Hwa-Jong Kim, Myoung-Soon Jeong and Jong-Won Kim
Department of electronics & Computer Engineering, Post-BK21 U-Home CI Team
Kangwon National University, 192-1 hyoja 2-Dong Chuncheon-Si Kangwon-Do, Korea
Keywords: Broadband Convergence Network (BCN), Next Generation Network (NGN), Traffic Engineering, real-time
Abstract: Recently, Broadband Convergence Network (BcN), a Korean version of Next Generation Network (NGN),
was introduced to guarantee pre-defined QoS for high speed multimedia service. The BcN is considering
charging users for premium services. For the BcN to be successfully diffused, however, a practical traffic
engineering (TE) tool is required because the BcN is composed of many kinds of subnetworks, and real time
feedback (traffic control) would be mandatory for the premium service. In the paper, a new TE scheme for
BcN, Rule Based Capture(RBC)/User Satisfaction Parameter(USP), is proposed to resolve the latent
problems of the BcN TE. The USP is designed to be admitted by many BcN subnetworks as a common
intermediate description of service quality instead of conventional QoS parameters. The RBC is introduced
to settle the real time TE issue against the vast accumulation of traffic monitoring data. The pilot RBC/USP
is implemented on the Linux platform and its performance is investigated. We found that the average traffic
log size is reduced to 0.058% for FTP, and 2.39% for streaming service by using the RBC/USP.
Be advised that papers in a technically unsuitable
form will be returned for retyping. After returned the
manuscript must be appropriately modified. The
Broadband Convergence Network (BcN) was
introduced to provide high speed multimedia service
in Korea [1]-[6]. The BcN’s aim is to provide a
premium service by charging users according to
agreed QoS. Most of the BcN users are expected to
use multimedia traffic, so it is presumed that the
traffic analysis (or traffic monitoring) data is also
growing dramatically. The vast accumulated log data
would make it hard to be examined in time to
control the traffic, thereby the user might not be
satisfied by the non real time feedback [7][8].
In order for the BcN to be successfully diffused
to public, while competing with the traditional (best
effort) Internet, it should provide differentiated QoS
provisioning and accepted charging schemes. The
QoS-based charging system however requires a
practical traffic monitoring mechanism because
quality measurement and respective charging rely on
accurate, fast and manageable traffic monitoring
The key requirements of the profitable TE for
BCN are as follows:
1) practical and commonly acceptable QoS
2) real time feedback mechanism
3) handling vast amounts of traffic analysis data
In the paper, Rule Based Capture(RBC)/ User
Satisfaction Parameter (USP) scheme is suggested to
fulfill the key requirements of the BcN TE. The USP
is designed to be used across all subnetworks
composing the BcN. By using the USP, user
satisfaction is examined in a short time to meet the
real time requirement of the TE. The RBC algorithm
is introduced to continuously delete unnecessary
data which has been already used to measure the
user satisfaction i.e., the USP level. The RBC is
expected to prevent the vast accumulation of traffic
analysis (log) data.
The proposed RBC/USP is implemented on the
Linux platform and its performance is investigated.
We compared the average sizes of the log files for
the cases of adopting the RBC/USP and of
conventional traffic monitoring.
Kim H., Jeong M. and Kim J. (2007).
In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Signal Processing and Multimedia Applications, pages 358-360
DOI: 10.5220/0002137003580360
Following the introduction, key requirements of
the BcN TE is investigated in Section 2. The
operation of the RBC/USP scheme is described in
Section 3, and its operation and performance are
investigated in Section 4. Conclusion follows in
Section 5.
2.1 Practical and Commonly
Acceptable QoS Measurement
Conventional QoS measurements are expressed
mostly in numerical value, such as delay, bandwidth,
or error rates. The numerical value is convenient for
representing network status or service statistics, but
it is hard to express appropriately the level of user
satisfaction because a collection of numerical values
of QoS parameters is hard to interpret[7]-[13].
Furthermore, cascading the QoS parameters through
many subnetworks to measure the Quality of
Experience(QoE) would be more complex to
interpret. To alleviate this problem, a nonnumeric
satisfaction measurement scheme, the USP is
suggested in the paper.
It is noted that BcN is composed of various
subnetworks such as conventional (best-effort)
Internet, Multi Protocol Label Switching(MPLS),
wireless LAN, and telephone network. For
successful commercialization of the BcN, an
acceptable quality measurement scheme that can be
used commonly in the heterogeneous BcN
subnetwork is required, and the USP is suggested for
this purpose.
2.2 Real Time Feedback Mechanism
The meaning of “real time” here is that traffic can be
controlled while the service is being provided. For
example, if you are not satisfied with the quality of a
streaming service, you may pay more to increase the
video quality during the streaming service. On the
contrary, if you are fully satisfied with a service then
you may not need a premium service, and want to
pay less. In some situations, moreover, just the best
effort Internet would be sufficient for the user.
Therefore, BcN TE should provide wide range of
options from free service to premium service with
instantaneous (real time) feedback. It is noted that
conventional feedback or claiming based on the
Service Level Agreement (SLA) would be possible
only after the service is ended.
3.1 Basic Operations
The rationale of the RBC/USP algorithm is that the
traffic analysis data which was already used
successfully in calculating the quality measurement
(i.e., the USP) is thrown away. The operation of the
RBC/USP TE algorithm is shown in Fig. 1.
Figure 1: Operation of RBC/USP TE algorithm for BCN.
The captured data is first saved at the Traffic
Data Buffer (TDB), and is analyzed at flow basis to
extract some QoS parameters to calculate the USP
level. The USP level is obtained from a pre-defined
combination of typical QoS parameters, such as
bandwidth and delay. The extracted USP level is
then compared with the current USP levels of the
service (or a flow) in order to update the USP Table.
The USP Table contains all the service quality
information of a user.
The extracted USP level is saved at the USP
Level Buffer, which is a temporary buffer used for
current service analysis. The service fulfillment is
then checked referring to the SLA Table. If the
captured data is from a new flow then the USP Table
is updated with the new level of USP for each
service (or flow). If the service satisfies the SLA, the
corresponding captured data is removed from the
TDB. By continuously throwing away the used
traffic monitoring data, the accumulation problem
can be avoided. When the service does not satisfy
the SLA, a traffic control signal is sent immediately
to the related network devices (e.g., the routers). The
handling of the signal may depend on the SLA.
3.2 USP Levels
The USP level represents the service quality with a
nonnumeric level such as A, B, C, or D. For
example, if e-mail is defined to have two levels (e.g.,
A and B), ‘A’ may represent “good”, and ‘B’ a
“bad”service quality. The USP levels can be
extracted from a few typical QoS parameters. For
example, with streaming service, the combination
of: bandwidth of larger than 50Mbps, delay of less
than 20ms, jitter of less than 20ms will be graded to
be ‘A’ level. Other examples of USP levels are
given in Table 1 (the numerical values of QoS
parameters are given arbitrarily by authors). The
choice of key QoS parameters and their values
which will be used for calculating USP level should
be defined via heuristic evaluations.
Table 1: Mapping of USP level and QoS parameters.
delay jitter
A > 1M < 500ms < 100ms
B > 100K < 3s < 1s
A > 50M < 20ms < 20ms
B > 10M < 50ms < 20ms
C > 2M < 100ms < 20ms
D > 1M < 100ms < 50ms
E > 500K < 200ms < 100ms
A > 10M < 100ms < 50ms
B > 1M < 200ms < 100ms WWW
C > 100K < 300ms < 100ms
A > 10M < 100ms < 50ms
B > 1M < 200ms < 100ms FTP
C > 100K < 300ms < 100ms
A > 500K < 200ms < 100ms
B > 100K < 300ms < 100ms
In the paper, a simple but practical TE scheme for
high speed networks such as BcN is proposed. The
RBC/USP algorithm is expected to overcome the
latent problems of BcN: providing acceptable QoS
agreement among vendors, real time feedback, and
accumulation of traffic analysis data. The RBC
solves the problem of massive accumulation of QoS
parameters, and the adoption of USP simplifies the
QoS negotiation among the heterogenous
subnetworks taking part in the end-to-end BcN
service. The USP can play an intermediary role of
service relay between service providers.
The RBC/USP was implemented in the Linux
platform and its performance is investigated. We
found that the average log size is reduced to 0.058%
for FTP, and 2.39% for streaming service by using
RBC/USP. The reduction of the log data means not
only practical usability of the algorithm, but also it is
expected to provide commonly acceptable end-to-
end QoS description. By simulations, we found that
the RBC/USP can be a good candidate of a real time
TE methodology for the emerging BcN.
Further study includes reasonable defining of
practical USP levels which can simply reflect
service requirements of users as well as network
service providers.
This work was supported in part by MIC, Korea
under the ITRC program (C1090-0603-0035)
supervised by IITA.
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ETRI, "BcN Vision for Ubiquitous Society," BcN 2006,
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Sang Ki Kim,et al., "Open Service Platform: A Service
Creation and Provisioning Environment for BcN
Infrastructure," BcN 2006. The 1st International
Workshop on April 2006, pp. 1 - 9.
Kyung Gyu Chun, et al., "Review on the Operation,
Administration and Maintenance (OAM) of BcN,"
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Korea,” APCC 2003. The 9th Asia-Pacific Conference
on Volume 1, Sept. 2003, pp. 264 - 269.
Kyu Ouk Lee, et al., “QoS evaluation of KT-NGN,”
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SIGMAP 2007 - International Conference on Signal Processing and Multimedia Applications