Source and Test Code Size Prediction - A Comparison between Use Case Metrics and Objective Class Points

Mourad Badri, Linda Badri, William Flageol

Abstract

Source code size, in terms of SLOC (Source Lines of Code), is an important parameter of many parametric software development effort estimation methods. Moreover, test code size, in terms of TLOC (Test Lines of Code), has been used in many studies to indicate the effort involved in testing. This paper aims at comparing empirically the Use Case Metrics (UCM) method, a use case model based method that we proposed in previous work, and the Objective Class Points (OCP) method in terms of early prediction of SLOC and TLOC for object-oriented software. We used both simple and multiple linear regression methods to build the prediction models. An empirical comparison, using data collected from four open source Java projects, is reported in the paper. Overall, results provide evidence that the multiple linear regression model, based on the combination of the use case metrics, is more accurate in terms of early prediction of SLOC and TLOC than: (1) the simple linear regression models based on each use case metric, and (2) the simple linear regression model based on the OCP method.

References

  1. Abrahao, S., Poels, G., Pastor, O.: A Function Size Measurement Method for Object-Oriented Conceptual Schemas: Design and Evaluation Issues, Software and System Modeling, 5(1), 2006. lokan, c.j.: Function Points, Advances in Computers, 65, 2005.
  2. Albrecht, A.: Measuring Application Development Productivity, in IBM Application Development Symposium, 1979.
  3. Albrecht, A.J., Gaffney, J.E.: Software function, Source Lines of Code and Development effort Prediction: a Software Science Validation, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 9 (6), 1983.
  4. Antoniol, G., Lokan, C., Caldiera, G., Fiutem, R.: A Function Point-Like Measure for Object-Oriented software, Empirical Software Engineering, 4 (3), 1999.
  5. Antoniol, G., Lokan, C., Fiutem, R.: Object-Oriented Function Points: An Empirical Validation, Empirical Software Engineering, 8 (3), 2003.
  6. Badri, M., Badri, L., Flageol, W.: Predicting the Size of Test Suites from Use Cases: An Empirical exploration, H. Yenigün, C. Yilmaz, and A. Ulrich (Eds.): ICTSS 2013, LNCS 8254, November, 2013.
  7. Badri, M., Badri, L., Flageol, W.: Simplifying Test Suites Size Prediction Using Use Case Metrics: An empirical comparison, Submitted to the International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering (IJSEKE), September 2015.
  8. Badri, M., Toure, F.: Empirical Analysis of ObjectOriented Design Metrics for Predicting Unit Testing Effort of Classes, Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, 5(7), July 2012.
  9. Bianco, V.D, Lavazza, L.: An Assessment of Function point-like metrics for object-oriented Open-Source Software, International Conference on Software Process and Product Measurement, 2006.
  10. Bianco, V.D, Lavazza, L.: Object-Oriented Model Size Measurement: Experiences and a Proposal for a Process, Workshop on Model Size Metrics, ACMIEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, 2006.
  11. Boehm, B., Abts, C., Brown, A.W. et al.: Software Cost Estimation with COCOMO II, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 2000.
  12. Boehm, B., Abts, C., Chulani, S.: Software Development Cost Estimation Approaches - A survey, Annals of Software Engineering, 10, 2000.
  13. Boehm, W.B.: Software Engineering Economics, Prentice-Hall, 1981.
  14. Bourque, P., Côté, V.: An experiment in software sizing structured analysis metrics, Journal of Systems and Software, 15 (2), 1991.
  15. Bruntink, M., Van Deursen, A.: Predicting Class Testability Using Object-Oriented Metrics. In: Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Workshop on Source Code Analysis and Manipulation (SCAM 2004), pp. 136-145, September 2004.
  16. Bruntink, M., Van Deursen, A.: An Empirical Study into class testability, Journal of Systems and Software, 79(9), 1219-1232, 2006.
  17. Carbone, M., Santucci, G.: Fast & Serious: A UML based Metric for Effort Estimation, 6th International ECOOP Workshop on Quantitative Approaches in Object-Oriented Software Engineering, 2002.
  18. Chen, Y., Boehm, B.W., Madachy, R., Valerdi, R.: An EMPIRICAL Study of eServices Product UML Sizing Metrics, International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering, 2004.
  19. Carroll, E.R.: Estimating Software Based on Use case Points, OOPSLA'05, San Diego, California, USA, October 16-20, 2005.
  20. Costagliola, G., Ferruci, F., Tortora, G., Vitiello, G.: Class Point: an Approach for the Size Estimation of Object-Oriented Systems, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 31(1), 2005.
  21. Hastings, T.E., Sajeev, A.S.M.: A vector-Based Approach to Software Size Measurement and Effort Estimation, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 27 (4), 2001.
  22. Henderson-Sellers, B.: Corrigenda: Software Size Estimation of Object-Oriented Systems, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 23 (4), 1997.
  23. Jacobson, I., Christerson, M., Jonson, P., Overgaard, G.: Object-Oriented Software Engineering: A Use Case Driven Approach, Addison-Wesley, 1993.
  24. Jahan, M.V., Sheibani, R.: A new Method for Software Size Estimation based on UML Metrics, The First Conference on Software Engineering, Islamic Azad University, 2005.
  25. Janaki Ram, D., Raju, S.V.G.K.: Object-Oriented Design Function Points, 1st Asia-Pacific Conference on Software Quality, 2000.
  26. Jorgensen, M., Shepperd, M.: A systematic Review of Software Development Cost Estimation Studies, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 33 (1), 2007.
  27. Jorgensen, M., Boehm, B.: Software Development Effort Estimation: Formal Methods or Expert Judgment?, IEEE Software, 2009.
  28. Kemerer, C.F.: An empirical validation of software cost estimation, Communications of the ACM, 30 (5), 1987.
  29. Kim, S., Lively, W., Simmons, D.: An effort Estimation by UML Points in the Early Stage of Software development, International Conference on Software Engineering Research & Practice, 2006.
  30. Lagerstrom, R., Marcks von Wurtemberg, L., Holm, H., Luczak, O.: Identifying factors affecting software development cost and productivity, Software Quality Journal, 2012.
  31. Larman, C.: Applying UML and Design Patterns, An Introduction to Object-Oriented Analysis and Design and the Unified Process, Prentice Hall, 2004.
  32. Leung, H., Fan, Z.: Software Cost Estimation, Handbook of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, Vol. 2, World Scientific Publishing, 2002.
  33. Matson, J.E., Barrett, B.E., Mellichamp, J.M.: Software Development Cost Estimation using Function Points, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 20 (4), 1994.
  34. McDonell, S.G.: Software Source Code Sizing using Fuzzy Logic Modeling, Information and Software Technology, 45 (7), 2003.
  35. Mishra, S., Tripathy, K.C., Mishra, M.K.: Effort Estimation based on Complexity and Size of relational database system, International Journal of Computer Science & Communication, 1 (2), 2010.
  36. Ochodek, M., Nawrocki, J., Kwarciak, K.: Simplifying effort estimation based on Use Case Points, Information and Software Technology, 53, 200-213, 2011.
  37. Pfleeger, S.L., Wu, F., Lewis, R.: Software cost estimation and sizing methods: Issues and Guidelines, RAND Corporation, 2005.
  38. Singh, Y., Kaur, A., Malhota, R.: Predicting Testability effort using Artificial Neural Network, In: Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science, WCECS, San Francisco, USA, 2008.
  39. Singh, Y., Saha, A.: Predicting Testability of Eclipse: a Case Study, Journal of Software Engineering, 4(2), 2010.
  40. Trendowicz, A., Munch, J., Jeffery, R.: State of the Practice in Software Effort Estimation: A survey and Literature Review, CEE-SET 2008, LNCS 4980, 2008.
  41. Verner, J., Tate, G.: A software size model, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 38 (5), 2012.
  42. Zhao, Y., Tan, H.B.K.: Software Cost Estimation through Conceptual Requirement, 3rd International Conference on Software Quality, 2003.
  43. Zhou, Y., Leung, H., Song, Q., Zhao, J., Lu, H., Chen, L. and Xu, B.: An In-Depth Investigation into the Relationships between Structural Metrics and Unit Testability in OOS, Information SCIENCES, 55(12) Science China, 2012.
  44. Zhou, Y., Yang, Y., Xu, B., Leung, H., Zhou, X.: Souce Code Size Estimation Approaches for ObjectOriented systems from UML Class Diagrams: A Comparative study, Information and Software Technology, 56, 2014.
Download


Paper Citation


in Harvard Style

Badri M., Badri L. and Flageol W. (2016). Source and Test Code Size Prediction - A Comparison between Use Case Metrics and Objective Class Points . In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Software Approaches to Software Engineering - Volume 1: ENASE, ISBN 978-989-758-189-2, pages 172-180. DOI: 10.5220/0005857601720180


in Bibtex Style

@conference{enase16,
author={Mourad Badri and Linda Badri and William Flageol},
title={Source and Test Code Size Prediction - A Comparison between Use Case Metrics and Objective Class Points},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Software Approaches to Software Engineering - Volume 1: ENASE,},
year={2016},
pages={172-180},
publisher={SciTePress},
organization={INSTICC},
doi={10.5220/0005857601720180},
isbn={978-989-758-189-2},
}


in EndNote Style

TY - CONF
JO - Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Software Approaches to Software Engineering - Volume 1: ENASE,
TI - Source and Test Code Size Prediction - A Comparison between Use Case Metrics and Objective Class Points
SN - 978-989-758-189-2
AU - Badri M.
AU - Badri L.
AU - Flageol W.
PY - 2016
SP - 172
EP - 180
DO - 10.5220/0005857601720180