CD-LOMAS
supports content authors in the creation of LOs using
cooperation or collaborative authoring. The first
approach enables authors to interact only during the
revision process and each authors produces its own
individual content. Differently, in collaborative
authoring the concept of ownership becomes
irrelevant and authors work together.
CD-LOMAS enables the composition of a LO,
supporting the reuse of existing LOs spread among
the various repositories. Authors are assisted in
creating and updating LOs following the standard
SCORM and in sharing information.
The proposed system has been designed starting
from two open source applications, (RELOAD,
2006) and its Web version, (WELOAD, 2006). In
particular, CD-LOMAS reuses the features offered
by these applications for composing LOs, for
inserting the associated metadata and for browsing
LOs. These features have been extended with the
capability of performing these operations also when
the component objects are scattered on different CD-
LOMAS repositories of the network.
CD-LOMAS emphasises the LO life cycle by
associating the users with the different operations
they can perform on each LO. This feature, together
with the resource permissions definition and
management, enables to reuse existing LOs and to
cooperate in the creation of new materials. The
owner of a Learning Object can describe the
permissions related to it, and provide different kind
of usage for several users.
Quality management is also supported by
associating each LO with a standard template and an
inspection checklist to be validated during the
review process. Each template can be customised for
a specific LO.
The support for cooperation is provided through
typical configuration management features. In fact,
CD-LOMAS enables groups of people to work on
the same LO, depending on their roles. Different
users can access the same LO according to a lock-
based policy or concurrently, if branch versions of
the same LO are allowed by the LO owner.
Moreover, the system has been enriched with
features to deal with some of the most common
problems faced by cooperative environments, in
particular context awareness and communication
among users. A first context-awareness level is
given by the possibility to see at any time the people
who are working/using a LO. Context awareness is
supported through event notifications: teachers using
a LO are notified whenever relevant events happen
to such LO. An example of such events is the
creation of a newer version.
Figure 1: The CD-LOMAS architecture.
Events notification provides a solution to the
isolation problem for resources working on the same
LO in different workspaces (De Lucia et Al., 2004).
In fact, context awareness allows to identify
potential conflicts before they occur, because the
system is able to notify interested resources as soon
as a LO is checked-out and potentially before
substantial modifications have been applied to it.
The CD-LOMAS architecture, as depicted in Figure
1, is composed of two kinds of systems: the Global
LOR Management System (GLOR) and the Local
LOR Management System (LLOR). This two level
architecture allows the access to learning materials
distributed among several LLORs by referring only
to a GLOR. Hiding to the user the structure of the
network enables to easily add new nodes, obtaining
scalability by distribution.
The basic functionality of a LLOR is to store
learning objects in a SCORM format.
The GLOR assigns to each teacher a workspace,
an area reserved to him/her, where (s)he manages
the contents to create courses in a cooperative or
ICEIS 2007 - International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems
standalone way. The workspace is allocated on the
nearest or less overloaded LLOR.
The GLOR supervises the access to the resources
stored at LLOR level. In particular, the GLOR
system manages the LOs lifecycles basing on events
generated during the cooperative or standalone LOs
creation process. It also enables users to search the
distributed repository and to access, depending on
the user permissions and role, to the required LOs.
Figure 2: The CD-LOMAS Global LOR Management
In particular, as depicted in Figure 2, the Global
LOR Management System is decomposed into five
The LO Management subsystem which poses a
great emphasis to the LO life cycle by
associating to the user the different operations
that can be performed on a LO and the role
assignment, such as content creator, reviewer,
approver. It is responsible of the critical
functionalities needed to perform effective
collaboration in authoring and using LOs:
access to shared information, check-in and
check-out, locking and version control.
Moreover, the LO Management subsystem
provides support for the definition of LO types
with related standard templates and for a
checklist-based inspection and review phase of
the LO life cycle.
The Event Engine has in charge of collecting
and dispatching events concerning a LO. Users
can subscribe particular events concerning LO
and courses (such as the production, updating or
deletion of a LO, or the publication of a LO on a
given subject), thus increasing the context-
awareness level. The Event Engine notifies
interesting events to the subscribed users of the
CD-LOMAS system.
The User Management subsystem manages
users, their access permissions on different LOs
and their roles in accessing CD-LOMAS
The Administration subsystem provides several
administration features, such as adding or
deleting a LLOR, security and reporting.
Access to the database is achieved through the
functionalities offered by the Database Broker,
which accepts queries from each client,
forwards these queries to the databases on the
LLORs, collects the results and returns a ranked
list to the user.
The Local LOR Management System stores LOs
and courses and contains the teachers workspaces.
When a LO is ready to be published it is transferred
in the course repository of the teacher, locally
handled, and is available to be deployed.
Figure 3: The Local LOR Management System.
This system provides two web services: the
retrieval of some LOs, the browsing of the LO
catalog. The access of a logged user to its workspace
is performed using http protocol.
As shown in Figure 3, it includes the Extended
Weload component which has been obtained
extending RELOAD and its Web version,
WELOAD, as described in Section 3.
Each user can compose LOs into a personal
workspace, using the LO Editor offered by the
Extended Weload component. This editor enables
the composition of a SCORM LO using local assets,
local LOs or existing LOs spread trough the
Figure 4 shows the screenshot of the Extended
Weload feature enabling to compose a SCORM
package. The required standard Metadata are
manually added to the object description.
The Event Handler subsystem is responsible of
generating and dispatching events about LOs. Events
are used to signal the GLOR about the life cycle of a
LO, and to enforce the user context awareness about
interesting LOs.
The LLOR also includes the Course Handler
component, providing simple LMS features to
compose a course by selecting LOs available in the
user workspace or hosted on other LLORs.
An example of a scenario of the system usage is the
following, referring to Figure 1:
1. the client A logs in the GLOR;
2. the GLOR, depending on the user permission,
gives to it the access his/her workspace on the
3. The user composes a LO using the extended
Weload Editor and asks to access to a LO on a
selected subject;
4. the LLOR address the query to the GLOR
Database Broker;
5. the GLOR Database Broker forwards the query
to the databases on the LLORs;
6. the GLOR Database Broker collects the results;
7. GLOR Database Broker returns a ranked list to
the user LLOR;
8. the user selects a LO hosted on LLOR C;
9. the user plays the selected LO by using the LO
player of the LLOR C;
10. The user download the LO in its workspace
hosted by the LLOR A.
Figure 4: SCORM Content Package creation.
The administrator of a learning organization can
define several LO types according to the standards
provided by CD-LOMAS. This enables the content
authors of an organization to produce the same kind
of LOs. Besides a standard template, a checklist can
be associated to a LO type and used during the
review phase of a LO of that type. The adoption of a
review phase assures that the repository contents are
only LOs having good instructional value.
Reviewers can be assigned manually by the GLOR
administrator or automatically by selecting them
from a reviewer list depending on the LO subject.
The subject of a LO is taken from a thesaurus.
Critical factors to effective collaboration
includes check-in, check-out, locking and version
CD-LOMAS LOs follow the general life cycle
depicted in Figure 5. The owner of the LO uploads
the template and the checklist selected by the
administrator of the learning organization. He /she
defines permissions of resources to work on the LO
and activates it.
Once a LO is activated, several draft versions of
this LO can be created and maintained. When a LO
is scheduled, the LO owner can decide if branches
are allowed during its production. If branches are not
allowed, each resource can lock the LO (check-out)
and work on it until a new version is uploaded and
checked-in. Otherwise, different branches can be
produced and worked independently by each
resource, which can also produce different versions
of each branch. When all branches are closed, they
can be merged in a new version of the LO.
Completed non-branch versions of a LO undergo the
revision process and are either approved generating
a baseline or sent back to the draft state.
Figure 5: Learning Object lifecycle.
In Figure 6 the LO card is shown, describing
information concerning the LO name, its status,
whether branch are allowed and the number of
branches currently active. During the Check-In
operation it is possible to import a LO from the user
workspace, from the distributed repository, or to
upload a new object in standard SCORM from the
local computer. Whether the imported file does not
respect the standard SCORM an alert message is
ICEIS 2007 - International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems
Figure 6: LO Card and Check-In source selection.
5.1 Handling Object Permissions and
When a LO is checked-in the LO owner decides the
permission (s)he gives to other systems users. In
particular, (s)he can decide to globally share a LO
with all other users, or only with a specific subset of
global roles (i.e., teacher or students) or (s)he can fix
local users roles that can access the owned LO (i.e.,
students frequenting his/her course). The LO owner
can also assign to each role several reuse
capabilities, such as locked reuse, the LO is reused
unchanged, derivative reuse, the LO can be
downloaded in the user workspace and modified,
and, finally, (s)he can allow only to receive the
description of the object in a ranked list. In the last
case the system provides support to the interested
user in asking the permission to use or reference
LOs to the LO owner. The LO owner finds the
request in a Feedback section of its workspace.
It is important to point out that the system offers
several permission possibilities, but to success in
applying a unified content strategy (Rockley, 2002)
authors should work together and no own any part of
an object. When several authors decide to cooperate
in the creation of an entire course with other authors,
a course project is created by one of them and a
collaborative workspace is associated to the team.
All members can create LOs in this space. In this
environment authors work together aiming at
ensuring that content is not written more than once
by more authors. Check-in, check-out, event
notification, locking and versioning are still applied,
but all the users have the same permissions on the
objects of the team.
Concerning the hierarchical composition of a LO,
several fine grained configuration management
systems have been proposed in literature, such as
Coop/Orm (Magnusson and Asklund, 1996), CoEd
(Bendix et Al, 1997) and ADAMS (De Lucia et Al.,
2004). Similarly to ADAMS, we handle composite
LOs by using hierarchical dependencies.
Figure 7: Versioning of composite Los.
When a LO is created, it can be composed using
existing LOs spread on the various LLORs.
Following the definition of LOs described in the
standard SCORM, leaves are associated with assets,
while internal nodes define LOs. Therefore,
operations that can be performed on internal LOs
just aim at modifying the LO composition
(adding/deleting sub-LOs). Operations on internal
LOs cannot be performed in branch mode; rather,
each time an internal LO is locked for an updating
operation, sub-LOs are locked too as well as higher
level LOs. As shown in Figure 7, each time a new
version of a sub-LO is created, a new version of
higher level LOs is created too, to maintain
consistency and record the operations made on each
This approach enables the cooperative
development of learning contents. Indeed, each user
is able to access a LO component without locking
the entire LO or using superfluous branches.
CD-LOMAS also supports LO reuse when a LO
is checked-out from a user different from the owner
with the permission of derivative reuse. When the
object is checked-in the user of the new object can
create a variant of the original object whether there
exists a small number of differences between the
two objects and metadata do not have been
substantially modified. Differently, if the
modifications are substantial a new object is created
with a new owner.
Let us note that a SCORM LO is packed in zip
format. To reuse and compose LOs structured as zip
packet is complex. Thus, we decide to entirely apply
the standard, but to store the LOs without pack them.
The components of a LO are stored in the local
Database and the packet is created only when the LO
is exported.
5.2 Supporting Context Awareness
One of the most common problems faced by
cooperative environments and distributed
development teams concerns the context awareness.
Even when supported by configuration management
tools, such teams quickly suffer of the isolation
problem occurring when different people are
involved in the development of the same (or
correlated) LOs within different workspaces. CD-
LOMAS supports context awareness to enables the
teacher community to create shareable contents. In
particular, context awareness is mainly supported
through event notifications: i.e., messages generated
in response to specific events triggered by one of the
subsystems of CD-LOMAS.
Event notification in CD-LOMAS adopts a
publish-subscriber paradigm: as soon as an event
concerning a LO occurs, the users who subscribed
such event are notified. CD-LOMAS increases the
context awareness without overloading a teacher or a
learner with useless event messages. To this aim, a
user can selectively specify the events concerning a
LO (s)he needs to be notified of. In particular, (s)he
can require to be informed about events having a
direct impact on the LO (s)he is working on, or
events concerning all the LO referring to a specific
topics, as well as on specific LOs. (S)he can also
requires to be informed when variants of a LO is
checked-in. To avoid a message overloading CD-
LOMAS offers the possibility to select the right
level of notification needed by the users.
As an example, in order to prevent the isolation
problem, a teacher can choose to be notified as soon
as LOs (s)he is interested in are allocated or
checked-out, but (s)he can also be only interested on
meaningful changes applied to other teachers LOs,
or in changes that impact on object referred in
his(her) course space.
In this way the notifications are targeted on the
specific user needs still minimizing the number or
subscription requested to the learning content
authors/users and the number of unimportant
messages they receive, resulting in a good
compromise between an adequate context-awareness
level and an endurable quantity of messages
By default, all the LOs allocated to a content
author are intended to be fully subscribed (all events
concerning the LO are notified), whereas all the
other LOs are intended as unsubscribed. However
each author can override such behaviour specifying
for each LO the most appropriate notification level.
In this paper we have presented CD-LOMAS, a
system for the management of distributed Learning
Object Repository. The main feature of the system is
the possibility of cooperate in the creation complex
Learning Objects choosing the elements to be
composed by searching the didactic material
available on other CD-LOMAS sites. Event-based
notification provides support to the teachers that
want to be informed on modification made on user
interesting learning objects, improving context-
A CD-LOMAS prototype has been implemented
using PHP and Mysql. A configuration composed of
one Global LOR and two Local LOR on different
PCs is going to be experimented. In particular, we
are adopting CD-LOMAS during the three parallel
classrooms of the Software Engineering course
offered by the Computer Science Program of the
University of Salerno. Two of them have been
located on the same Local LOR.
The adopted distribution strategy depends on the
frequency and locality of references to LOs. The
preliminary experience reveled that updating of local
LOs are more frequent than searching or
downloading of LOs on different LLOR. We plan to
experiment the proposed system on a more large
scale, involving other universities as users and
content providers and to verify the network
Because the LMS features offered by the system
are very simple, we are going to integrate the CD-
LOMAS in Moodle (Moodle, 2006) by creating an
ad hoc plug-in. In this way the community of user
and the production of contents will grow more
ICEIS 2007 - International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems
quickly. We also plan to enhance the searching
capabilities by using more advanced information
retrieval models and techniques.
ADL, 2006. The Advanced Distributed Learning initiative.
Retrieved November 8, 2006, from
BitKeeper Home Page, 2006.
Bendix, L., Larsen, P. N. Anders, Nielsen, I., Petersen, J.,
L., S., 1997. CoEd: A Tool for Cooperative
Development of Hierarchical Documents, Technical
Report R-97-5012, Department of Computer Science,
Aalborg University,Denmark, September 1997.
Boiko, B., 2055. Content Management Bible (Bible), B.
Boiko Publisher: Wiley; II edition.
Bruegge, B., Dutoit, A. H.. 2002. Object Oriented
Software Engineering. Using UML, Patterns and Java.
Second Edition. Pearson International Edition. 2005.
5. Brunner R, Weber J. Java Web Services. Prentice-
Hall: Englewood Cliffs NJ.
CVS Home Page. 2006.
De Lucia, A., Fasano, F., Francese, R., Tortora, G. , 2004.
ADAMS: an Artefact-based Process Support System.
In Proceedings of 16th International Conference on
Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering,
Banff, Alberta, Canada, Knowledge Systems Institute,
USA, 2004, pp. 31-36.
12. De Lucia, A., Fasano, F., Francese, R., Oliveto, R.,
2005. Recovering Traceability Links between
Requirement Artefacts: a Case Study, In Proceedings
of 16
International Conference on Software
Engineering and Knowledge Engineering - Workshop
on Knowledge Oriented Maintenance, Banff, Alberta,
Canada, Knowledge Systems Institute, USA, pp. 453-
De Lucia, A., Francese, R., Giordano, M., Passero, I.,
Tortora, G.. (2006). Migrating Legacy Video Lectures
to Multimedia Learning Object. In the 8th
International Conference on Enterprise Information
Systems. 23 - 27, May Paphos - Cyprus.
Duncan, C. & Ekmekioglu, C. (2003) Reusing Online
Resources: A Sustainable Approach to eLearning,
(Ed.) Allison Littlejohn. Kogan Page, London. ISBN
Eap, T., M., Hatala, M., Richards, G., 2004. Digital
repository interoperability: design, implementation
and deployment of the ecl protocol and connecting
middleware. WWW (Alternate Track Papers &
Posters): 376-377
Econtentplus program. Retrieved November 10, 2006,
Higgs, P, Meredith, S & Hand, T.,2003. Technology for
Sharing -A research project to inform VET Australia
about Learning Objects and Digital Rights
Management including systems and metadata to
support them. Flexible Learning Leader Report,
Australian National Training Authority (ANTA).
Hossain, M., A., Rahman, M., A., Saddik, A., Levy, P.,
2004, Architecture for 3d Navigation and Authoring of
Learning Object Repositories, Haptic Virtual
Environments and their Applications (HAVE2004),
pp. 117 – 123, Ottawa, Canada, October 2-3, pp. 117-
IEEE LTSC. The IEEE Learning Technology Standards
Committee. Retrieved October 10, 2006, from
IMS Global Learning Consortium. Retrieved October 10,
2006, from
Koper, R., 2003. Combining re-Usable Learning
Resources to Pedagogical Purposeful Units of
Learning. Journal of Interactive Media in Education,
S. L. de Moura, F. Coutinho, S.W.M. Siqueira, R. N.
Melo, S. V. Nunes, 2005. Integrating Repositories of
Learning Objects Web-Services to Implement
Mediators and Wrappers. In Proceedings of the
International Conference on Next Generation Web
Services Practices (NWeSP’05).
Magnusson, B., Asklund, U., 1996 Fine Grained Version
Control of Configurations in COOP/Orm. In
Proceedings of SCM6, Symposium on Configuration
Management, I. Sommerville (Ed.), Berlin, LNCS,
Springer Verlag.
Moodle. Retrieved September 15, 2006, from
MERLOT (Multimedia Educational Resource for
Learning and Online Teaching). Retrieved October 16,
2006, from
Perforce Home Page. Retrieved September 23, 2006, from
Rational ClearCase. Retrieved November 8, 2006, from
RELOAD. Retrieved September 23, 2006, from
Rockley , A. 2002. Managing Enterprise Content: A
Unified Content Strategy (Paperback)
by Ann Rockley Publisher: New Riders Press.
A. Sarma and A. van der Hoek, 'Palantír: Coordinating
Distributed Workspaces', Proceedings of the 26th
IEEE Annual International Computer Software and
Applications Conference, Oxford, UK, IEEE
Computer Society Press, 2002, pp. 1093-1097.
StarTeam Home Page. Retrieved October 9, 2006, from
W. Tichy, 'RCS ? A system for version control', Software
Practice and Experience, Vol. 15. No. 7, 1985.
WELOAD. Retrieved November 8, 2006, from